Viceroy of Sichuan

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Map of viceroys in Qing Dynasty of China Qing viceroys.png
Map of viceroys in Qing Dynasty of China
Viceroy of Sichuan
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese 四川總督
Simplified Chinese 四川总督
Governor-General of Sichuan Province and the Surrounding Areas Overseeing Military Affairs and Food Production, Director of Civil Affairs
(full title)
Traditional Chinese 總督四川等處地方提督軍務、糧饟兼巡撫事
Simplified Chinese 总督四川等处地方提督军务、粮饟兼巡抚事
Manchu name
Manchu script ᠰᡟᠴᡠᠸᠠᠨ ᡳ
ᡠᡥᡝᡵᡳ
ᡴᠠᡩᠠᠯᠠᡵᠠ
ᠠᠮᠪᠠᠨ
Romanization sycuwan i uheri kadalara amban

The Viceroy of Sichuan, fully referred to in Chinese as the Governor-General of Sichuan Province and the Surrounding Areas Overseeing Military Affairs and Food Production, Director of Civil Affairs, was one of eight regional viceroys in China proper during the Qing dynasty. As its name suggests, the Viceroy of Sichuan had control over Sichuan (Szechuan) Province, as well as modern Chongqing Municipality, which was split off in 1997.

Viceroys in China governors of provinces in Qing-dynasty China

Zongdu, usually translated as Viceroy or Governor-General, governed one or more provinces of China during the Ming and Qing dynasties.

China proper Geopolitical term

China proper, Inner China or the Eighteen Provinces was a term used by Western writers on the Manchu Qing dynasty to express a distinction between the core and frontier regions of China. There is no fixed extent for China proper, as many administrative, cultural, and linguistic shifts have occurred in Chinese history. One definition refers to the original area of Chinese civilization, the Central Plain ; another to the "Eighteen Provinces" system of the Qing dynasty. There is no direct translation for "China proper" in the Chinese language due to differences in terminology used by the Qing to refer to the regions and the expression is controversial among scholars, particularly in China, due to national territorial claims.

Qing dynasty former empire in Eastern Asia, last imperial regime of China

The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China. It was established in 1636, and ruled China proper from 1644 to 1912. It was preceded by the Ming dynasty and succeeded by the Republic of China. The Qing multi-cultural empire lasted for almost three centuries and formed the territorial base for modern China. It was the fifth largest empire in world history. The dynasty was founded by the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan in Manchuria. In the late sixteenth century, Nurhaci, originally a Ming Jianzhou Guard vassal, began organizing "Banners", military-social units that included Manchu, Han, and Mongol elements. Nurhaci formed the Manchu clans into a unified entity. By 1636, his son Hong Taiji began driving Ming forces out of the Liaodong Peninsula and declared a new dynasty, the Qing.

Contents

History

The origins of the Viceroy of Sichuan trace back to 1644, during the reign of the Shunzhi Emperor, with the creation of the office of the Provincial Governor of Sichuan (四川巡撫). Its headquarters were in Chengdu. In 1645, the Qing government created the Viceroy of Huguang-Sichuan with Luo Xiujin (羅繡錦) as the first Viceroy overseeing both Huguang (present-day Hubei and Hunan) and Sichuan provinces.

Shunzhi Emperor Qing Dynasty emperor of China

The Shunzhi Emperor was the third emperor of the Qing dynasty and the first Qing emperor to rule over China proper, from 1644 to 1661. A committee of Manchu princes chose him to succeed his father, Hong Taiji (1592–1643), in September 1643, when he was five years old. The princes also appointed two co-regents: Dorgon (1612–1650), the 14th son of the Qing dynasty's founder Nurhaci (1559–1626), and Jirgalang (1599–1655), one of Nurhaci's nephews, both of whom were members of the Qing imperial clan.

A xunfu was an important imperial Chinese provincial office under both the Ming and Qing dynasties. However, the purview of the office under the two dynasties differed markedly. Under the Ming, the post originated around 1430 as a kind of inspector-general and ad hoc provincial-level administrator; such a xunfu is usually translated as a grand coordinator. However, after the Manchu conquest of China in the mid-17th century, xunfu became the title of a regular provincial governor overseeing civil administration.

