Buttermilk

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Buttermilk
Buttermilk-(right)-and-Milk-(left).jpg
Milk (left) compared to buttermilk (right). Buttermilk is thicker and leaves a more visible residue on the glass.
CourseBeverage
Serving temperatureChilled
Main ingredientsMilk
Buttermilk
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 169 kJ (40 kcal)
4.8 g
Fat
0.9 g
3.3 g
Minerals Quantity%DV
Calcium
12%
116 mg
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.

Buttermilk is a fermented dairy drink. Traditionally, it was the liquid left behind after churning butter out of cultured cream; however, as most modern butter is made not with cultured cream, but with sweet cream, most modern buttermilk is cultured. It is common in warm climates where unrefrigerated fresh milk sours quickly. [1]

Contents

Buttermilk can be drunk straight, and it can also be used in cooking. In making soda bread, the acid in buttermilk reacts with the raising agent, sodium bicarbonate, to produce carbon dioxide which acts as the leavening agent. Buttermilk is also used in marination, especially of chicken and pork, which the lactic acid helps to tenderize, retain moisture and allows added flavors to permeate the meat. [2]

Traditional buttermilk

Originally, buttermilk referred to the liquid left over from churning butter from cultured or fermented cream. Traditionally, before the advent of homogenization, the milk was left to sit for a period of time to allow the cream and milk to separate. During this time, naturally occurring lactic acid-producing bacteria in the milk fermented it. This facilitates the butter churning process, since fat from cream with a lower pH coalesces more readily than that of fresh cream. The acidic environment also helps prevent potentially harmful microorganisms from growing, increasing shelf-life. [3]

Traditional buttermilk is still common in many Indian, Nepalese, Pakistani, and Arab households, but rarely found in Western countries. It is a common drink in many Indian and Nepalese homes, and often served with roasted maize. [4] In the Arab world, buttermilk is a common beverage to be sold ice cold with other dairy products. It is popular during Ramadan, where it is consumed during iftar and suhur .

Cultured buttermilk

Cultured buttermilk was first commercially introduced in the United States in the 1920s. Commercially available cultured buttermilk is milk that has been pasteurized and homogenized, and then inoculated with a culture of Lactococcus lactis or Lactobacillus bulgaricus plus Leuconostoc citrovorum to simulate the naturally occurring bacteria in the old-fashioned product. [4] The tartness of cultured buttermilk is primarily due to lactic acid produced by lactic acid bacteria while fermenting lactose, the primary sugar in milk. As the bacteria produce lactic acid, the pH of the milk decreases and casein, the primary milk protein, precipitates, causing the curdling or clabbering of milk. This process makes buttermilk thicker than plain milk. While both traditional and cultured buttermilk contain lactic acid, traditional buttermilk tends to be less viscous, whereas cultured buttermilk is more viscous. [4]

When introduced in America, cultured buttermilk was popular among immigrants, and was viewed as a food that could slow aging. It reached peak annual sales of 517,000,000 kilograms (1.140×109 lb) in 1960. Buttermilk's popularity has declined since then, despite an increasing population, and annual sales in 2012 reached less than half that number. [5]

However, condensed buttermilk and dried buttermilk remain important in the food industry. [6] Liquid buttermilk is used primarily in the commercial preparation of baked goods and cheese. [7] Buttermilk solids are used in ice cream manufacturing, [8] as well as being added to pancake mixes to make buttermilk pancakes.

Acidified buttermilk

Acidified buttermilk is a substitute made by adding a food-grade acid such as vinegar or lemon juice to milk. [9] It can be produced by mixing 1 tablespoon (0.5 US fluid ounces, 15 ml) of acid with 1 cup (8 US fluid ounces, 240 ml) of milk and letting it sit until it curdles, about 10 minutes. Any level of fat content for the milk ingredient may be used, but whole milk is usually used for baking. In the process to make paneer, the acidification is done in the presence of heat.

Nutrition

Commercially produced buttermilk is comparable to regular milk in terms of food energy and fat. One cup (237 mL) of whole milk contains 660 kilojoules (157 kilocalories) and 8.9 grams of fat. One cup of whole buttermilk contains 640 kJ (152 kcal) and 8.1 grams of total fat. Low-fat buttermilk is also available. [10] Buttermilk contains vitamins, potassium, calcium, and traces of phosphorus. [11]

See also

Related Research Articles

Cream Dairy product

Cream is a dairy product composed of the higher-fat layer skimmed from the top of milk before homogenization. In un-homogenized milk, the fat, which is less dense, eventually rises to the top. In the industrial production of cream, this process is accelerated by using centrifuges called "separators". In many countries, it is sold in several grades depending on the total butterfat content. It can be dried to a powder for shipment to distant markets, and contains high levels of saturated fat.

