Viceroy of Zhili

Last updated
Map of viceroys in Qing Dynasty of China Qing viceroys.png
Map of viceroys in Qing Dynasty of China
Viceroy of Zhili
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese 直隸總督
Simplified Chinese 直隶总督
Governor-General of Zhili and Surrounding Areas Overseeing Military Affairs and Food Production, Manager of Waterways, Director of Civil Affairs
(full title)
Traditional Chinese 總督直隸等處地方,提督軍務、糧餉、管理河道兼巡撫事
Simplified Chinese 总督直隶等处地方,提督军务、粮饷、管理河道兼巡抚事
Manchu name
Manchu script ᡷᡳᠯᡳ
ᡠᡥᡝᡵᡳ
ᡴᠠᡩᠠᠯᠠᡵᠠ
ᠠᠮᠪᠠᠨ
Romanization jyli uheri kadalara amban

The Viceroy of Zhili, fully referred to in Chinese as the Governor-General of Zhili and Surrounding Areas Overseeing Military Affairs and Food Production, Manager of Waterways, Director of Civil Affairs, was one of eight regional Viceroys in China proper during the Qing dynasty. The Viceroy of Zhili was an important post because the province of Zhili, which literally means "directly ruled", was the area surrounding the imperial capital, Beijing. The administrative centre was in Tianjin even though the provincial capital was in Baoding. The Viceroy's duties as well as responsibilities have never been defined entirely. Generally speaking, the Viceroy oversaw the military and civil affairs of Zhili, Shandong and Henan provinces. The Viceroy of Zhili was also highly influential in imperial court politics.

Contents

History

The office was first created on 30 September 1649 during the reign of the Shunzhi Emperor, but was later abolished on 1 June 1658. On 23 November 1661, during the reign of the Kangxi Emperor, the office was recreated, however abolished again later on 28 July 1669. After the Yongzheng Emperor restored it on 14 December 1724, the office had remained in place until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1912.

From 1870 onwards, the Viceroy of Zhili concurrently held the position of "Beiyang Trade Minister" (北洋通商大臣); cf. "Nanyang Trade Minister" (南洋通商大臣) held by the Viceroy of Liangjiang.

47 people had held the position from 1649 to 1912. Among them, the more notable ones included Li Wei, Tang Zhiyu, Fang Guancheng, Zeng Guofan, Li Hongzhang, Ronglu and Yuan Shikai. Li Hongzhang, in particular, held the office for about 25 years in total during the height of his political career.