Chengdu Prefecture-level & Sub-provincial city in Sichuan, Peoples Republic of China

Chengdu, formerly romanized as Chengtu, is a sub-provincial city which serves as the capital of Sichuan province, People's Republic of China. It is one of the three most populous cities in Western China, the other two being Chongqing and Xi'an. As of 2014, the administrative area housed 14,427,500 inhabitants, with an urban population of 10,152,632. At the time of the 2010 census, Chengdu was the 5th-most populous agglomeration in China, with 10,484,996 inhabitants in the built-up area including Xinjin County and Deyang's Guanghan City. Chengdu is also considered a World City with a "Beta +" classification according to the Globalization and World Cities Research Network.

In 1653, Sichuan was placed under the jurisdiction of the Viceroy of the Three Borders in Shaanxi, which was subsequently renamed "Viceroy of Chuan and the Three Borders in Shaanxi" (川陝三邊總督) with Meng Qiaofang (孟喬芳) as the officeholder. In 1656, the office was divided into two separate Viceroys for Shaanxi and Sichuan. The Viceroy of Sichuan was based in Chongqing. In 1661, the Viceroy of Sichuan relocated its headquarters to Hanzhong.

Viceroy of Shaan-Gan

The Viceroy of Shaan-Gan, fully referred to in Chinese as the Governor-General of Shaanxi and Gansu Provinces and the Surrounding Areas; Overseeing Military Affairs and Food Production, Manager of Waterways, Director of Civil Affairs, was one of eight regional viceroys in China proper during the Qing dynasty. The Viceroy of Shaan-Gan had jurisdiction over Shaanxi and Gansu provinces, as well as western Inner Mongolia.

Chongqing Municipality in Peoples Republic of China

Chongqing, formerly romanized as Chungking, is a major city in southwest China. Administratively, it is one of China's four municipalities under the direct administration of central government, and the only such municipality in China located far away from the coast.

Hanzhong Prefecture-level city in Shaanxi, Peoples Republic of China

Hanzhong is a prefecture-level city in the southwest of Shaanxi province, China, bordering the provinces of Sichuan to the south and Gansu to the west.

In 1668, during the reign of the Kangxi Emperor, the Viceroy of Huguang was abolished and merged into the Viceroy of Sichuan, which was then renamed "Viceroy of Chuan-Hu" (川湖總督) and based in Jingzhou. In 1670, the Viceroy of Chuan-Hu relocated to Chongqing. Four years later, the Viceroy of Chuan-Hu reverted to pre-1668, separating into the Viceroy of Huguang and Viceroy of Sichuan. In 1680, the Kangxi Emperor merged the Viceroy of Sichuan with the Viceroy of Shaanxi under the "Viceroy of Chuan-Shaan" (川陝總督), with its headquarters in Xi'an. In 1718, a separate Viceroy was created for Sichuan, so the Viceroy of Chuan-Shaan stopped managing Sichuan. However, these changes were reversed in 1721.

Kangxi Emperor fourth emperor of the Qing Dynasty

The Kangxi Emperor, personal name Xuanye, was the fourth emperor of the Qing dynasty, and the second Qing emperor to rule over China proper, from 1661 to 1722.

Jingzhou Prefecture-level city in Hubei, Peoples Republic of China

Jingzhou is a prefecture-level city in southern Hubei, China, located on the banks of the Yangtze River. Based on the 2010 census, its total population was 5,691,707, 1,154,086 of whom resided in the built-up area comprising the two urban districts.

Xian Prefecture-level & Sub-provincial city in Shaanxi, Peoples Republic of China

Xi'an is the capital of Shaanxi Province, China. A sub-provincial city on the Guanzhong Plain in northwestern China, it is one of the oldest cities in China, and the oldest of the Four Great Ancient Capitals, having held the position under several of the most important dynasties in Chinese history, including Western Zhou, Qin, Western Han, Sui, and Tang. Xi'an is the starting point of the Silk Road and home to the Terracotta Army of Emperor Qin Shi Huang.

In 1731, the Yongzheng Emperor split the Viceroy of Chuan-Shaan into the Viceroy of Sichuan and Viceroy of Shaan-Gan, with the latter headquartered in Chengdu.

Yongzheng Emperor Qing Dynasty emperor

The Yongzheng Emperor, born Yinzhen, was the fifth emperor of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty and the third Qing emperor to rule over China proper. He reigned from 1723 to 1735. A hard-working ruler, the Yongzheng Emperor's main goal was to create an effective government at minimal expense. Like his father, the Kangxi Emperor, the Yongzheng Emperor used military force to preserve the dynasty's position. His reign was known for being despotic, efficient, and vigorous.

