Xinhai Lhasa turmoil

Last updated
Lhasa turmoil
Chinese leaving Lhasa 1912.jpg
After the end of the Qing empire, Sichuan New Army left Lhasa in 1912.
Date1911–1913
Location
Tibet
Result Tibet became a de facto independent country
Belligerents
Tibet Qing China
Commanders and leaders
13th Dalai Lama
Tsarong Dazang Dramdul
3rd Tsomonling Rinpoche  [ nl ]
Xie Guoliang
Lianyu  [ zh ]
Zhong Ying  [ zh ]

Xinhai Lhasa turmoil (Tibetan : ཆུ་བྱི་དམག་འཁྲུག་, Wylie : chu byi dmag 'khrug; Chinese :辛亥拉萨动乱) refers to the ethnic clash in the Lhasa region of Tibet and various mutinies following the Wuchang Uprising. It effectively resulted in the end of Qing rule in Tibet.

Contents

Background

The Wuchang Uprising unfolded on October 10, 1911, and marked the beginning of the Xinhai Revolution. Turmoil in the frontier regions of China began to spread. [1] :58–59 The revolutionaries led by Sun Yat-sen insisted on "getting rid of the Tartars" and rejected the Manchus, creating a new government based completely on Han-dominated China proper.

Turmoil in Tibet

The influence of the Wuchang Uprising rapidly spread to the frontier region. Qing armies in Tibet ended up struggling against each other, and as a result, Tibet fell into a state of anarchy. In the winter of 1911, the Qing Governor of Sichuan, Zhao Erfeng, was executed by radicals, and the situation turned worse as Xikang fell into turmoil as well. As a result, the Dalai Lama was able to eliminate Qing influence in Tibet and return as the sole administrator of the region. The Qing army in Tibet was unable to resist the Dalai Lama's forces, and fled back to inland China via India. [1] :59

See also

Related Research Articles

Dalai Lama Tibetan Buddhist spiritual teacher

Dalai Lama is a title given by the Tibetan people to the foremost spiritual leader of the Gelug or "Yellow Hat" school of Tibetan Buddhism, the newest of the classical schools of Tibetan Buddhism. The 14th and current Dalai Lama is Tenzin Gyatso, who lives as a refugee in India. The Dalai Lama is also considered to be the successor in a line of tulkus who are believed to be incarnations of Avalokiteśvara, the Bodhisattva of Compassion.

Tibet Plateau region in Asia

Tibet is a region in East Asia covering much of the Tibetan Plateau spanning about 2,500,000 km2 (970,000 sq mi). It is the traditional homeland of the Tibetan people as well as some other ethnic groups such as Monpa, Tamang, Qiang, Sherpa, and Lhoba peoples and is now also inhabited by considerable numbers of Han Chinese and Hui people. Tibet is the highest region on Earth, with an average elevation of 4,380 m (14,000 ft). Located in the Himalayas, the highest elevation in Tibet is Mount Everest, Earth's highest mountain, rising 8,848 m (29,029 ft) above sea level.

History of Tibet Aspect of history

While the Tibetan plateau has been inhabited since pre-historic times, most of Tibet's history went unrecorded until the introduction of Tibetan Buddhism around the 6th century. Tibetan texts refer to the kingdom of Zhangzhung as the precursor of later Tibetan kingdoms and the originators of the Bon religion. While mythical accounts of early rulers of the Yarlung Dynasty exist, historical accounts begin with the introduction of Buddhism from India in the 6th century and the appearance of envoys from the unified Tibetan Empire in China in the 7th century. Following the dissolution of the empire and a period of fragmentation in the 9th-10th centuries, a Buddhist revival in the 10th-12th centuries saw the development of three of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism.

Tibetan independence movement Political movement for Tibet to be independent from China

The Tibetan independence movement is a political movement for the independence of Tibet and the political separation of Tibet from China. It is principally led by the Tibetan diaspora in countries like India and the United States, and by celebrities and Tibetan Buddhists in the United States, India and Europe. The movement is no longer supported by the 14th Dalai Lama, who although having advocated it from 1961 to the late 1970s, proposed a sort of high-level autonomy in a speech in Strasbourg in 1988, and has since then restricted his position to either autonomy for the Tibetan people in the Tibet Autonomous Region within China, or extending the area of the autonomy to include parts of neighboring Chinese provinces inhabited by Tibetans.

Kham Eastern frontier of Tibet

Kham , is one of the three traditional provinces of Tibet, the others being Amdo in the northeast, and Ü-Tsang in central Tibet. The original residents of Kham are called Khampas, and were governed locally by chieftains and monasteries. Kham presently covers a land area distributed between five regions in China, most of it in Tibet Autonomous Region and Sichuan, with smaller portions located within Qinghai, Gansu and Yunnan provinces.

13th Dalai Lama 19th and 20th-century 13th Dalai Lama of Tibet

Ngawang Lobsang Thupten Gyatso Jigdral Chokley Namgyal, abbreviated to Thubten Gyatso was the 13th Dalai Lama of Tibet, enthroned during a turbulent era and the collapse of the Qing Dynasty. Referred to as "the Great Thirteenth", he is also known for redeclaring Tibet's national independence, and for his reform and modernization initiatives.

