Viceroy of Shaan-Gan

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Map of viceroys in Qing Dynasty of China Qing viceroys.png
Map of viceroys in Qing Dynasty of China
Viceroy of Shaan-Gan
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese 陝甘總督
Simplified Chinese 陜甘总督
Governor-General of Shaanxi and Gansu Provinces and the Surrounding Areas; Overseeing Military Affairs and Food Production, Manager of Waterways, Director of Civil Affairs
Traditional Chinese 總督陜西甘肅等處地方,提督軍務、糧餉、管理河道兼巡撫事
Simplified Chinese 总督陕西甘肃等处地方,提督军务、粮饷、管理河道兼巡抚事
Manchu name
Manchu script ᡧᠠᠨᠰᡳ
ᡬᠠᠨᠰᡠ ᡳ
ᡠᡥᡝᡵᡳ
ᡴᠠᡩᠠᠯᠠᡵᠠ
ᠠᠮᠪᠠᠨ
Romanization šansi gansu i uheri kadalara amban

The Viceroy of Shaan-Gan, fully referred to in Chinese as the Governor-General of Shaanxi and Gansu Provinces and the Surrounding Areas; Overseeing Military Affairs and Food Production, Manager of Waterways, Director of Civil Affairs, was one of eight regional viceroys in China proper during the Qing dynasty. The Viceroy of Shaan-Gan had jurisdiction over Shaanxi and Gansu provinces (hence the name "Shaan(xi)-Gan(su)"), as well as western Inner Mongolia.

Contents

History

Ming dynasty

The office of Viceroy of Shaan-Gan originated in the early Ming dynasty with the garrisoning of military forces in three towns along the northern border of Shaanxi Province. The three garrisons were called "Xunfu of Yansui" (延綏巡撫), "Xunfu of Ningxia" (寧夏巡撫) and "Xunfu of Gansu" (甘肅巡撫), respectively.

In 1497, when the Mongols of the Northern Yuan dynasty made intrusions across the border, the Hongzhi Emperor put Wang Yue (王越) in charge of coordinating military actions in Shaanxi, Yansui, Ningxia and Gansu.

In the early reign of the Zhengde Emperor (r. 1505–1521), the Mongols invaded Guyuan. The general Cao Xiong (曹雄) rejected external help from reinforcements. Yang Yiqing (楊一清) led lightly armed cavalry to launch a surprise attack on the Mongols and succeeded in driving them back. After this incident, Yang Yiqing realized that military operations in Yansui, Ningxia and Gansu had to be better coordinated, hence he urged the imperial court to appoint a viceroy to oversee the three areas. Liu Daxia (劉大夏) nominated Yang Yiqing for that position.

The office of the viceroy was created in 1525, during the reign of the Jiajing Emperor, under the name "tidu of military affairs" (提督軍務). The office was renamed to "zongzhi" (總制) in 1528, and to "zongdu" (總督) in 1540. The headquarters were located at Huamachi (花馬池; present-day Yanchi County, Ningxia).

Qing dynasty

The office was recreated in 1645, during the reign of the Shunzhi Emperor, as "Viceroy of the Three Borders in Shaanxi" (陝西三邊總督), with the headquarters at Guyuan. In 1653, the Viceroy's jurisdiction expanded to include Sichuan Province, hence the office was renamed "Viceroy of (Si)Chuan and the Three Borders in Shaanxi" (川陝三邊總督). In 1656, the office was renamed "Viceroy of (Si)Chuan-Shaan(xi)" (川陝總督) and its headquarters were relocated to Hanzhong. In 1661, the office changed its name to "Viceroy of Shaanxi" (陝西總督) after Sichuan was removed from its jurisdiction.

In 1666, during the reign of the Kangxi Emperor, the Viceroy's jurisdiction expanded to include Shanxi Province, hence it was renamed "Viceroy of Shan(xi)-Shaan(xi)" (山陝總督), with its headquarters in Xi'an. Shanxi was removed in 1672, and Sichuan was added again in 1680.