List of Viceroys of Zhili

#NamePortraitStart of termEnd of termNotes
Viceroy of Zhili, Shandong and Henan
(1649–1658)
1 Zhang Cunren
張存仁
30 September 1649November 1651Died in office
2 Ma Guanghui
馬光輝
29 November 16518 April 1654Left office due to illness
3 Li Zuyin
李祖蔭
16 April 16544 February 1657Reassigned to serve as Viceroy of Huguang
4 Zhang Xuanxi
張懸錫
24 February 16571 June 1658Demoted and dismissed from office on 29 June 1658
Viceroy of Zhili
(1661–1665)
5 Miao Cheng
苗澄
23 November 16614 July 1665Dismissed from office
Viceroy of Zhili, Shandong and Henan
(1665–1669)
6 Zhu Changzuo
朱昌祚
13 July 16658 January 1667Dismissed from office
7 Bai Bingzhen
白秉貞
27 January 166730 September 1669Dismissed from office on 28 July 1669
Viceroy of Zhili
(1724–1912)
8 Li Weijun
李維鈞
14 December 172426 September 1725Dismissed from office
Cai Ting
蔡珽
26 September 1725Stand-in as the Secretary of Defence
9 Li Fu
李紱
1 October 172516 January 1727Reassigned to serve as Right Vice Secretary of Works
Yi Zhaoxiong
宜兆熊
16 January 172723 June 1728Stand-in as the Viceroy of Huguang
Liu Shishu
劉師恕
16 January 17278 March 1729Stand-in as the Right Vice Secretary of Rites
He Shiji
何世璂
23 June 17284 March 1729Stand-in as the Right Vice Secretary of Personnel
Yang Kun
楊鯤
24 February 17291 July 1729Stand-in as the Governor-General of Zhili
Tang Zhiyu
唐執玉
1 July 172927 October 1731Stand-in as the Left Censor-in-Chief
Liu Yuyi
劉於義
27 October 17312 September 1732Stand-in as the Secretary of Justice
Li Wei
李衛
2 September 1732September 1732Acting Viceroy of Zhili
10 Li Wei
李衛
September 173229 November 1738Retired due to illness
Tang Zhiyu
唐執玉
19 February 1733April 1733Stand-in as the Secretary of Justice
Sun Jiagan
孫嘉淦
29 November 17386 December 1738Stand-in as the Secretary of Personnel
11 Sun Jiagan
孫嘉淦
6 December 173826 September 1741Reassigned to serve as the Viceroy of Huguang
12 Gao Bin
高斌
26 September 174119 June 1745Promoted to Secretary of Personnel
Liu Yuyi
劉於義
28 February 1745Stand-in as the Secretary of Personnel
13 Nasutu
那蘇圖
19 June 174518 August 1749Died in office
Chen Dashou
陳大受
1749Stand-in as the Secretary of Personnel and Assisting Grand Secretary
14 Fang Guancheng
方觀承
18 August 174925 September 1768Retired due to illness
Omida
鄂彌達
30 October 1755Stand-in as the Secretary of Justice
Yang Tingzhang
楊廷璋
25 September 176827 September 1768Stand-in as the Secretary of Justice
15 Yang Tingzhang
楊廷璋
27 September 176826 November 1771Reassigned to serve as the Secretary of Justice
16 Zhou Yuanli
周元理
26 November 177127 April 1779Dismissed from office
Ying Lian
英廉
27 April 177929 April 1779Stand-in as the Secretary of Revenue
17 Yang Jingsu
楊景素
29 April 177927 January 1780Died in office
18 Yuan Shoutong
袁守侗
27 January 178013 January 1782Left office for filial mourning
Zhou Yuanli
周元理
27 January 1780Acting Viceroy of Zhili
Ying Lian
英廉
13 January 1782Stand-in as the Grand Secretary
19 Zheng Dajin
鄭大進
13 January 178225 November 1782Died in office
20 Yuan Shoutong
袁守侗
25 November 178216 June 1783Died in office
Liu Yong
劉墉
Liu Yong Ren Xiang Tu 1.jpg 16 June 1783Stand-in as the Secretary of Works
21 Liu E
劉峨
16 June 178310 April 1790Demoted to serve as Left Vice Secretary of Defence
22 Liang Kentang
梁肯堂
10 April 179020 February 1798Promoted to Secretary of Justice
23 Hu Jitang
胡季堂
20 February 179824 November 1800Left office due to illness
Yan Jian
顏檢
24 November 1800Stand-in as the Lieutenant-Governor of Zhili
24 Jiang Sheng
姜晟
Jiang Cheng .jpg 5 December 180019 July 1801Dismissed from office and arrested
Xiong Mei
熊枚
19 July 1801Stand-in as the Left Vice Secretary of Justice
25 Chen Dawen
陳大文
20 July 18013 May 1802Left office due to illness
Xiong Mei
熊枚
3 May 1802Stand-in as the Left Censor-in-Chief
Yan Jian
顏檢
9 May 1802Stand-in as the Provincial Governor of Henan
26 Yan Jian
顏檢
27 September 18024 July 1805Demoted to a zhushi (主事)
Xiong Mei
熊枚
4 July 1805Stand-in as the Secretary of Works
27 Wu Xiongguang
吳熊光
4 July 180512 December 1805Reassigned to serve as the Viceroy of Liangguang
Qiu Xingjian
裘行簡
6 November 1805Stand-in as the Lieutenant-Governor of Zhili
Qiu Xingjian
裘行簡
12 December 1805Stand-in as the Lieutenant-Governor of Zhili and acting Vice Secretary of Defence
Qin Cheng'en
秦承恩
8 November 1806Stand-in as the Secretary of Justice
Wen Chenghui
溫承惠
23 November 1806Stand-in as the Provincial Governor of Fujian
28 Wen Chenghui
溫承惠
16 October 18075 November 1813Dismissed from office