Dairy product Food produced from or containing the milk of mammals

Dairy products or milk products are a type of food produced from or containing the milk of mammals, most commonly cattle, water buffaloes, goats, sheep, and camels. Dairy products include food items such as yogurt, cheese and butter. A facility that produces dairy products is known as a dairy, or dairy factory. Dairy products are consumed worldwide, with the exception of most of East and Southeast Asia and parts of central Africa.

Rennet Complex of enzymes from the stomachs of calves, used in the production of cheese

Rennet is a complex set of enzymes produced in the stomachs of ruminant mammals. Chymosin, its key component, is a protease enzyme that curdles the casein in milk. In addition to chymosin, rennet contains other enzymes, such as pepsin and a lipase.

Butter dairy product

Butter is a dairy product made from the fat and protein components of churned cream. It is a semi-solid emulsion at room temperature, consisting of approximately 80% butterfat. It is used at room temperature as a spread, melted as a condiment, and used as an ingredient in baking, sauce making, pan frying, and other cooking procedures.

Yogurt A food produced by bacterial fermentation of milk

Yogurt also spelled yoghurt, yogourt or yoghourt, is a food produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. The bacteria used to make yogurt are known as yogurt cultures. Fermentation of sugars in the milk by these bacteria produces lactic acid, which acts on milk protein to give yogurt its texture and characteristic tart flavor. Cow's milk is the milk most commonly used to make yogurt. Milk from water buffalo, goats, ewes, mares, camels, yaks and plant milks are also used to produce yogurt. The milk used may be homogenized or not. It may be pasteurized or raw. Each type of milk produces substantially different results.

Whey Liquid remaining after milk has been curdled and strained

Whey is the liquid remaining after milk has been curdled and strained. It is a byproduct of the manufacture of cheese or casein and has several commercial uses. Sweet whey is a byproduct resulting from the manufacture of rennet types of hard cheese, like cheddar or Swiss cheese. Acid whey is a byproduct brought out during the making of acid types of dairy products, such as cottage cheese or strained yogurt.

Curd Dairy product

Curd is obtained by coagulating milk in a sequential process called curdling. It can be a final dairy product or the first stage in cheesemaking. The coagulation can be caused by adding rennet or any edible acidic substance such as lemon juice or vinegar, and then allowing it to coagulate. The increased acidity causes the milk proteins (casein) to tangle into solid masses, or curds. Milk that has been left to sour will also naturally produce curds, and sour milk cheeses are produced this way. Producing cheese curds is one of the first steps in cheesemaking; the curds are pressed and drained to varying amounts for different styles of cheese and different secondary agents are introduced before the desired aging finishes the cheese. The remaining liquid, which contains only whey proteins, is the whey. In cow's milk, 90 percent of the proteins are caseins.

Cream cheese Soft, mild-tasting cheese with a high fat content

Cream cheese is a soft, usually mild-tasting fresh cheese made from milk and cream. Stabilizers such as carob bean gum and carrageenan are often added in industrial production.

Blue cheese Type of cheese

Blue cheese or bleu cheese is cheese made with cultures of the mold Penicillium, giving it spots or veins of the mold throughout the cheese, which can vary in color through various shades of blue and green. This carries a distinct smell, either from that or various specially cultivated bacteria. Some blue cheeses are injected with spores before the curds form, and others have spores mixed in with the curds after they form. Blue cheeses are typically aged in a temperature-controlled environment such as a cave. Blue cheese can be eaten by itself or can be spread, crumbled or melted into or over a range of other foods. Blue cheese is known for its pungent creamy texture.

Crème fraîche

Crème fraîche is a dairy product, a soured cream containing 10–45% butterfat, with a pH of approximately 4.5. It is soured with a bacterial culture. European labeling regulations specify the two ingredients must be cream and bacterial culture. It is served over fruit and baked goods, as well as being added to soups and sauces. It is used in a variety of other recipes. Sour cream is a similar foodstuff, except that crème fraîche is less sour and has a higher fat content. Sour cream may contain thickening agents not permitted in crème fraîche in many jurisdictions.

Soured milk

Soured milk denotes a range of food products produced by the acidification of milk. Acidification, which gives the milk a tart taste, is achieved either through bacterial fermentation or through the addition of an acid, such as lemon juice or vinegar. The acid causes milk to coagulate and thicken, inhibiting the growth of harmful bacteria and improving the product's shelf life.

Kashk Range of dairy products

Kashk is a range of dairy products used in cuisines of Iranian, Afghan, Turkish, Mongolian, Central Asian, Transcaucasian and the Levantine people. Kashk is made from drained yogurt or drained sour milk by shaping it and letting it dry. It can be made in a variety of forms, like rolled into balls, sliced into strips, and formed into chunks.

Matzoon

Matzoon or matsoni is a fermented milk product of Armenian origin, distributed in Armenia and Georgia. In Japan, it is called Caspian Sea yogurt.