In 1723, the Yongzheng Emperor ordered that all Viceroys who also held the position of Secretary of War (兵部尚書) would concurrently be appointed as Right Censor-in-Chief (右都御史) of the Detection Branch (都察院) in the Censorate. Those Viceroys who did not hold the position of Secretary of War would be concurrently appointed as Right Vice Secretary of War (兵部右侍郎) and Right Vice Censor-in-Chief (右副都御史). In 1725, Yue Zhongqi (岳鍾琪) became the first Han Chinese outside of the Han Military Eight Banners to become a Viceroy when he was appointed as Viceroy of Chuan-Shaan. In 1731, the office was renamed "Viceroy of Shaanxi" (陝西總督) and its jurisdiction covered Shaanxi and Gansu; a separate Viceroy of Sichuan was created for Sichuan.

In 1736, the Qianlong Emperor abolished the Viceroy of Sichuan and recreated the office of Viceroy of Chuan-Shaan. In 1748, he split the Viceroy of Chuan-Shaan into Viceroy of Sichuan and Viceroy of Shaan-Gan, but reversed the changes again in 1759 and established a separate Viceroy of Gansu, with its headquarters in Suzhou (肅州; present-day Suzhou District, Jiuquan, Gansu). In 1760, the Qianlong Emperor abolished the Viceroy of Gansu and restored the two offices of Viceroy of Sichuan and Viceroy of Shaan-Gan. The Viceroy of Shaan-Gan was headquartered in Lanzhou and concurrently held the appointment of a Provincial Governor.

In 1882, during the reign of the Guangxu Emperor, the newly established Xinjiang Province was included under the jurisdiction of the Viceroy of Shaan-Gan.

List of Viceroys of Shaan-Gan

Ming dynasty

#NamePortraitStart of termEnd of termNotes
1 Wang Yue
王越
14741498As "Zongzhi of Military Affairs at the Three Borders" (總制三邊軍務) in 1474, then "Zongzhi and Xunfu of Affairs in Gan, Liang and the Borders" (總制甘、涼邊務兼巡撫) from 1497 to 1498
2 Qin Hong
秦紘
Qin Hong .png 15011504As "Zongzhi of Military Affairs at the Three Borders" (總制三邊軍務)
3 Li Yue
李鉞
15221523As "Zongzhi of Military Affairs in Shaanxi and the Three Borders" (總制陝西三邊軍務)
4 Yang Yiqing
楊一清
Yang Yiqing.png 15251525
5 Wang Xian
王憲
15251528As "Supervisor of Military Affairs in Shaanxi and the Three Borders" (督陝西三邊軍務)
6 Wang Qiong
王瓊
Wangq.jpg 15281532
7 Li Wen
李汶
1535
8 Zeng Xian
曾銑
15461548As "Viceroy of Military Affairs in Shaanxi and the Three Borders" (總督陝西三邊軍務)
9 Gu Qizhi
顧其志
1610
10 Huang Jiashan
黃嘉善
11 Liu Minkuan
劉敏寬
12 Zhang Heming
張鶴鳴
13 Yang Yingping
楊應聘
14 Qi Guangzong
祁光宗
1615As "Viceroy of Military Affairs in Gan, Liang and the Three Borders" (總督甘、涼三邊軍務)
15 Li Qiyuan
李起元
As "Viceroy of Military Affairs in Shaanxi and the Three Borders" (總督陝西三邊軍務)
16 Wu Zhiwang
武之望
1628
17 Yang He
楊鶴
1629
18 Hong Chengchou
洪承疇
Hong Cheng Chou .jpg 1631
19 Zheng Chongjian
鄭崇儉
1639
20 Ding Qirui
丁啟睿
1640

