Viceroy of Liangjiang

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Map of viceroys in Qing Dynasty of China Qing viceroys.png
Map of viceroys in Qing Dynasty of China
Viceroy of Liangjiang
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese 兩江總督
Simplified Chinese 两江总督
Governor-General of the Two Yangtze Provinces and Surrounding Areas Overseeing Military Affairs, Provisions and Funds, Manager of Waterways, Director of Civil Affairs
(full title)
Traditional Chinese 總督兩江等處地方,提督軍務、糧餉、管理河道兼巡撫事
Simplified Chinese 总督两江等处地方,提督军务、粮饷、管理河道兼巡抚事
Manchu name
Manchu script ᡤᡳᠶᠠᠩᠨᠠᠨ
ᡤᡳᠶᠠᠩᠰᡳ
ᡠᡥᡝᡵᡳ
ᡴᠠᡩᠠᠯᠠᡵᠠ
ᠠᠮᠪᠠᠨ
Romanization giyangnan giyangsi uheri kadalara amban

The Viceroy of Liangjiang or Viceroy of the Two Jiangs, fully referred to in Chinese as the Governor-General of the Two Yangtze Provinces and Surrounding Areas Overseeing Military Affairs, Provisions and Funds, Manager of Waterways, Director of Civil Affairs, was one of eight regional Viceroys in China proper during the Qing dynasty. The Viceroy of Liangjiang had jurisdiction over Jiangsu, Jiangxi and Anhui provinces. Because Jiangsu and Anhui were previously part of a single province, Jiangnan ("south of the Yangtze"), they were thus known, along with Jiangxi ("west of the Yangtze"), as the two jiangs, hence the name "Liangjiang" ("two Jiangs").

Contents

History

The office of Viceroy of Liangjiang originated in 1647 during the reign of the Shunzhi Emperor. It was called "Viceroy of the Three Provinces of Jiangdong, Jiangxi and Henan" (江東江西河南三省總督) and headquartered in Jiangning (江寧; present-day Nanjing, Jiangsu). In 1652, the office was renamed "Viceroy of Jiangxi" (江西總督) and its headquarters shifted to Nanchang for a short while before the old system was restored.

During the reign of the Kangxi Emperor, in 1661 and 1674, two separate Viceroy offices were created for Jiangdong and Jiangxi, but they were merged under the Viceroy of Liangjiang later in 1665 and 1682 respectively. The office's name had remained as "Viceroy of Liangjiang" since then.

In 1723, the Yongzheng Emperor ordered that the Viceroy of Liangjiang would concurrently hold the appointments of Secretary of War (兵部尚書) and Right Censor-in-Chief (右都御史) of the Detection Branch (都察院) in the Censorate.

In 1831, the Daoguang Emperor put the Viceroy of Liangjiang in charge of the salt trade in the Huai River area.

During the reign of the Xianfeng Emperor, the Taiping rebels captured Jiangning (江寧; present-day Nanjing, Jiangsu) and designated it as their capital. The headquarters of the Viceroy of Liangjiang constantly shifted across different locations, including Yangzhou, Changzhou, Shanghai, Suzhou and Anqing.

In 1866, during the reign of the Tongzhi Emperor, the Viceroy of Liangjiang was also put in charge of trade and commerce in the five treaty ports. He also concurrently held the appointment of "Nanyang Trade Minister" (南洋通商大臣); cf. "Beiyang Trade Minister" (北洋通商大臣) held by the Viceroy of Zhili.

After the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1912, the former headquarters of the Viceroy of Liangjiang in Nanjing was converted into a Presidential Palace for the President of the Republic of China until 1949.