Zhang Xu
章煦
10 October 1813Stand-in as the Secretary of Works
Zuo Wenning
左文寧
9 December 1813Stand-in as the Left Vice Secretary of Personnel
29 Na Yancheng
那彥成
5 November 181324 July 1816Dismissed from office
30 Fang Shouchou
方受疇
24 July 181629 January 1822Left office due to illness
Changling
長齡
29 January 182218 February 1822Stand-in as the Viceroy of Shaan-Gan
Tu Zhishen
屠之申
18 February 1822Stand-in as the Lieutenant-Governor of Zhili
Songyun
松筠
18 January 1822Stand-in as the Secretary of Personnel
31 Yan Jian
顏檢
29 January 182215 May 1823Reassigned to serve as Vice Secretary of Storage (倉場侍郎)
32 Jiang Youxian
蔣攸銛
15 May 18237 December 1825Reassigned to serve in the Imperial Cabinet
33 Na Yancheng
那彥成
7 December 182525 March 1831Dismissed from office
Mingshan
明山
22 December 182726 December 1827Stand-in as the Secretary of Justice
Tu Zhishen
屠之申
26 December 182718 May 1829Stand-in as the Lieutenant-Governor of Zhili
Songyun
松筠
21 May 1829Stand-in as the Secretary of Rites
Wang Ding
王鼎
WangDing.jpg 25 March 1831Stand-in as the Secretary of Revenue
34 Qishan
琦善
25 March 183114 April 1837Left office for filial mourning
Mujangga
穆彰阿
14 April 1837Stand-in as the Grand Secretary
Qishan
琦善
25 July 183728 September 1840Reassigned
Nergingge
訥爾經額
28 September 184026 February 1841Stand-in as the Viceroy of Shaan-Gan
34 Nergingge
訥爾經額
26 February 18416 October 1853Dismissed from office
35 Guiliang
桂良
6 October 185321 January 1857Promoted to Grand Secretary of the Eastern Cabinet (東閣大學士)
Tan Tingxiang
譚廷襄
21 January 185726 April 1858Stand-in as the Provincial Governor of Shaanxi
36 Tan Tingxiang
譚廷襄
26 April 185826 July 1858Dismissed
Ruilin
瑞麟
JUI-LIN, GOVERNOR-GENERAL OF THE TWO KWANG PROVINCES.jpg 26 July 1858Stand-in as the Secretary of Rites
37 Qingqi
慶祺
26 July 185825 March 1859Died in office
Wenyu
文煜
25 March 1859Stand-in as the Lieutenant-Governor of Zhili
38 Hengfu
恒福
25 March 185926 February 1861Left office due to illness
Wenyu
文煜
26 February 186114 February 1863Stand-in as the Provincial Governor of Shandong
Chonghou
崇厚
Chonghou.jpg 14 February 186320 April 1863Stand-in as the Left Vice Secretary of Defence
39 Liu Changyou
劉長佑
14 February 186329 November 1867Dismissed from office
Guanwen
官文
29 November 18676 September 1868Stand-in as the Grand Secretary of Wenhua Hall (文華殿大學士)
40 Zeng Guofan
曾國藩
Zeng Guofan.png 6 September 186829 August 1870Reassigned to serve as the Viceroy of Liangjiang
41 Li Hongzhang
李鴻章
Li Hung Chang in 1896.jpg 29 August 187026 April 1882Left office for filial mourning
Zhang Shusheng
張樹聲
19 April 188213 July 1883Stand-in as the Viceroy of Liangguang
Li Hongzhang
李鴻章
Li Hung Chang in 1896.jpg 13 July 188323 September 1884Acting Viceroy of Zhili
42 Li Hongzhang
李鴻章
Li Hung Chang in 1896.jpg 23 September 188428 August 1895Reassigned to the Imperial Cabinet
Wang Wenshao
王文韶
Wang Wenshao.jpg 13 February 189528 August 1895Stand-in as the Viceroy of Yun-Gui
43 Wang Wenshao
王文韶
Wang Wenshao.jpg 28 August 189523 June 1898Promoted to Secretary of Revenue
Ronglu
榮祿
Ronglu.jpg 15 June 189823 June 1898Stand-in as the Grand Secretary
44 Ronglu
榮祿
Ronglu.jpg 23 June 189825 September 1898Recalled to the capital
Yuan Shikai
袁世凱
YuanShika Colour.jpg 25 September 1898Stand-in as an acting Vice Secretary
45 Yulu
裕祿
Yulu.jpg 28 September 189827 July 1900Died in office
Tingyong
廷雍
Ting Yong .jpg 9 August 1900Stand-in as the Lieutenant-Governor of Zhili
46 Li Hongzhang
李鴻章
Li Hung Chang in 1896.jpg 8 July 19007 November 1901Died in office
Zhou Fu
周馥
Chou Fu.jpg 7 November 1901Stand-in as the Lieutenant-Governor of Zhili
Yuan Shikai
袁世凱
YuanShika Colour.jpg 7 November 19019 June 1902Stand-in as the Provincial Governor of Shandong
47 Yuan Shikai
袁世凱
YuanShika Colour.jpg 9 June 19024 September 1907Promoted to Secretary of Foreign Affairs
Wu Chongxi
吳重熹
18 October 1902Stand-in as the Lieutenant-Governor of Zhili
Yang Shixiang
楊士驤
5 September 190723 July 1908Stand-in as the Provincial Governor of Shandong
48 Yang Shixiang
楊士驤
23 July 190828 June 1909Died in office
Natong
那桐
Natong.jpg 28 June 1909Stand-in as the Grand Secretary and Assisting Minister of Foreign Affairs
49 Duanfang
端方
Duan Fang.jpg 28 June 190923 January 1910Dismissed from office
Cui Yong'an
崔永安
23 January 1910Stand-in as the Lieutenant-Governor of Zhili
50 Chen Kuilong
陳夔龍
Chen Kuilong.jpg 23 January 19103 February 1912Left office due to illness
Zhang Zhenfang
張鎮芳
3 February 1912Acting Viceroy of Zhili