Cheese Dairy product

Cheese is a dairy product, derived from milk and produced in wide ranges of flavors, textures and forms by coagulation of the milk protein casein. It comprises proteins and fat from milk, usually the milk of cows, buffalo, goats, or sheep. During production, the milk is usually acidified and the enzymes of rennet are added to cause the milk proteins (casein) to coagulate. The solids (curd) are separated from the liquid (whey) and pressed into final form. Some cheeses have aromatic molds on the rind, the outer layer, or throughout. Most cheeses melt at cooking temperature.

Ymer (dairy product)

Ymer is a Danish soured milk product which has been known since 1930. It is made by fermenting whole milk with the bacterial culture Lactococcus lactis. When producing fermented milk products such as yogurt, ymer, filmjölk, skyr, qvark and A-38, and also when producing cheese, one can add lactic acid bacteria which convert milk sugar in the milk into lactic acid and other substances. Acidity makes the milk thicker, gives it a tart flavor, and increases the shelf life by several days.

Chhena Type of cheese curds originating in India

Chhena or sana are curds or cheese curds, originating from the Indian subcontinent, made from water buffalo or regular cow milk by adding food acids such as lemon juice and calcium lactate instead of rennet and straining the whey through filtration.

Laban rayeb is a type of curdled skim milk made in Lower Egypt. It may be drunk fresh or may be used to make areesh cheese, which in turn is used to make mish. There is evidence that it was made by the ancient Egyptians.

Quark (dairy product) type of fresh dairy product

Quark or quarg is a type of fresh dairy product made by warming soured milk until the desired amount of curdling is met, and then straining it. It can be classified as fresh acid-set cheese. Traditional quark can be made without rennet, but in modern dairies small quantities of rennet are typically added. It is soft, white and unaged, and usually has no salt added. It is traditional in the cuisines of Baltic, Germanic and Slavic-speaking countries.

Sour cream

Sour cream or soured cream is a dairy product obtained by fermenting regular cream with certain kinds of lactic acid bacteria. The bacterial culture, which is introduced either deliberately or naturally, sours and thickens the cream. Its name comes from the production of lactic acid by bacterial fermentation, which is called souring. Crème fraîche is one type of sour cream with a high fat content and less sour taste.

Yayık ayranı

Yayık ayranı, also known as Turkish buttermilk, is a traditional Turkish drink produced from fermented buttermaking by-products, water and salt. It has been traditionally prepared in barrel churns or skin bags. Despite the similar name, it is distinct from ayran. Goat, sheep, or cow's milk can be used for Turkish buttermilk production. Certain acid curd cheeses such as çökelek could also be obtained from yayık ayranı when heated.

References

  1. Muhlke, Christine (April 22, 2009). "Got Buttermilk?". New York Times.
  2. "Buttermilk marinade". Smoking Meat Forums. November 14, 2014. Retrieved 2016-03-21.
  3. Douma (Ed.), Michael (June 14, 2007). "Ripening to Ferment Milk Sugars to Lactic Acid". Webexhibits. Retrieved 2008-12-31.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  4. 1 2 3 Fankhause, David B. (June 14, 2007). "Making Buttermilk". University of Cincinnati Clermont College. Archived from the original on August 28, 2007. Retrieved August 21, 2007.
  5. Anderson, L.V. (2012). "All Churned Around: How buttermilk lost its butter". Slate. Retrieved March 3, 2017.
  6. Hunziker, O F (January 1, 1923). "Utilization of Buttermilk in the form of Condensed and Dried Buttermilk" (PDF). Journal of Dairy Science. American Dairy Science Association. 6 (1): 1–12. doi: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(23)94057-9 . Retrieved 2010-10-26.
  7. Sodini, I.; Morin, P.; Olabi, A.; Jiménez-Flores, R. (February 2006). "Compositional and Functional Properties of Buttermilk: A Comparison Between Sweet, Sour, and Whey Buttermilk" (PDF). Journal of Dairy Science. American Dairy Science Association. 89 (2): 525–536. doi: 10.3168/jds.s0022-0302(06)72115-4 . PMID   16428621 . Retrieved March 16, 2019.
  8. "Dry buttermilk and nonfat dry milk price relationship". U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. Economic Research Service. August 1991. Archived from the original on 2008-12-04. Retrieved 2008-06-28.
  9. "Title 21 – Food and Drugs: Chapter I, Part 131 Milk and Cream" (PDF). Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (e-CFR). April 1, 2007. Retrieved 2010-10-26.
  10. Filippone, Peggy Trowbridge. "Buttermilk health benefits" . Retrieved October 13, 2013.
  11. Aparna, Karthikeyan (May 13, 2012). "Buttermilk, the best bet". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Retrieved October 13, 2013.