List of Viceroys of Liangjiang

#NamePortraitStart of termEnd of termNotes
Viceroy of Jiangnan, Jiangxi and Henan
(1647–1649)
1 Ma Guozhu
馬國柱
19 August 164730 September 1649
Viceroy of Liangjiang
(1649–1661)
2 Ma Guozhu
馬國柱
30 September 164930 October 1654Left office due to illness
3 Ma Mingpei
馬鳴佩
November 165423 June 1656Left office due to illness
4 Lang Tingzuo
郎廷佐
3 July 16562 November 1661
Viceroy of Jiangnan
(1661–1665)
5 Lang Tingzuo
郎廷佐
2 November 16614 July 1665
Viceroy of Jiangxi
(1661–1665)
5 Zhang Chaolin
張朝璘
2 November 16614 July 1665
Viceroy of Liangjiang
(1665–1911)
6 Lang Tingzuo
郎廷佐
4 July 166517 December 1668Left office due to illness
7 Maleji
麻勒吉
10 January 16695 July 1673Demoted by two grades and reassigned elsewhere
8 Asihi
阿席熙
29 July 1673January 1682Demoted
9 Yu Chenglong
于成龍
Portrait of Yu Chenglong.jpg 1 February 168224 June 1684Died in office
10 Wang Xinming
王新命
1 July 168418 April 1687Reassigned to serve as the Viceroy of Min-Zhe
11 Dong Ne
董訥
22 April 168724 April 1688Demoted by five grades and reassigned elsewhere
12 Fulata
傅拉塔
5 May 168822 July 1694Died in office
13 Fan Chengxun
范承勳
10 August 169415 November 1698Left office for filial mourning
14 Zhang Penghe
張鵬翮
23 December 169828 April 1700Reassigned to serve as the Viceroy of Caoyun
Taodai
陶岱
30 May 1699Stand-in as the Right Vice Secretary of Personnel
Taodai
陶岱
28 April 170027 June 1700Stand-in as the Secretary of Justice
15 Ašan
阿山
1 July 170024 December 1706
16 Shaomubu
邵穆布
31 December 1706August 1709
17 Gali
噶禮
27 August 170910 March 1712Relieved of his appointment
Lang Tingji
郎廷極
10 March 171214 November 1712Stand-in as the Provincial Governor of Jiangxi
18 Heshou
赫壽
14 November 171222 May 1717Promoted to Secretary of the Board for the Administration of Outlying Regions
19 Changnai
長鼐
30 May 1717November 1722Died in office
20 Cabina
查弼納
27 November 172218 May 1726Recalled to the imperial capital
Fan Shiyi
范時繹
18 May 172612 May 1730Stand-in as the zongbing of Malan Town
Shi Yizhi
史貽直
12 May 1730Stand-in as the Left Vice Secretary of Personnel
21 Gao Qizhuo
高其倬
Gao Qi Zhuo .jpg 20 June 17308 August 1731Stand-in as the Viceroy of Yun-Guang
Yengišan
Yin Ji Shan .jpg 8 August 173124 October 1732Stand-in as the Provincial Governor of Jiangsu
Wei Tingzhen
魏廷珍
24 October 173223 February 1733Stand-in as the Viceroy of Caoyun
22 Gao Qizhuo
高其倬
Gao Qi Zhuo .jpg 23 February 17338 October 1733Recalled back to the imperial capital
Zhao Hong'en
趙宏恩
8 October 173318 June 1734Stand-in as the Provincial Governor of Hunan
23 Zhao Hong'en
趙宏恩
18 June 173410 February 1737Recalled to the imperial capital
24 Qingfu
慶復
10 February 17374 November 1737Reassigned to serve as the Viceroy of Yun-Gui
25 Nasutu
那蘇圖
4 November 17375 December 1739Left office for filial mourning
26 Hao Yulin
郝玉麟
5 December 173918 June 1740Relieved of his appointment
Yang Chaozeng
楊超曾
18 June 174026 September 1741Stand-in as Secretary of War
27 Nasutu
那蘇圖
26 September 17419 May 1742Reassigned to serve as the Viceroy of Min-Zhe
28 Depei
德沛
9 May 174211 March 1743Recalled to the imperial capital
29 Yengišan
尹繼善
Yin Ji Shan .jpg 11 March 174328 October 1748
30 Ts'ereng
策楞
28 October 174811 January 1749Reassigned to serve as the Viceroy of Chuan-Shaan
Yarhašan
雅爾哈善
11 January 174925 January 1749Stand-in
31 Huang Tinggui
黃廷桂
25 January 174925 July 1751Reassigned to serve as the Viceroy of Shaan-Gan
32 Yengišan
尹繼善
Yin Ji Shan .jpg 25 July 175116 October 1753
Zhuang Yougong
莊有恭
Zhuang You Gong .jpg 11 November 1752Stand-in as Provincial Governor of Jiangsu
Erong'an
鄂容安
24 February 175316 October 1753Stand-in as Provincial Governor of Jiangxi
33 Erong'an
鄂容安
16 October 17531755Killed in battle
