Tomato seed oil

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Tomato seeds Tomato 01.jpg
Tomato seeds

Tomato seed oil is a vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of tomatoes.

Contents

The possibility of extracting oil from tomato seeds was studied in the USA in 1914. Seeds were obtained from a variety of locations and pressed to produce oil. This was refined using an alkali and then clarified with fuller's earth. The resulting oil was pale yellow and considered suitable for dressing salads. [1]

The seeds have been given renewed attention as there is pressure to utilise the waste products of tomato processing, in which seeds are the largest component. In Greece, over a million tons of tomatoes are processed each year and the resulting quantity of seeds might be used to produce up to 2000 tons of oil. The oil from Greek seeds has been extracted by using ether as a solvent. When analysed, it was found to contain a high proportion of unsaturated fatty acids, especially linoleic acid. [2]

Botanical name

Tomato belongs to the family Solanaceae;

species: Solanum lycopersicum.

Tomato cultivation in India

Soil: sandy to heavy clay, PH.6.0-7.0. well drained, light.

Plant: an unarmed spreading, pubescent herb with characteristic odour.

Cultivation: It is cultivated all over India. Major states are Maharashtra, Bihar, Karnataka, U.P, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, and Assam.

Climate: Climate should be warm with plenty of moisture and sunshine.

Tomato seeds

Contains: 8.95% moisture, 27.62% protein, 24.40% fat, 0.56% Lecithin, 13.60% Fiber,and 40.20% of ash. N-free extracts are present up to 21%.Seeds form only 0.5% of tomato. Seeds are waste products in food industries manufacturing tomato juice, sauce, ketchup and food colours such as lycopene and beta carotene. Seeds are recovered from discarded waste product by flotation. In India the potential availability of seeds will be 7500 tonnes for anum.

Contents of Tomato Seed

SubstancePercentage(%)
Moisture10.0
Oil(fat)24-25
Proteins27-28
Fibre13-14
Lecithin0.56
N-free Extract21

Tomato seed oil

Tomato seed contains 24-25% of oil, but 15-17% oil can be recovered by crushing in expellers. Tomato oil is brown in color with strong odour. It contains saturated fatty acids up to 14-18%, and unsaturated fatty acids up to 76-80%. Fatty acid composition of Tomato Seed oil [3]

Fatty acidspercentage(%)up to
stearic acid (C18:0)20.0%
Oleic acid(C18:1)25.0%
Linoleic acid(C18:2)50.0%
Linolenic acid(C18:3)2.0-3.0%

Specifications of crude Tomato seed Oil [3]

charactervalue
Refractive Index at 400C1.4603±0.00022
Iodine Value 105±0.7
Saponification value 186-198
Unsaponifiable matter 1.4% max
Moisture 0.5%max
Color 1" cell,(y+5R)30(crude Oil)
density, at 25°0.9160±0.00024
viscosity,(21 °C)mPa.s75±0.4
Smoke point,°C176±63.0

Usage of Tomato seed oil

Related Research Articles

Vegetable oil triglyceride extracted from a plant

Vegetable oils, or vegetable fats, are oils extracted from seeds, or less often, from other parts of fruits. Like animal fats, vegetable fats are mixtures of triglycerides. Soybean oil, rapeseed oil, and cocoa butter are examples of fats from seeds. Olive oil, palm oil, and rice bran oil are examples of fats from other parts of fruits. In common usage, vegetable oil may refer exclusively to vegetable fats which are liquid at room temperature. Vegetable oils are usually edible; non-edible oils derived mainly from petroleum are termed mineral oils.

Coconut oil Edible oil extracted from the kernel or meat of mature coconuts harvested from the coconut palm

Coconut oil, or copra oil, is an edible oil extracted from the kernel or meat of mature coconuts harvested from the coconut palm. It has various applications. Because of its high saturated fat content, it is slow to oxidize and, thus, resistant to rancidification, lasting up to six months at 24 °C (75 °F) without spoiling.

An unsaturated fat is a fat or fatty acid in which there is at least a single double bond within the fatty acid chain. A fatty acid chain is monounsaturated if it contains one double bond, and polyunsaturated if it contains more than one double bond.

Linseed oil yellowish oil obtained from the dried, ripened seeds of the flax plant

Linseed oil, also known as flaxseed oil or flax oil, is a colourless to yellowish oil obtained from the dried, ripened seeds of the flax plant. The oil is obtained by pressing, sometimes followed by solvent extraction. Linseed oil is a drying oil, meaning it can polymerize into a solid form. Owing to its polymer-forming properties, linseed oil can be used on its own or blended with combinations of other oils, resins or solvents as an impregnator, drying oil finish or varnish in wood finishing, as a pigment binder in oil paints, as a plasticizer and hardener in putty, and in the manufacture of linoleum. Linseed oil use has declined over the past several decades with increased availability of synthetic alkyd resins—which function similarly but resist yellowing.