In 1736, the Qianlong Emperor abolished the Viceroy of Sichuan and recreated the office of Viceroy of Chuan-Shaan. In 1748, during the campaign against the Jinchuan hill peoples in Sichuan, the Qianlong Emperor split the Viceroy of Chuan-Shaan into the Viceroy of Sichuan and Viceroy of Shaan-Gan. He merged the two Viceroys in 1759 but reversed the changes in the following year. The system had remained as such until the end of the Qing dynasty.

Qianlong Emperor emperor of the Qing Dynasty

The Qianlong Emperor was the sixth emperor of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty, and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China proper. Born Hongli, the fourth son of the Yongzheng Emperor, he reigned officially from 11 October 1735 to 8 February 1796. On 8 February, he abdicated in favour of his son, the Jiaqing Emperor—a filial act in order not to reign longer than his grandfather, the illustrious Kangxi Emperor. Despite his retirement, however, he retained ultimate power as the Emperor Emeritus until his death in 1799; he thus was one of the longest-reigning de facto rulers in the history of the world, and dying at the age of 87, one of the longest-lived. As a capable and cultured ruler inheriting a thriving empire, during his long reign the Qing Empire reached its most splendid and prosperous era, boasting a large population and economy. As a military leader, he led military campaigns expanding the dynastic territory to the largest extent by conquering and sometimes destroying Central Asian kingdoms. This turned around in his late years: the Qing empire began to decline with corruption and wastefulness in his court and a stagnating civil society.

