Viceroy of Min-Zhe

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Map of viceroys in Qing Dynasty of China Qing viceroys.png
Map of viceroys in Qing Dynasty of China
Viceroy of Min-Zhe
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese 閩浙總督
Simplified Chinese 闽浙总督
Governor-General of Taiwan, Fujian and Zhejiang Provinces and Surrounding Areas Overseeing Military Affairs and Food Production, Manager of Waterways, Director of Civil Affairs
(full title)
Traditional Chinese 總督台灣福建浙江等處地方,提督軍務、糧餉、管理河道兼巡撫事
Simplified Chinese 总督台湾福建浙江等处地方,提督军务、粮饷、管理河道兼巡抚事
Manchu name
Manchu script ᡶᡠᡤᡳᠶᠠᠨ
ᠵᡝᡤᡳᠶᠠᠩ ᠨᡳ
ᡠᡥᡝᡵᡳ
ᡴᠠᡩᠠᠯᠠᡵᠠ
ᠠᠮᠪᠠᠨ
Romanization fugiyan jegiyang ni uheri kadalara amban

The Viceroy of Min-Zhe , fully referred to in Chinese as the Governor-General of Taiwan, Fujian and Zhejiang Provinces and Surrounding Areas Overseeing Military Affairs and Food Production, Manager of Waterways, Director of Civil Affairs, was one of eight Viceroys in China proper during the Qing dynasty. The "Zhe" refers to Zhejiang Province while "Min" is the abbreviation of Fujian Province. Taiwan was also under the Viceroy's control until after the 1895 Treaty of Shimonoseki.

Minzhe

Minzhe (闽浙) was an old geographic and political area of South-East China during Qing dynasty. It included Fujian, Taiwan province and Zhejiang province. The Governor of Minzhe was known as the viceroy of Minzhe in the English language. Its administrative centre was located in Fuzhou, Fujian province.

China proper Geopolitical term

China proper, Inner China or the Eighteen Provinces was a term used by Western writers on the Manchu Qing dynasty to express a distinction between the core and frontier regions of China. There is no fixed extent for China proper, as many administrative, cultural, and linguistic shifts have occurred in Chinese history. One definition refers to the original area of Chinese civilization, the Central Plain ; another to the "Eighteen Provinces" system of the Qing dynasty. There is no direct translation for "China proper" in the Chinese language due to differences in terminology used by the Qing to refer to the regions and the expression is controversial among scholars, particularly in China, due to national territorial claims.

Qing dynasty former empire in Eastern Asia, last imperial regime of China

The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China. It was established in 1636, and ruled China proper from 1644 to 1912. It was preceded by the Ming dynasty and succeeded by the Republic of China. The Qing multi-cultural empire lasted for almost three centuries and formed the territorial base for modern China. It was the fifth largest empire in world history. The dynasty was founded by the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan in Manchuria. In the late sixteenth century, Nurhaci, originally a Ming Jianzhou Guard vassal, began organizing "Banners", military-social units that included Manchu, Han, and Mongol elements. Nurhaci formed the Manchu clans into a unified entity. By 1636, his son Hong Taiji began driving Ming forces out of the Liaodong Peninsula and declared a new dynasty, the Qing.

Contents

History

The office of Viceroy of Min-Zhe was created under the name "Viceroy of Zhe-Min" in 1645 during the reign of the Shunzhi Emperor. At the time of its creation, its headquarters were in Fuzhou, Fujian Province. In 1648, the headquarters shifted to Quzhou, Zhejiang Province. About 10 years later, the office split into the Viceroy of Fujian and Viceroy of Zhejiang, which were respectively based in Zhangzhou and Wenzhou.

Shunzhi Emperor Qing Dynasty emperor of China

The Shunzhi Emperor was the third emperor of the Qing dynasty and the first Qing emperor to rule over China proper, from 1644 to 1661. A committee of Manchu princes chose him to succeed his father, Hong Taiji (1592–1643), in September 1643, when he was five years old. The princes also appointed two co-regents: Dorgon (1612–1650), the 14th son of the Qing dynasty's founder Nurhaci (1559–1626), and Jirgalang (1599–1655), one of Nurhaci's nephews, both of whom were members of the Qing imperial clan.