Qing dynasty

#NamePortraitStart of termEnd of termNotes
Viceroy of Shaanxi and the Three Borders
(1645–1653)
1 Wang Wenkui
王文奎
1645
2 Meng Qiaofang
孟喬芳
16451653
Viceroy of Chuan-Shaan and the Three Borders
(1653–1656)
3 Meng Qiaofang
孟喬芳
16531654
4 Jin Li
金礪
16541656
Viceroy of Chuan-Shaan
(1656–1661)
5 Jin Li
金礪
16561656
6 Ma Zhixian
馬之先
16561657
7 Li Guoying
李國英
16571661
Viceroy of Shaanxi
(1661–1666)
8 Bai Rumei
白如梅
16611666
Viceroy of Shan-Shaan
(1666–1672)
9 Bai Rumei
白如梅
16661666
10 Lu Chongjun
盧崇峻
16661667
11 Moluo
莫洛
16681670
12 Luoduo
羅多
16711672
13 Ošan
鄂善
16721672
Viceroy of Shan-Shaan
(excluding Shanxi)
(1672–1680)
14 Ošan
鄂善
16721673
15 Hajan
哈占
16731680
Viceroy of Shan-Shaan
(including Sichuan)
(1680–1731)
16 Hajan
哈占
16801683
17 Hife
禧佛
16831686
18 Tuna
圖納
16861688
19 Gesitai
葛思泰
16881692
20 Foron
佛倫
16921694
21 Wuhe
吳赫
16941699
Silda
席爾達
16991701Acting Viceroy
22 Gioro-Huaxian
覺羅華顯
17011704
23 Boji
博霽
17041708
24 Cišiu
齊世武
17081709
25 Yin Tai
殷泰
17091713
26 Ehai
鄂海
17131718
27 Nian Gengyao
年羹堯
Nian Geng Yao .jpg 17191725
28 Yue Zhongqi
岳鍾琪
17251729
Tulišen
圖理琛
17251725Acting Viceroy
29 Yue Zhongqi
岳鍾琪
17291732
Jalangga
查郎阿
17291731Acting Viceroy
Viceroy of Shaanxi
(1731–1736)
30 Jalangga
查郎阿
17311732
Liu Yuyi
劉於義
17321735Acting Viceroy
Viceroy of Chuan-Shaan
(1736–1748)
31 Jalangga
查郎阿
17361738
Liu Yuyi
劉於義
17361737Acting Viceroy
32 Omida
鄂彌達
17381740
33 Yengišan
尹繼善
Yin Ji Shan .jpg 17401742
Martai
馬爾泰
17421743Acting Viceroy
34 Qingfu
慶復
17431747
35 Zhang Guangsi
張廣泗
17471748
Huang Tinggui
黃廷桂
1747Acting Viceroy
Furdan
傅爾丹
1748Acting Viceroy
Fuheng
傅恆
Qing General Fu Heng.jpg 1748Acting Viceroy
36 Ts'ereng
策楞
1748
Yengišan
尹繼善
Yin Ji Shan .jpg 1748Acting Viceroy
Viceroy of Shaan-Gan
(excluding Sichuan)
(1748–1759)
37 Yengišan
尹繼善
Yin Ji Shan .jpg 17481749
38 Hubao
瑚寶
17491749
39 Yengišan
尹繼善
Yin Ji Shan .jpg 17501751
40 Huang Tinggui
黃廷桂
17511753
Yengišan
尹繼善
Yin Ji Shan .jpg 17531753Acting Viceroy
41 Yongchang
永常
17531754
Liu Tongxun
劉統勛
17541755Acting Viceroy
42 Huang Tinggui
黃廷桂
17551759
43 Wu Dashan
吳達善
17591759
Viceroy of Shaan-Gan
(1760–1911)
44 Yang Yingju
楊應琚
17601766Started his term as Viceroy of Gansu in 1759, then as Viceroy of Shaan-Gan from 1760 onwards
45 Wu Dashan
吳達善
17661768
46 Mingshan
明山
17691771
47 Wu Dashan
吳達善
17711771
48 Wenshou
文綬
17711772
49 Haiming
海明
17721772
Lergiyen
勒爾謹
17721772Acting Viceroy
50 Lergiyen
勒爾謹
17721776
Bi Yuan
畢沅
Bi Yuan .jpg 17761776Acting Viceroy
51 Lergiyen
勒爾謹
17761781
52 Li Shiyao
李侍堯
Li Shiyao.jpg 17811784
Bi Yuan
畢沅
Bi Yuan .jpg 17831783Acting Viceroy
53 Fuk'anggan
福康安
Fuk'anggan.jpg 17841787
Qinggui
慶桂
17851785Acting Viceroy
Yongbao
永保
