Tomato soup

Last updated

Tomato soup
Tomato soup, plant-based (44040252791).jpg
Tomato soup
Alternative namesCream of Tomato
Type Soup
Serving temperatureHot or cold
Main ingredients Tomatoes
Variations Gazpacho
Food energy
(per 100  g serving)
30  kcal  (126 kJ)
Nutritional value
(per 100  g serving)
Protein 0.8  g
Fat 0.3  g
Carbohydrate 7  g
Tomato soup with meatballs, vermicelli and carrot slices Tomatensoep met ballen, vermicelli en wortel.jpg
Tomato soup with meatballs, vermicelli and carrot slices

Tomato soup is a soup with tomatoes as the primary ingredient. It may be served hot or cold in a bowl, and may be made in a variety of ways. [1] It may be smooth in texture, and there are also recipes that include chunks of tomato, cream, chicken or vegetable stock, vermicelli, chunks of other vegetables and meatballs. Popular toppings for tomato soup include sour cream or croutons. In the United States, the soup is frequently served with crackers, which may be crumbled onto the soup by the diner, and a grilled cheese sandwich. Tomato soup is one of the top comfort foods in Poland [2] and the United States. [3] It can be made fresh by blanching tomatoes, removing the skins, then blending them into a puree.

Contents

The first published tomato soup is mentioned by Eliza Leslie in 1857 in her final publication New Cookery Book . [4] Joseph A. Campbell's recipe for condensed tomato soup in 1897 further increased its popularity. [5]

Prepared varieties

Commercially prepared tomato soup is available in a variety of forms, including canned, condensed and in dehydrated powder form. "Tomato" ranks among the top three flavors of soup produced by the Campbell Soup Company. [6]

Canned tomato soup

Canned tomato soup Tomato soup in a can ingredient list.jpg
Canned tomato soup

Canned tomato soup is primarily tomato puree: that is, tomato paste and water with a few other ingredients added to enhance flavor and physical properties of the food. The tomato is a high acid food therefore, "the tomato is not considered a high-risk food, as the pH of the fruit generally ranges from pH 4.2–4.9 with an average of about 4.5. At this point pathogens are unlikely to grow". [7] However, there are still some foodborne pathogens that can pose as a major problem when it comes to the safety of the food and its shelf life stability. The main concern when canning is anaerobic microorganisms that produce toxins like Clostridium botulinum . Even though the tomato is a high acid food it still falls in the range where this organism can grow and produce toxin pH 4.6–8.5 with an optimum growing temperature between 30–40 °C and a maximum temperature of 50 °C. Even if the bacteria are killed they release heat resistant spores that if they start to multiply become a threat. [8]

Main ingredients and their functionality

Molecular structures in high fructose corn syrup Screen Shot 2015-11-29 at 4.25.36 PM.png
Molecular structures in high fructose corn syrup
When hydrated, wheat starch granules begin to swell and gelation begins adding to the viscosity of the product. Wheat starch granules.JPG
When hydrated, wheat starch granules begin to swell and gelation begins adding to the viscosity of the product.

The main ingredient for tomato soup is tomato puree.

The cell wall structural importance for the plant's growth and stability in the ripening process is equally important to the quality of the tomato products it can produce. The pectin and cellulose are what determine the apparent viscosity of the tomato product. If they are broken at higher temperatures more enzymes are deactivated than if they are broken at lower temperatures. [9]

High-fructose corn syrup is sometimes added to tomato soup to make it sweeter. HFCS is composed of both glucose and fructose in their free monosaccharide form that doesn't crystallize readily. HFCS is also important in binding water, the monosaccharaides of fructose and glucose have the ability to bind to water in the product. The binding of water helps to reduce microbial growth by removing available water from the product it can also prevent the separation of water in products like sauces and soups. [10]

Wheat flour is composed of six main groups, carbohydrates, proteins, enzymes, lipids, minerals and vitamins. Flour is added to tomato soup to increase its viscosity. The starch in the flour acts as a gelling agent and increases the viscosity of the product. When starch granules found in the flour are heated in solution they become less ordered and begin to gel. [11] During this process of gelatinization the crystal like structures of the starch granules disappear and the swelling starts creating a viscoelastic product.

Gazpacho

Gazpacho is a tomato soup of Spanish origin, served cold. It originates in the region of Andalucía in southern Spain. Gazpacho is widely consumed in Spanish cuisine, as well as in neighboring Portugal, where it is known as gaspacho. Gazpacho is mostly consumed during the summer months, due to its refreshing qualities and cold serving temperature. Many variations of gazpacho exist.

Accompaniments

Tomato soup served with a grilled cheese sandwich Grilled cheese sandwich with roasted tomato soup.jpg
Tomato soup served with a grilled cheese sandwich

Tomato soup is often paired with a grilled cheese sandwich, toast, crumpet or English muffin. [12] [13]

See also

Related Research Articles

Gazpacho Andalusian cold soup dish

Gazpacho or Gaspacho, also called Andalusian gazpacho, is a cold soup made of raw, blended vegetables. It originated in the southern regions of the Iberian peninsula, specifically Andalusia, and spread into the regions of Alentejo and Algarve. Gazpacho is widely eaten in Spain and Portugal, particularly during hot summers, as it is refreshing and cool.