Fuzhou Prefecture-level city in Fujian, Peoples Republic of China

Fuzhou, formerly romanized as Foochow, is the capital and one of the largest cities in Fujian province, China. Along with the many counties of Ningde, those of Fuzhou are considered to constitute the Mindong linguistic and cultural area.

Quzhou Prefecture-level city in Zhejiang, Peoples Republic of China

Quzhou  is a prefecture-level city in western Zhejiang province, People's Republic of China. Sitting on the upper course of the Qiantang River, it borders Hangzhou to the north, Jinhua to the east, Lishui to the southeast, and the provinces of Fujian, Jiangxi and Anhui to the south, southwest and northwest respectively.

In 1672, during the reign of the Kangxi Emperor, the office of the Viceroy of Fujian shifted from Zhangzhou back to Fuzhou. In 1687, the Viceroy of Fujian was renamed "Viceroy of Min-Zhe".

Kangxi Emperor fourth emperor of the Qing Dynasty

The Kangxi Emperor, personal name Xuanye, was the fourth emperor of the Qing dynasty, and the second Qing emperor to rule over China proper, from 1661 to 1722.

In 1727, the Yongzheng Emperor specially appointed Li Wei as Viceroy of Zhejiang. The Viceroy of Min-Zhe, on the other hand, was in charge of only Fujian. The two offices were merged under "Viceroy of Min-Zhe" in 1734.

Yongzheng Emperor Qing Dynasty emperor

The Yongzheng Emperor, born Yinzhen, was the fifth emperor of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty and the third Qing emperor to rule over China proper. He reigned from 1723 to 1735. A hard-working ruler, the Yongzheng Emperor's main goal was to create an effective government at minimal expense. Like his father, the Kangxi Emperor, the Yongzheng Emperor used military force to preserve the dynasty's position. His reign was known for being despotic, efficient, and vigorous.


Li Wei was a prominent mandarin who lived during the reign of the Yongzheng Emperor (1722–1735) of the Qing Dynasty. He was instrumental in carrying out Yongzheng's nationwide reforms in his role in various regional governing positions.

In 1736, the Qianlong Emperor restored the earlier system by appointing Ji Zengyun (嵇曾筠) as the Viceroy of Zhejiang, managing only Zhejiang. Hao Yulin (郝玉麟), the Viceroy of Min-Zhe, was in charge of only Fujian. These changes were reversed in 1738 after the Qianlong Emperor recalled Ji Zengyun back to the imperial capital, leaving Hao Yulin in charge of both Zhejiang and Fujian.

Qianlong Emperor emperor of the Qing Dynasty

The Qianlong Emperor was the sixth emperor of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty, and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China proper. Born Hongli, the fourth son of the Yongzheng Emperor, he reigned officially from 11 October 1735 to 8 February 1796. On 8 February, he abdicated in favour of his son, the Jiaqing Emperor—a filial act in order not to reign longer than his grandfather, the illustrious Kangxi Emperor. Despite his retirement, however, he retained ultimate power as the Emperor Emeritus until his death in 1799; he thus was one of the longest-reigning de facto rulers in the history of the world, and dying at the age of 87, one of the longest-lived. As a capable and cultured ruler inheriting a thriving empire, during his long reign the Qing Empire reached its most splendid and prosperous era, boasting a large population and economy. As a military leader, he led military campaigns expanding the dynastic territory to the largest extent by conquering and sometimes destroying Central Asian kingdoms. This turned around in his late years: the Qing empire began to decline with corruption and wastefulness in his court and a stagnating civil society.