17861786Acting Viceroy
Lebao
勒保
17871787Acting Viceroy
54 Lebao
勒保
17881795
55 Yimian
宜綿
17951796
Lu Youren
陸有仁
17961797Acting Viceroy
Yingshan
英善
17971797Acting Viceroy
56 Yimian
宜綿
17971799
Hengrui
恆瑞
17991799Acting Viceroy
57 Songyun
松筠
17991800
58 Changlin
長麟
18001801
59 Huiling
惠齡
18011804
Nayancheng
那彥成
18041804Acting Viceroy
60 Wesibu
倭什布
18041806
61 Quanbao
全保
18061807
Fang Weidian
方維甸
18061806Acting Viceroy
62 Changling
長齡
18071809
Cai Tingheng
蔡廷衡
18071807Acting Viceroy
Hening
和寧
18091809
63 Songyun
松筠
18091809
64 Nayancheng
那彥成
18101813
65 Changling
長齡
18131814
66 Xianfu
先福
18141817
Gao Qi
高杞
18141814Acting Viceroy
Hening
和寧
18171817Acting Viceroy
67 Changling
長齡
18171822
Zhu Xun
朱勳
18211821Acting Viceroy
68 Nayancheng
那彥成
18221825
69 Changling
長齡
18251825
Ošan
鄂山
18251825Acting Viceroy
Yang Yuchun
楊遇春
18251826Acting Viceroy
Ošan
鄂山
18261826Acting Viceroy
70 Yang Yuchun
楊遇春
18271835
Ošan
鄂山
18301830Acting Viceroy
71 Hūsungge
瑚松額
18351840
72 Nergingge
訥爾經額
18401840
Hūsungge
瑚松額
18401840Acting Viceroy
Enteheng'e
恩特亨額
18401841Acting Viceroy
73 Enteheng'e
恩特亨額
18411842
74 Funiyang'a
富呢揚阿
18421845
75 Huiji
惠吉
18451845
Deng Tingzhen
鄧廷楨
Deng Tingzhen.png 18451845Acting Viceroy
76 Buyantai
布彥泰
18451849
Lin Zexu
林則徐
Commissioner Lin 2.png 18451845Acting Viceroy
Yang Yizeng
楊以增
18471847Acting Viceroy
Qishan
琦善
18491849Acting Viceroy
77 Qishan
琦善
18491851
Saying'a
薩迎阿
18511851Acting Viceroy
78 Yutai
裕泰
18511851
Šuhingga
舒興阿
18511851Acting Viceroy
79 Šuhingga
舒興阿
18511853
Yi Tang
易棠
18531853Acting Viceroy
80 Yi Tang
易棠
18541856
81 Yue Bin
樂斌
18561860
Changji
常績
18561856Acting Viceroy
Lin Yangzu
林揚祖
18591860Acting Viceroy
Fuji
福濟
18601860Acting Viceroy
82 Yue Bin
樂斌
18601861
83 Linkui
麟魁
18621862
Shen Zhaolin
沈兆霖
18621862Acting Viceroy
Enlin
恩麟
18621862Acting Viceroy
84 Xilin
熙麟
18621864
85 Yang Yuebin
楊岳斌
18641866
Duxing'a
都興阿
18641864Acting Viceroy
Enlin
恩麟
18641864Acting Viceroy
85 Zuo Zongtang
左宗棠
Zuo Zongtang2.jpg 18661866
Mutushan
穆圖善
18661866Acting Viceroy
86 Mutushan
穆圖善
18671869
87 Zuo Zongtang
左宗棠
Zuo Zongtang2.jpg 18691880
88 Yang Changjun
楊昌濬
18801881
89 Zeng Guoquan
曾國荃
Ping Ding Yue Fei Gong Chen Xiang -Ceng Guo Quan Xiang .jpg 18811881
90 Tan Zhonglin
譚鍾麟
18811888
91 Yang Changjun
楊昌濬
18881895
Tao Mo
陶模
18951895Acting Viceroy
92 Tao Mo
陶模
18961899
Wei Guangtao
魏光燾
Wei Guangtao.jpg 18991899Acting Viceroy
93 Wei Guangtao
魏光燾
Wei Guangtao.jpg 19001900
94 Songfan
崧蕃
19001905
He Fukun
何福堃
19001901Acting Viceroy
Li Tingxiao
李廷簫
19001900Acting Viceroy
95 Shengyun
升允
Shengyun and Mannerheim in Lanzhou, 1908.jpg 19051909
96 Changgeng
長庚
19091911

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