Pasta Cooked dough food in Italian cuisine

Pasta is a type of food typically made from an unleavened dough of wheat flour mixed with water or eggs, and formed into sheets or other shapes, then cooked by boiling or baking. Rice flour, or legumes such as beans or lentils, are sometimes used in place of wheat flour to yield a different taste and texture, or as a gluten-free alternative. Pasta is a staple food of Italian cuisine.

Starch glucose polymer used as energy store in plants

Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of numerous glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds. This polysaccharide is produced by most green plants for energy storage. It is the most common carbohydrate in human diets and is contained in large amounts in staple foods like potatoes, maize (corn), rice, wheat and cassava (manioc).

Turkish cuisine Culinary traditions of Turkey

Turkish cuisine is largely the heritage of Ottoman cuisine, which can be described as a fusion and refinement of Mediterranean, Balkan, Middle Eastern, Central Asian, Eastern European and Armenian cuisines. Turkish cuisine has in turn influenced those and other neighbouring cuisines, including those of Southeast Europe (Balkans), Central Europe, and Western Europe. The Ottomans fused various culinary traditions of their realm with influences from Levantine cuisines, Egyptian cuisine, Greek cuisine, Balkan cuisine, along with traditional Turkic elements from Central Asia, creating a vast array of specialities.

Fructose A simple ketonic monosaccharide found in many plants

Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a simple ketonic simple sugar found in many plants, where it is often bonded to glucose to form the disaccharide sucrose. It is one of the three dietary monosaccharides, along with glucose and galactose, that are absorbed directly into blood during digestion. Fructose was discovered by French chemist Augustin-Pierre Dubrunfaut in 1847. The name "fructose" was coined in 1857 by the English chemist William Allen Miller. Pure, dry fructose is a sweet, white, odorless, crystalline solid, and is the most water-soluble of all the sugars. Fructose is found in honey, tree and vine fruits, flowers, berries, and most root vegetables.

Custard variety of culinary preparations based on a cooked mixture of milk or cream and egg yolk

Custard is a variety of culinary preparations based on sweetened milk, cheese, or cream cooked with egg or egg yolk to thicken it, and sometimes also flour, corn starch, or gelatin. Depending on the recipe, custard may vary in consistency from a thin pouring sauce to the thick pastry cream used to fill éclairs. The most common custards are used in custard desserts or dessert sauces and typically include sugar and vanilla; however, savory custards are also found, e.g., in quiche.

<i>Mochi</i> Japanese rice cake made of mochigome, a special kind of rice

A Mochi is Japanese rice cake made of mochigome, a short-grain japonica glutinous rice, and sometimes other ingredients such as water, sugar, and cornstarch. The rice is pounded into paste and molded into the desired shape. In Japan it is traditionally made in a ceremony called mochitsuki. While also eaten year-round, mochi is a traditional food for the Japanese New Year and is commonly sold and eaten during that time.

Polish cuisine Culinary traditions of Poland

Polish cuisine is a style of cooking and food preparation originating in or widely popular in Poland. Polish cuisine has evolved over the centuries to become very eclectic due to Poland's history and it shares many similarities with neighbouring German, Czech, Slovak and Silesian as well as Jewish culinary traditions. Polish-styled cooking in other cultures is often referred to as à la polonaise.

Russian cuisine Culinary traditions of Russia

Russian cuisine is a collection of the different cooking traditions of the Russian people.

Hunts

Hunt's is the name of a brand of preserved tomato products owned by Conagra Brands. The company was founded in 1888, in Sebastopol, California, as the Hunt Bros. Fruit Packing Co. by Joseph and William Hunt. The brothers relocated to nearby Santa Rosa in 1890, and then to Hayward in 1895. This small canning operation grew rapidly, focused on canning the products of California's booming fruit and vegetable industries. By 1941, the plant shipped a hundred million cans of soup, fruits, vegetables, and juices annually.

Thickening agent

A thickening agent or thickener is a substance which can increase the viscosity of a liquid without substantially changing its other properties. Edible thickeners are commonly used to thicken sauces, soups, and puddings without altering their taste; thickeners are also used in paints, inks, explosives, and cosmetics.

Purée

A purée is cooked food, usually vegetables, fruits or legumes, that has been ground, pressed, blended or sieved to the consistency of a creamy paste or liquid. Purées of specific foods are often known by specific names, e.g., applesauce or hummus. The term is of French origin, where it meant in Old French purified or refined.

Canarian cuisine refers to the typical dishes and ingredients in the cuisine of the Canary Islands, and it constitutes an important element in the culture of its inhabitants. Its main features are its freshness, variety, simplicity, and the richness of its ingredients, the mix of seafood and meat dishes, its cultural influences and the low knowledge of it by the rest of the world. Canarian cuisine is influenced by other cultures, specially the aboriginal inhabitants of the islands (Guanches) and Latin American cuisine.