Related Research Articles

Yuan Shikai Chinese politician

Yuan Shikai was a Chinese military and government official who rose to power during the late Qing dynasty. He tried to save the dynasty with a number of modernization projects including bureaucratic, fiscal, judicial, educational, and other reforms, despite playing a key part in the failure of the Hundred Days' Reform. He established the first modern army and a more efficient provincial government in North China in the last years of the Qing dynasty before the abdication of the Xuantong Emperor, the last monarch of the Qing dynasty, in 1912. Through negotiation, he became the first official president of the Republic of China in 1912.

Li Hongzhang Chinese politician, general and diplomat

Li Hongzhang, Marquess Suyi, was a Chinese politician, general and diplomat of the late Qing dynasty. He quelled several major rebellions and served in important positions in the Qing imperial court, including the Viceroy of Zhili, Huguang and Liangguang.

The term Beiyang originated toward the end of the Qing dynasty, and it referred to the coastal areas of Zhili, Liaoning, and Shandong in northeast China.

Hešeri, is a clan of Manchu nobility with Jianzhou Jurchens roots, originally hailing from the area which is now the modern Chinese provinces of Jilin and Liaoning. It was once one of the most important and powerful noble families in the early Qing dynasty in China, second only to the royal House of Aisin Gioro, to whom they were closely related by marriage. The power of the family reached its zenith in the period of Duke Hešeri Sonin and his third son Lord Hešeri Songgotu. Although its influence declined following Songgotu's death, clan Hešeri continued to be the hereditary nobility and play a role in Chinese politics until the demise of the Qing dynasty in early 1912.

Beiyang Army Military faction dominating much of Republic of China and Warlord Era politics, originally established to modernize the Qing dynasty army

The Beiyang Army was a powerful, Western-style Imperial Chinese Army established by the Qing Dynasty government in the late 19th century. It was the centerpiece of a general reconstruction of Qing China's military system. The Beiyang Army played a major role in Chinese politics for at least three decades and arguably right up to 1949. It made the Xinhai Revolution of 1911 possible, and, by dividing into warlord factions known as the Beiyang Clique, ushered in a period of regional division.

Yikuang Prince Qing of the First Rank

Yikuang, formally known as Prince Qing, was a Manchu noble and politician of the Qing dynasty. He served as the first Prime Minister of the Imperial Cabinet, an office created in May 1911 to replace the Grand Council.

Beiyang Fleet One of the four modernised Chinese navies in the late Qing Dynasty

The Beiyang Fleet was one of the four modernized Chinese navies in the late Qing dynasty. Among the four, the Beiyang Fleet was particularly sponsored by Li Hongzhang, one of the most trusted vassals of Empress Dowager Cixi and the principal patron of the "self-strengthening movement" in northern China in his capacity as the Viceroy of Zhili and the Minister of Beiyang Commerce (北洋通商大臣). Due to Li's influence in the imperial court, the Beiyang Fleet garnered much greater resources than the other Chinese fleets and soon became the dominant navy in Asia before the onset of First Sino-Japanese War in 1894–1895 — it was the largest fleet in Asia and the 8th in the world during the late 1880s in terms of tonnage.

Ronglu Qing dynasty politician and military leader

Ronglu, courtesy name Zhonghua, was a Manchu political and military leader of the late Qing dynasty. He was born in the Guwalgiya clan, which was under the Plain White Banner of the Manchu Eight Banners. Deeply favoured by Empress Dowager Cixi, he served in a number of important civil and military positions in the Qing government, including the Zongli Yamen, Grand Council, Grand Secretary, Viceroy of Zhili, Beiyang Trade Minister, Secretary of Defence, Nine Gates Infantry Commander, and Wuwei Corps Commander. He was also the maternal grandfather of Puyi, the last Emperor of China and the Qing dynasty.

Liu Kunyi Chinese politician

Liu Kunyi was a Chinese official during the late Qing dynasty (1644–1911) and a native of Xinning County, Hunan.