List of Viceroys of Sichuan

#NamePortraitStart of termEnd of termNotes
Viceroy of Huguang-Sichuan
(1645–1652)
1 Luo Xiujin
羅繡錦
16451652
Viceroy of Chuan-Shaan and the Three Borders
(1653–1656)
2 Meng Qiaofang
孟喬芳
16531654
3 Jin Li
金礪
16541656
Viceroy of Chuan-Shaan
(1656–1661)
4 Jin Li
金礪
16561656
5 Ma Zhixian
馬之先
16561657
6 Li Guoying
李國英
16571661
Viceroy of Sichuan
(1661–1667)
7 Li Guoying
李國英
16611666
8 Miao Cheng
苗澄
16661667
Viceroy of Chuan-Hu
(1668–1674)
9 Liu Zhaoqi
劉兆麒
16681669
10 Cai Yurong
蔡毓榮
16701682Stopped administering Sichuan in 1674
Viceroy of Sichuan
(1674–1680)
11 Zhou Youde
周有德
Zhou Youde.jpg 16741674
12 Yang Maoxun
楊茂勛
16791680
Viceroy of Shan-Shaan
(1680–1718)
13 Hajan
哈占
16801683
14 Hife
禧佛
16831686
15 Tuna
圖納
16861688
16 Gesitai
葛思泰
16881692
17 Foron
佛倫
16921694
18 Wuhe
吳赫
16941699
Silda
席爾達
16991701Acting Viceroy
19 Gioro-Huaxian
覺羅華顯
17011704
20 Boji
博霽
17041708
21 Cišiu
齊世武
17081709
22 Yin Tai
殷泰
17091713
23 Ehai
鄂海
17131718
Viceroy of Sichuan
(1718–1721)
24 Nian Gengyao
年羹堯
Nian Geng Yao .jpg 17181721
Viceroy of Chuan-Shaan
(1721–1731)
25 Nian Gengyao
年羹堯
Nian Geng Yao .jpg 17211725
26 Yue Zhongqi
岳鍾琪
17251729
27 Jalangga
查郎阿
17291731
Viceroy of Sichuan
(1731–1735)
28 Huang Tinggui
黃廷桂
17311735
Viceroy of Chuan-Shaan
(1736–1748)
29 Jalangga
查郎阿
17361738
Liu Yuyi
劉於義
17361737Acting Viceroy
30 Omida
鄂彌達
17381740
31 Yengišan
尹繼善
Yin Ji Shan .jpg 17401742
32 Martai
馬爾泰
17421743Acting Viceroy
33 Qingfu
慶復
17431747
34 Zhang Guangsi
張廣泗
17471748
Huang Tinggui
黃廷桂
1747Acting Viceroy
Furdan
傅爾丹
1748Acting Viceroy
35 Fuheng
傅恆
Qing General Fu Heng.jpg 1748Acting Viceroy
36 Ts'ereng
策楞
1748
Yengišan
尹繼善
Yin Ji Shan .jpg 1748Acting Viceroy
Viceroy of Sichuan
(1748–1759)
37 Ts'ereng
策楞
17481753
38 Huang Tinggui
黃廷桂
17531755
39 Kaitai
開泰
17551759
Viceroy of Chuan-Shaan
(1759–1760)
40 Kaitai
開泰
17591760
Viceroy of Sichuan
(1760–1911)
41 Kaitai
開泰
17601763
42 Obi
鄂弼
17631763
43 Artai
阿爾泰
17631770
Agui
阿桂
Agui.jpg 17641764Acting Viceroy
44 Defu
德福
17701771
45 Artai
阿爾泰
17711771
46 Wenshou
文綬
17711771
47 Guilin
桂林
17711772
48 Artai
阿爾泰
17721772
49 Wenshou
文綬
17721772
50 Liu Bingtian
劉秉恬
17721773
Fulehun
富勒渾
17721772Acting Viceroy
51 Fulehun
富勒渾
17731776
52 Wenshou
文綬
17761781
53 Fuk'anggan
福康安
Fuk'anggan.jpg 17811783
54 Li Shijie
李世傑
17831787
55 Baoning
保寧
17861787
56 Li Shijie
李世傑
17871789
57 Sun Shiyi
孫士毅
Sun Shiyi.jpg 17891790
58 Ohūi
鄂輝
E Hui .jpg 17901791
59 Xianling
憲齡
17911793
60 Fuk'anggan
福康安
Fuk'anggan.jpg 17931794
61 Heliyen
和琳
17941796
Sun Shiyi
孫士毅
Sun Shiyi.jpg 17961796Acting Viceroy
62 Funing
福寧
17961797
63 Lebao
勒保
17981799
64 Kuilun
魁倫
17991800
65 Lebao
勒保
18001810
66 Changming
常明
18101817
Li Luanyi
李鑾宜
18171817Acting Viceroy
Dening'a
德寧阿
18171817Acting Viceroy
67 Jiang Youxian
蔣攸銛
18171822
68 Chen Ruolin
陳若霖
Chen Ruo Lin .jpg 18221823
69 Dai Sanxi
戴三錫
18231829
70 Qishan
琦善
18291831
71 Ošan
鄂山
18311838
72 Gioro-Baoxing
覺羅寶興
18391846
73 Qishan
琦善
18461849
74 Xu Zechun
徐澤醇
18491852
75 Huicheng
慧成
18521853
76 Yurui
裕瑞
18531854
77 Huang Zonghan
黃宗漢
18541856
78 Wu Zhenyu
吳振棫
18561857
79 Wang Qingyun
王慶雲
18571859
80 Huang Zonghan
黃宗漢
18591859
81 Zeng Wangyan
曾望顏
18591860
82 Chongshi
崇實
18601861
83 Luo Bingzhang
駱秉章
Luo Bingzhang.png 18611867
84 Wu Tang
吳棠
18671875
Wenge
文格
18751875Acting Viceroy
85 Li Hanzhang
李瀚章
18751876
86 Ding Baozhen
丁寶楨
Ding Baozhen.jpg 18761886
87 Liu Bingzhang
劉秉璋
Liu Bingzhang.jpg 18861894
88 Tan Zhonglin
譚鍾麟
Tan Zhonglin.jpg 18941895
89 Lu Chuanlin
鹿傳霖
Lu Chuanlin.jpg 18951897
Gongshou
恭壽
18971898Acting Viceroy
90 Li Bingheng
李秉衡
18971897Never assumed office
91 Yulu
裕祿
Yulu.jpg 18971898
92 Kuijun
奎俊
18981902
Cen Chunxuan
岑春煊
Cen Chunxuan (1).jpg 19021903Acting Viceroy
93 Xiliang
錫良
His Excellency Hsi Liang, Viceroy of Manchuria, Manchuria, 1882-ca. 1936 (imp-cswc-GB-237-CSWC47-LS8-046).jpg 19031907
Zhao Erfeng
趙爾豐
P.16c Chao Erh-feng.jpg 19071907Acting Viceroy
94 Zhao Erxun
趙爾巽
Zhao Erxun.jpg 19071907Never assumed office
95 Chen Kuilong
陳夔龍
Chen Kuilong.jpg 19071908
96 Zhao Erxun
趙爾巽
Zhao Erxun.jpg 19081911
Zhao Erfeng
趙爾豐
P.16c Chao Erh-feng.jpg 19111911Acting Viceroy
Cen Chunxuan
岑春煊
Cen Chunxuan (1).jpg 19111911Acting Viceroy; never assumed office
97 Duanfang
端方
Duan Fang.jpg 19111911Assassinated in office

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