Afghan cuisine Culinary traditions of Afghanistan

Afghan cuisine is largely based upon the nation's chief crops, such as wheat, maize, barley and rice. Accompanying these staples are native fruits and vegetables and dairy products such as milk, yogurt, and whey. The nation's culinary specialties reflect its ethnic and geographic diversity. Afghanistan is known for its high-quality pomegranates, grapes, and sweet, rugby-football shaped melons. The national dish of Afghanistan is Kabuli palaw.

Azerbaijani cuisine refers to the cooking styles and dishes of Azerbaijanis. The cuisine developed significantly due to its diversity of agriculture, from abundant grasslands which historically allowed for a culture of pastoralism to develop, as well as to the unique geographical location of the Republic of Azerbaijan, which is situated on the crossroads of Europe and Asia with an access to the Caspian sea. The location has enabled the people to develop a varied diet rich in produce, milk products, and meat, including beef, mutton, fish and game. Furthermore, the location, which was contended over by many historical kingdoms, khanates, and empires also meant that Azerbaijani cuisine was influenced by the culinary traditions of multiple different cultures, such as Turkic, Iranian, and Eastern European. As a result, Azerbaijani cuisine makes use of many different culinary techniques and ingredients.

Soup Primarily liquid food

Soup is a primarily liquid food, generally served warm or hot, that is made by combining ingredients of meat or vegetables with stock, milk, or water. Hot soups are additionally characterized by boiling solid ingredients in liquids in a pot until the flavors are extracted, forming a broth. Soups are similar to stews, and in some cases there may not be a clear distinction between the two; however, soups generally have more liquid (broth) than stews.

Stew Combination of solid food ingredients

A stew is a combination of solid food ingredients that have been cooked in liquid and served in the resultant gravy. Ingredients in a stew can include any combination of vegetables and may include meat, especially tougher meats suitable for slow-cooking, such as beef, poultry, sausages, and seafood. While water can be used as the stew-cooking liquid, stock is also common. A small amount of red wine is sometimes added for flavour. Seasoning and flavourings may also be added. Stews are typically cooked at a relatively low temperature, allowing flavours to mingle.

Watercress soup

Watercress soup is a soup prepared using the leaf vegetable watercress as a primary ingredient. It may be prepared as a cream soup or as a broth/stock-based soup using vegetable or chicken stock. Additional ingredients used can include vegetables such as potato, leeks, spinach, celery and turnips, cheese, butter, lemon juice, salt and pepper. Watercress soup can be prepared as a puréed soup by mixing the ingredients in a food processor. It can be served hot or cold, and may be garnished with crème fraîche, shaved Parmesan cheese, drizzled olive oil and watercress leaves.

Vegetable soup Type of soup containing vegetables

Vegetable soup is a common soup prepared using vegetables and leaf vegetables as primary ingredients. It dates to ancient history, and is a mass-produced food product in contemporary times.

References

  1. Herbig, Paul A. (1998). Handbook of Cross-Cultural Marketing. Binghamton, NY: International Business Press. p.  45. ISBN   978-0789001542. Irish and Italians prefer creamy tomato soup, Germans want rice, and Colombians want spice.
  2. "Always home-made, tomato soup is one of the first things a Polish cook learns to prepare." [in:] Marc E. Heine. Poland. 1987; "tradycyjny obiad kuchni polskiej, składający się z zupy pomidorowej z makaronem, kotleta schabowego, ziemniaków, mizeri z ogórków i kompotu." [in:] Etnografia polska. PAN. t. 48-49, 2004
  3. About.com. "Top 25 Comfort Foods and Recipes" . Retrieved 18 November 2012.
  4. Leslie, Eliza (1857). Miss Leslie's New Cookery Book ... T. B. Peterson.
  5. "Tomato History - the History of Tomatoes as Food". Homecooking.about.com. 27 May 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
  6. "Our Company". CSC Brands. Archived from the original on 10 November 2012. Retrieved 2 November 2012.
  7. Hui, Y. H., Sue Ghazala, D. M. Grham, K. D. Murrell, and Wai-Kit Nip. Handbook of Vegetable Preservation and Processing. New York: M. Dekker, 2004. Print.
  8. https://www.fsis.usda.gov/shared/PDF/SPN_Guidebook_Microbiology.pdf
  9. Voragen, A.G.J., van Vliet, T., "Physico-Chemical Properties of Tomato Products." Wageningen Agricultural University. 1995. Print.
  10. White, John S. "Sucrose, HFCS, and Fructose: History, Manufacture, Composition, Applications, and Production." Fructose, High Fructose Corn Syrup, Sucrose and Health. By James M. Rippe. New York: Humana, 2014. N. pag. Print.
  11. Xie, Fengwei. Pollet, Eric. Halley, Peter J. & Avérous, Luc. "Advanced Nano-Biocomposites Based on Starch." Springer International Publishing Switzerland. 2014.
  12. Grilled Cheese: 50 Recipes to Make You Melt - Marlena Spieler. p. 103.
  13. Allergy-Free and Easy Cooking - Cybele Pascal. p. 34.

Further reading