Viceroy of Liangjiang position

The Viceroy of Liangjiang or Viceroy of the Two Jiangs, fully referred to in Chinese as the Governor-General of the Two Yangtze Provinces and Surrounding Areas Overseeing Military Affairs, Provisions and Funds, Manager of Waterways, Director of Civil Affairs, was one of eight regional Viceroys in China proper during the Qing dynasty. The Viceroy of Liangjiang had jurisdiction over Jiangsu, Jiangxi and Anhui provinces. Because Jiangsu and Anhui were previously part of a single province, Jiangnan, they were thus known, along with Jiangxi, as the two jiangs, hence the name "Liangjiang".

Zaizhen Prince Qing of the First Rank

Zaizhen, courtesy name Yuzhou, was a Manchu prince and politician of the late Qing dynasty. Romanised forms of his name include Tsai-chen, Tsai-Chen, Tsai-Cheng.

Viceroy of Shaan-Gan

The Viceroy of Shaan-Gan, fully referred to in Chinese as the Governor-General of Shaanxi and Gansu Provinces and the Surrounding Areas; Overseeing Military Affairs and Food Production, Manager of Waterways, Director of Civil Affairs, was one of eight regional viceroys in China proper during the Qing dynasty. The Viceroy of Shaan-Gan had jurisdiction over Shaanxi and Gansu provinces, as well as western Inner Mongolia.

Imperial Commissioner was a high-ranking government official or military general commissioned by the emperor of China during the late Ming (1368–1644) and Qing (1636–1912) dynasties. His power was just below that of the emperor, such that he could command viceroys and provincial governors by imperial edict.

Viceroy of Huguang

The Viceroy of Huguang, fully referred to in Chinese as the Governor-General of Hubei and Hunan Provinces and the Surrounding Areas; Overseeing Military Affairs, Food Production; Director of Civil Affairs, was one of eight regional Viceroys in China proper during the Qing dynasty. The Viceroy of Huguang had jurisdiction over Hubei and Hunan provinces, which were previously a single province called "Huguang Province" in the Ming dynasty, hence the name "Huguang".

Viceroy of Yun-Gui

The Viceroy of Yun-Gui, fully referred to in Chinese as the Governor-General of Yunnan and Guizhou Provinces and the Surrounding Areas Overseeing Military Affairs and Food Production, Director of Civil Affairs, was one of eight regional viceroys in China proper during the Qing dynasty. The Viceroy controlled Yunnan and Guizhou (Kweichow) provinces.

Late Qing reforms, or New Policies, or New Administration of the late Qing dynasty (1901–1912), were a series of cultural, economic, educational, military, and political reforms implemented in the last decade of the Qing dynasty to keep the dynasty in power after the invasions of the great powers of the Eight Nation Alliance in league with the ten provinces of the Southeast Mutual Protection in the Boxer Uprising. The reforms started in 1901 and since they were implemented with the backing of the Empress Dowager Cixi, they are also called Cixi's New Policies.

The Viceroy of Rivers and Waterways in Jiangnan Overseeing Military Affairs, better known simply as the Viceroy of Southern Rivers or Viceroy of Southern Rivers and Waterways, was a government office in China proper during the Qing dynasty. The office was based in Qingjiangpu (清江浦), which is now a district of Huai'an City, Jiangsu Province. The Viceroy usually held the rank of a deputy first-grade official or a regular second-grade official. The Viceroy was in charge of dredging and embankment projects in the waterways of Jiangsu Province.

Shuntian Prefecture was an administrative region of China during the Ming and Qing dynasties, equivalent to Beijing Municipality in today's People's Republic of China. However, the area of the prefecture jurisdiction was different. The term Shuntian fu also referred to the yamen (office) of the prefecture's local government.

Ta-Ching Government Bank Central Bank of the Qing Dynasty

The Ta-Ching Government Bank, known as the Ta-Ching Bank of the Ministry of Revenue (大清戶部銀行) from 1905 to 1908, was the name of the Bank of China as a government agency of the Manchu Qing dynasty until the empire's dissolution in 1911. It was originally created to serve as the central bank of China in 1905, originally as a division of the Ministry of Revenue, and would serve as the country's de facto central bank until the establishment of the Central Bank of China in 1924.

Banknotes of the Ta-Ching Government Bank Historical currency

The banknotes of the Ta-Ching Government Bank, known as the banknotes of the Ta-Ching Bank of the Ministry of Revenue from 1905 to 1908, were intended to become the main form of paper money in the Qing currency system. These banknotes were issued by the Ta-Ching Government Bank, a national bank established to serve as the central bank of the Qing dynasty. The Ta-Ching Government Bank had branches throughout China and many of its branches outside of its headquarters in Beijing also issued banknotes.

References