Hemp oil oil obtained by pressing hemp seeds

Hemp oil is oil obtained by pressing hemp seeds. Cold pressed, unrefined hemp oil is dark to clear light green in color, with a nutty flavor. The darker the color, the grassier the flavour. It should not be confused with hash oil, a tetrahydrocannabinol-containing oil made from the Cannabis flower.

Grape seed oil Oil from the seeds of Vitis vinifera

Grape seed oil is pressed from the seeds of grapes, and is thus an abundant by-product of winemaking.

Corn oil oil from the seeds of Zea mays L.

Corn oil is oil extracted from the germ of corn (maize). Its main use is in cooking, where its high smoke point makes refined corn oil a valuable frying oil. It is also a key ingredient in some margarines. Corn oil is generally less expensive than most other types of vegetable oils.

Soybean oil oil from the seeds of Glycine max

Soybean oil is a vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of the soybean. It is one of the most widely consumed cooking oils. As a drying oil, processed soybean oil is also used as a base for printing inks and oil paints.

Sunflower oil oil pressed from the seed of Helianthus annuus

Sunflower oil is the non-volatile oil pressed from the seeds of sunflower. Sunflower oil is commonly used in food as a frying oil, and in cosmetic formulations as an emollient. The world's total production of sunflower oil in 2014 was nearly 16 million tonnes, with Ukraine and Russia as the largest producers.

Tea seed oil

Tea seed oil is an edible plant oil. It is obtained from the seeds of Camellia oleifera.

Macadamia oil non-volatile oil expressed from the nut meat of the macadamia

Macadamia oil is the non-volatile oil collected from the nuts of the macadamia, a native Australian plant. It is used in food as a frying or salad oil, and in cosmetic formulations as an emollient or fragrance fixative.

Sea buckthorn oil

Sea buckthorn oil is a red–orange oil derived from sea buckthorn plants. The most commonly used species for this purpose is Hippophae rhamnoides. Species belonging to this genus accumulate lipids in the mesocarp, so the oil can be extracted from either the seeds or the pulp.

Watermelon seed oil

Watermelon seed oil is extracted by pressing from the seeds of the Citrullus lanatus (watermelon). It is particularly common in West Africa, where it is also called ootanga oil or kalahari oil. Watermelons most likely originated almost 5,000 years ago in the Kalahari Desert of Africa where botanists have found its wild ancestors still growing. Watermelons migrated north through Egypt, and during the Roman era they were cultivated and prized. Traditionally, the seeds are extracted from the seed casing, and dried in the sun. Once dried, the seeds are pressed to extract the oil.

Ucuhuba seed oil is the oil extracted from the seed of Virola surinamensis (ucuhuba). The ucuhuba tree is found in Brazil, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Panama, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela. Its seeds provide oil rich in myristic acid. The ucuhuba oil contains 13% lauric acid, 69% myristic acid, 7% palmitic acid and traces of oleic acid and linoleic acid. Myristic and lauric acids comprised 91.3 mole % of the total fatty acids. Although additional saturated fatty acids were found, they occurred only as minor components. Small amounts of several unsaturated fatty acids were found including 2.4% oleic acid and 0.4% linoleic acid.

Vateria indica oil is extracted from the seeds of the Vateria indica plant, a species in the Dipterocarpaceae family. The Vateria indica plant is indigenous to the Western Ghats, Kerala and Tamil Nadu regions of India. It thrives in the evergreen forests, surviving up to 800 meters above sea level. Oil from the seeds of the plant is extracted through a chemical refining process which makes the plant edible.

<i>Shorea robusta</i> seed oil

Shorea robusta seed oil is an edible oil extracted from the seeds of Shorea robusta. Shorea robusta is known as the Sal tree in India. Sal is indigenous to India and occurs in two main regions separated by the Gangetic Plain, namely the northern and central Indian regions. The plant belongs to the Dipterocarpaceae botanical family.

Phulwara oil

Phulwara oil is extracted from seeds of Phulwara tree. Phulwara Trees are also known locally as Chiuri Trees, Kaeleb Trees, or Butter Nut Trees. Refined Phulwara Oil is marketed as Phulwara Ghee.

Cooking oil oil consumed by humans, from vegetable or animal origin

Cooking oil is plant, animal, or synthetic fat used in frying, baking, and other types of cooking. It is also used in food preparation and flavouring not involving heat, such as salad dressings and bread dippings like bread dips, and may be called edible oil.

References

  1. The Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, American Chemical Society, 11 part 2: 850, 1919Missing or empty |title= (help)
  2. Lazos, Tsaknis, Lalas (1998), "Characteristics and composition of tomato seed oil" (PDF), Grasas y Aceites, 49 (5–6): 440–445, doi:10.3989/gya.1998.v49.i5-6.755 CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  3. 1 2 Ciiaracteristics and composition of tomato seed oil.By Evangelos S. Lazos*, John Tsaknis and Stavros Lalas