Yengišan
尹繼善
Yin Ji Shan .jpg 26 September 175429 November 1756Stand-in as Viceroy of Southern Rivers
34 Yengišan
尹繼善
Yin Ji Shan .jpg 29 November 17569 May 1765Reassigned to the Imperial Cabinet
35 Gao Jin
高晉
9 May 176525 February 1779Died in office
36 Sazai
薩載
25 February 177921 September 1780Left office for filial mourning
37 Chen Huizu
陳輝祖
21 September 1780January 1781
Sazai
薩載
January 178117 February 1783Acting Viceroy of Liangjiang
38 Sazai
薩載
17 February 178310 April 1786Died in office
39 Li Shijie
李世傑
10 April 178630 December 1787Reassigned to serve as the Viceroy of Sichuan
Min Eyuan
閔鶚元
11 April 1786Stand-in as the Provincial Governor of Jiangsu
40 Shulin
書麟
11 April 178611 July 1790Dismissed from office
Fusong
福崧
11 July 1790Stand-in as the Provincial Governor of Jiangsu
41 Sun Shiyi
孫士毅
Sun Shiyi.jpg 14 July 179025 May 1791Promoted to Secretary of Personnel
Changlin
長麟
25 May 1791Stand-in as Provincial Governor of Jiangsu
42 Shulin
書麟
25 May 179114 August 1794Dismissed from office
43 Fugang
富綱
14 August 179423 January 1795Demoted
Suringga
蘇凌阿
14 August 1794Stand-in as Secretary of Justice
44 Funing
福寧
23 January 17952 August 1796Reassigned to serve as the Viceroy of Sichuan
Suringga
蘇凌阿
2 August 17966 November 1797Stand-in as Secretary of Justice
45 Li Fenghan
李奉翰
6 November 179718 March 1799Died in office
46 Fei Chun
費淳
18 March 179912 August 1803Reassigned to serve as Secretary of War
47 Chen Dawen
陳大文
12 August 180325 February 1805Reassigned to serve as Left Censor-in-Chief
48 Tiebao
鐵保
Tie Bao .jpg 25 February 180524 August 1809Dismissed from office
49 Alinbao
阿林保
24 August 180911 January 1810Died in office
50 Songyun
松筠
11 January 181026 February 1811Reassigned to serve as the Viceroy of Liangguang
51 Lebao
勒保
26 February 181127 July 1811Recalled back to the imperial capital
52 Bailing
百齡
27 July 181125 December 1816
Songyun
松筠
1 December 1816Stand-in as Grand Secretary
53 Sun Yuting
孫玉庭
25 December 18169 September 1824Promoted to Grand Secretary of Tiren Cabinet (體仁閣大學士)
54 Wei Yuanyu
魏元煜
28 January 18257 July 1825Reassigned to serve as Viceroy of Caoyun
55 Qishan
琦善
7 July 18255 June 1827Dismissed from office
Jiang Youxian
蔣攸銛
19 April 18275 June 1827Stand-in as Grand Secretary of Tiren Cabinet (體仁閣大學士)
56 Jiang Youxian
蔣攸銛
5 June 182711 October 1830Recalled to the imperial capital
Tao Zhu
陶澍
Tao Shu .jpg 24 July 183011 October 1830Stand-in as Provincial Governor of Jiangsu
57 Tao Zhu
陶澍
Tao Shu .jpg 11 October 183022 April 1839Left office due to illness
58 Lin Zexu
林則徐
Commissioner Lin 2.png 22 April 1839Reassigned to serve as Viceroy of Liangguang before he assumed office
Chen Luan
陳鑾
22 April 18395 January 1840Stand-in as Provincial Governor of Jiangsu
59 Deng Tingzhen
鄧廷楨
Deng Tingzhen.png 5 January 1840Reassigned to serve as Viceroy of Yun-Gui before he assumed office
60 Ilibu
伊里布
21 January 18403 May 1841Recalled to the imperial capital
Linqing
麟慶
21 January 1840Stand-in as Viceroy of Caoyun
Yuqian
裕謙
6 August 184010 February 1841Stand-in as Provincial Governor of Jiangsu
61 Yuqian
裕謙
3 May 184122 October 1841Died in office
Niu Jian
牛鑑
19 October 184117 October 1842Stand-in as Provincial Governor of Henan
62 Qiying
耆英
Portrait of Keying.jpeg 17 October 184219 March 1844
Bichang
璧昌
6 April 18431 December 1843Stand-in as General of Fuzhou
Sun Shanbao
孫善寶
6 April 18431 December 1843Stand-in as Provincial Governor of Jiangsu
Bichang
璧昌
19 March 184421 January 1845Stand-in as General of Fuzhou
Sun Shanbao
孫善寶
19 March 184421 January 1845Stand-in as Provincial Governor of Jiangsu
63 Bichang
璧昌
21 January 184530 April 1847Promoted to Interior Minister
Lu Jianying
陸建瀛