Amban Ranks of officials in the Qing dynasty

Amban is a Manchu language word meaning "high official," which corresponds to a number of different official titles in the Qing imperial government. For instance, members of the Grand Council were called Coohai nashūn-i amban in Manchu and Qing governor-generals were called Uheri kadalara amban.

Zhao Erfeng

Zhao Erfeng (1845–1911), courtesy name Jihe, was a Qing Dynasty official and Han Chinese bannerman, who belonged to the Plain Blue Banner. He was an assistant amban in Tibet at Chamdo in Kham. He was appointed in March, 1908 under Lien Yu, the main amban in Lhasa. Formerly Director-General of the Sichuan-Hubei Railway and acting viceroy of Sichuan province, Zhao was the much-maligned Chinese general of the late imperial era who led military campaigns throughout Kham and eventually reaching Lhasa in 1910, earning himself the nickname "the Butcher of Kham" and "Zhao the Butcher".

Lha-bzang Khan

Lha-bzang Khan was the ruler of the Khoshut tribe of the Oirats. He was the son of Tenzin Dalai Khan (1668–1701) and grandson of Güshi Khan, being the last khan of the Khoshut Khanate and Oirat King of Tibet. He acquired effective power as ruler of Tibet by eliminating the regent (desi) Sangye Gyatso and the Sixth Dalai Lama, Tsangyang Gyatso, but his rule was cut short by an invasion by another group of Oirats, the Dzungar people. At length, this led to the direct involvement of the Chinese Qing Dynasty in the Tibetan politics.

Annexation of Tibet by the Peoples Republic of China

The annexation of Tibet by the People's Republic of China, called the "Peaceful Liberation of Tibet" by the Chinese government, and the "Chinese invasion of Tibet" by the Central Tibetan Administration and the Tibetan people, was the process by which the People's Republic of China (PRC) gained control of Tibet.

Outline of Tibet Overview of and topical guide to Tibet

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Tibet:

Tibet (1912–1951) Former de facto independent state in East Asia

The polity of Tibet was a de facto independent state between the collapse of the Qing dynasty in 1912 and the annexation of Tibet by the People's Republic of China in 1951.

The Batang uprising is an uprising by the Khampas of Kham against the assertion of authority of Qing China.

The Lhasa riot of 1750 or Lhasa uprising of 1750 took place in the Tibetan capital Lhasa, and lasted several days during the period of the Qing Dynasty's patronage in Tibet. The uprising began on November 11, 1750 after the expected new regent of Tibet, Gyurme Namgyal, was assassinated by two Qing Manchu diplomats, or ambans. As a result, both ambans were murdered, and 51 Qing soldiers and 77 Chinese citizens were killed in the uprising. A year later the leader of the rebellion, Lobsang Trashi, and fourteen other rebels were executed.

Tibetan Army

The Tibetan Army was the military force of Tibet after its de facto independence in 1912 until the 1950s. As a ground army modernised with the assistance of British training and equipment, it served as the de facto armed forces of the Tibetan government.

The 1910 Chinese expedition to Tibet or the Chinese invasion of Tibet in 1910 was a military campaign of the Qing dynasty to establish direct rule in Tibet in early 1910. The expedition occupied Lhasa on February 12 and officially deposed the 13th Dalai Lama on the 25th.

Ganden Phodrang

The Ganden Phodrang or Ganden Podrang was the Tibetan governmental body founded in 1642. It shared political authority with the Dalai Lamas in a "two-system" spiritual and secular government. The Ganden Phodrang had a standing army which ceased joint military operations with the Qing army in 1846,. and existed until it was officially disbanded after 1959.

Tibet under Qing rule Tibetian history from 1721 to 1912

Tibet under Qing rule refers to the Qing dynasty's relationship with Tibet from 1720 to 1912. During this period, Qing China regarded Tibet as a vassal state. Tibet considered itself an independent nation with only a "priest and patron" relationship with the Qing Dynasty. Scholars such as Melvyn Goldstein have considered Tibet to be a Qing protectorate.

The 1720 Chinese expedition to Tibet or the Chinese conquest of Tibet in 1720 was a military expedition sent by the Qing empire to expel the invading forces of the Dzungar Khanate from Tibet and establish a Chinese protectorate over the country. The expedition occupied Lhasa and some claim it marked the beginning of Qing rule in Tibet, which lasted until the empire's fall in 1912.

Tibet–India relations Relations between Tibet and India

Tibet–India relations are said to have begun during the spread of Buddhism to Tibet from India during the 7th and 8th centuries AD. In 1959, the Dalai Lama fled to India after the failed 1959 Tibetan uprising. Since then, Tibetans-in-exile have been given asylum in India, with the Indian government accommodating them into 45 residential settlements across 10 states in the country. From around 150,000 Tibetan refugees in 2011, the number fell to 85,000 in 2018, according to government data. Many Tibetans are now leaving India to go back to Tibet and other countries such as United States or Germany. The Government of India, soon after India's independence in 1947, treated Tibet as a de facto independent country. However, more recently India's policy on Tibet has been mindful of Chinese sensibilities, and has recognized Tibet as a part of China.

References

  1. 1 2 Melvyn C. Goldstein (18 June 1991). A History of Modern Tibet, 1913-1951: The Demise of the Lamaist State. University of California Press. ISBN   978-0-520-91176-5.