Beijing Municipality in Peoples Republic of China

Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's third most populous city proper, and most populous capital city. The city, located in northern China, is governed as a municipality under the direct administration of central government with 16 urban, suburban, and rural districts. Beijing Municipality is surrounded by Hebei Province with the exception of neighboring Tianjin Municipality to the southeast; together the three divisions form the Jingjinji metropolitan region and the national capital region of China.

In 1885, during the reign of the Guangxu Emperor, the office of Provincial Governor of Fujian was merged into the office of the Viceroy of Min-Zhe.

Guangxu Emperor Chinese emperor

The Guangxu Emperor, personal name Zaitian, was the 11th emperor of the Qing dynasty, and the ninth Qing emperor to rule over China proper. His reign lasted from 1875 to 1908, but in practice he ruled, under Empress Dowager Cixi's influence, only from 1889 to 1898. He initiated the Hundred Days' Reform, but was abruptly stopped when the empress dowager launched a coup in 1898, after which he was put under house arrest until his death. His regnal name, "Guangxu", means "glorious succession".

A xunfu was an important imperial Chinese provincial office under both the Ming and Qing dynasties. However, the purview of the office under the two dynasties differed markedly. Under the Ming, the post originated around 1430 as a kind of inspector-general and ad hoc provincial-level administrator; such a xunfu is usually translated as a grand coordinator. However, after the Manchu conquest of China in the mid-17th century, xunfu became the title of a regular provincial governor overseeing civil administration.

In 1911, the last Viceroy of Minzhe Songshou was overthrown and killed by soldiers in mutiny during the Xinhai revolution.

List of Viceroys of Min-Zhe

#NamePortraitStart of termEnd of termNotes
Viceroy of Zhe-Min
(1645–1658)
1 Zhang Cunren
張存仁
16451647
2 Chen Jin
陳錦
16471652
3 Liu Qingtai
劉清泰
16521654
4 Tuntai
屯泰
16541656
5 Li Shuaitai
李率泰
Li Shuaitai.png 16561658
Viceroy of Zhejiang
(1658–1687)
6 Zhao Guozuo
趙國祚
16581661
7 Zhao Tingchen
趙廷臣
16611669
8 Liu Zhaoqi
劉兆麒
16691673
9 Li Zhifang
李之芳
16731682
10 Shi Weihan
施維翰
16821683
11 Wang Guo'an
王國安
16841684
Viceroy of Fujian
(1658–1687)
6 Li Shuaitai
李率泰
Li Shuaitai.png 16581664
7 Zhu Changzuo
朱昌祚
16641665
8 Zhang Chaolin
張朝璘
16661667
9 Zu Zepu
祖澤溥
16671669
10 Liu Dou
劉斗
16701672
11 Fan Chengmo
范承謨
16721674
12 Lang Tingzuo
郎廷佐
16741676
13 Lang Tingxiang
郎廷相
16761678
14 Yao Qisheng
姚啟聖
16781683
15 Shi Weihan
施維翰
16831684
16 Wang Guo'an
王國安
16841687
Viceroy of Min-Zhe
(1687–1911)
17 Wang Xinming
王新命
16871688
18 Wang Zhi
王騭
16881689
19 Xing Yongchao
興永朝
16891692
20 Zhu Hongzuo
朱宏祚
16921695
21 Guo Shilong
郭世隆
16951702
22 Jin Shirong
金世榮
17021706
23 Liang Nai
梁鼐
17061710
24 Fan Shichong
范時崇
17101715
25 Gioro-Mamboo
覺羅滿保
17151725
26 Gao Qizhuo
高其倬
Gao Qi Zhuo .jpg 17251729
27 Shi Yizhi
史貽直
17291730
28 Gao Qizhuo
高其倬
Gao Qi Zhuo .jpg 17301730
29 Liu Shiming
劉世明
17301732
30 Hao Yulin
郝玉麟
17321739
Viceroy of Zhejiang
(1727–1734, 1736–1738)
(coexisted with the Viceroy of Min-Zhe)
Li Wei
李衛
17271732
Cheng Yuanzhang
程元章
17321734
Ji Zengyun
嵇曾筠
Ji Ceng Yun .jpg 17361738
Viceroy of Min-Zhe
(1687–1911)
31 Depei
德沛
17391742
32 Nasutu
那蘇圖
17421744
33 Martai
馬爾泰
17441746
34 Ka'erjishan
喀爾吉善
17461757
35 Yang Yingju
楊應琚
17571759
36 Yang Tingzhang
楊廷璋
17591764
37 Suchang
蘇昌
17641768
38 Cui Yingjie
崔應階
17681770
39 Zhongyin
鍾音
17701778
40 Yang Jingsu
楊景素
17781779
41 Sanbao
三寶
17791780
42 Fuming'an
富明安
17801781
43 Chen Huizu
陳輝祖
17811782
44 Fulehun
富勒渾
17821785
45 Yade
雅德
17851786
46 Fugang
富綱
17861786
47 Changqing
常青
17861787
48 Li Shiyao
李侍堯
Li Shiyao.jpg 17871788
49 Fuk'anggan
福康安
Fuk'anggan.jpg 17881789
50 Ulana
伍拉納
17891795
51 Fuk'anggan
福康安
Fuk'anggan.jpg 17951796
52 Kuilun
魁倫
17961799
53 Shulin
書麟
17991799
54 Gioro-Changlin
覺羅長麟
17991800
55 Yude
玉德
18001806
56 Alinbao
阿林保
18061809
57 Fang Weidian
方維甸
18091810
58Wang Zhiyi
汪志伊
18101817
59 Dong Jiaozeng
董教增
18171820
60 Qingbao
慶保
18201822
61 Zhao Shenzhen
趙慎畛
18221825
62 Sun Erzhun
孫爾准
18251832
63 Cheng Zuluo
程祖洛
18321836
64 Zhong Xiang
鍾祥
18361839
65 Zhou Tianjue
周天爵
18391839
66 Guiliang
桂良
18391839
67 Deng Tingzhen
鄧廷楨
Deng Tingzhen.png 18391840
68 Yan Botao
顏伯燾
18401841
69 Yang Guozhen
楊國楨
18411842
70 Yiliang
怡良
18421843
71 Liu Yunke
劉韻珂
18431850
72 Yutai
裕泰
18501851
73 Ji Zhichang
季芝昌
Ji Zhi Chang .jpg 18511852
74 Wu Wenrong
吳文鎔
18521853
75 Huicheng
慧成
18531853
76 Wang Yide
王懿德
18541859
77 Qingrui
慶端
18591862
78 Qiling
耆齡
18621863
79 Zuo Zongtang
左宗棠
Zuo Zongtang2.jpg 18631866
80 Wu Tang
吳棠
18661867
81 Ma Xinyi
馬新貽
18671868
82 Yinggui
英桂
18681871
83 Zhang Zhiwan
張之萬
Zhang Zhi Mo .jpg 18711871
84 Li Henian
李鶴年
18711876
85 Wenyu
文煜
18761876
86 He Jing
何璟
18761884
87 Yang Changjun
楊昌濬
18841888
88 Bian Baodi
卞寶第
18881892
89 Tan Zhonglin
譚鍾麟
18921894
90 Bian Baoquan
邊寶泉
18941898
91 Xu Yingkui
許應騤
Xu Ying Kui .jpg 18981903
92 Xiliang
錫良
His Excellency Hsi Liang, Viceroy of Manchuria, Manchuria, 1882-ca. 1936 (imp-cswc-GB-237-CSWC47-LS8-046).jpg 19031903
93 Li Xingrui
李興銳
19031904
94 Wei Guangtao
魏光燾
Wei Guangtao.jpg 19041905
95 Shengyun
升允
19051905
96 Songfan
嵩蕃
19051905
97 Duanfang
端方
Duan Fang.jpg 19051906
98 Zhou Fu
周馥
19061906
99 Ding Zhenduo
丁振鐸
19061907
100 Songshou
松壽
Song Shou .jpg 19071911

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