8 March 184730 April 1847Stand-in as Provincial Governor of Jiangsu
64 Li Xingyuan
李星沅
Li Xing Yuan .jpg 30 April 184726 April 1849Left office due to illness
65 Lu Jianying
陸建瀛
26 April 18496 March 1853Dismissed from office
Xianghou
祥厚
6 March 185331 March 1853Stand-in as General of Jiangning
Yang Wending
楊文定
31 March 185327 May 1853Stand-in as Provincial Governor of Jiangsu
66 Yiliang
怡良
27 March 18535 May 1857
Zhao Dezhe
趙德轍
5 May 1857Stand-in as Provincial Governor of Jiangsu
He Guiqing
何桂清
5 May 185726 July 1857Stand-in as former Provincial Governor of Zhejiang
67 He Guiqing
何桂清
26 July 18578 June 1860Dismissed from office
Zeng Guofan
曾國藩
Zeng Guofan.png 8 June 186010 August 1860Stand-in as former Vice Secretary of War
Xu Youren
徐有壬
Xu Youren.jpg 8 June 186018 June 1860Stand-in as Provincial Governor of Jiangsu; killed in battle
Xue Huan
薛煥
18 June 1860Stand-in as Lieutenant-Governor of Jiangsu
68 Zeng Guofan
曾國藩
Zeng Guofan.png 10 August 18606 September 1868Reassigned to serve as Viceroy of Zhili
Li Hongzhang
李鴻章
Li Hung Chang in 1896.jpg 23 May 18657 December 1866Stand-in as Provincial Governor of Jiangsu
69 Ma Xinyi
馬新貽
6 September 186829 August 1870Assassinated in office
Kuiyu
魁玉
29 August 1870Stand-in as General of Jiangning
70 Zeng Guofan
曾國藩
Zeng Guofan.png 29 August 187020 March 1872Died in office
He Jing
何璟
20 March 187225 November 1872Stand-in as Provincial Governor of Jiangsu
Zhang Shusheng
張樹聲
25 November 18723 February 1873Stand-in as Provincial Governor of Jiangsu
71 Li Zongxi
李宗羲
3 February 187312 January 1875Left office due to illness
Liu Kunyi
劉坤一
Liu Kunyi LOC ggbain 03677.jpg 12 January 18751 September 1875Stand-in as Provincial Governor of Jiangxi
72 Shen Baozhen
沈葆楨
Sing Bo-ting2.jpg 30 May 187526 December 1879Died in office
Wu Yuanbing
吳元炳
28 March 1878Stand-in as Provincial Governor of Jiangsu
Wu Yuanbing
吳元炳
26 December 1879July 1880Stand-in as Provincial Governor of Jiangsu
73 Liu Kunyi
劉坤一
Liu Kunyi LOC ggbain 03677.jpg 27 December 187922 August 1881Recalled to the imperial capital
74 Peng Yulin
彭玉麟
22 August 188128 October 1881Dismissed from office
75 Zuo Zongtang
左宗棠
Zuo Zongtang2.jpg 28 October 18818 February 1884Left office due to illness
Yulu
裕祿
Yulu.jpg 8 February 1884Stand-in as Provincial Governor of Anhui; never assumed office
Zeng Guoquan
曾國荃
Ping Ding Yue Fei Gong Chen Xiang -Ceng Guo Quan Xiang .jpg 16 February 18846 September 1887Stand-in as Secretary of Rites
Yulu
裕祿
Yulu.jpg 6 September 1887October 1887Stand-in as Viceroy of Huguang
Zeng Guoquan
曾國荃
Ping Ding Yue Fei Gong Chen Xiang -Ceng Guo Quan Xiang .jpg October 188722 November 1890Acting Viceroy of Liangjiang
Shen Bingcheng
沈秉成
22 November 1890Stand-in as Provincial Governor of Anhui
76 Liu Kunyi
劉坤一
Liu Kunyi LOC ggbain 03677.jpg 22 November 18907 October 1902Died in office
Zhang Zhidong
張之洞
Zhang Zhi Dong Zhao Fu Zhao .jpg 2 November 18942 January 1896Stand-in as Viceroy of Huguang
Lu Chuanlin
鹿傳霖
Lu Chuanlin.jpg 24 December 18993 May 1900Stand-in as Provincial Governor of Jiangsu
Li Youfen
李有棻
7 October 1902Stand-in as Lieutenant-Governor of Jiangning
Zhang Zhidong
張之洞
Zhang Zhi Dong Zhao Fu Zhao .jpg 7 October 190220 March 1903Stand-in as Viceroy of Huguang
77 Wei Guangtao
魏光燾
Wei Guangtao.jpg 5 December 19021 September 1904Reassigned to serve as Viceroy of Min-Zhe
78 Li Xingrui
李興銳
1 September 190431 October 1904Died in office
79 Zhou Fu
周馥
31 October 19042 September 1906Reassigned to serve as the Viceroy of Min-Zhe
Duanfang
端方
Duan Fang.jpg 31 October 19042 September 1906Stand-in as Provincial Governor of Jiangsu
80 Duanfang
端方
Duan Fang.jpg 2 September 190628 June 1909Reassigned to serve as Viceroy of Zhili
Fan Zengxiang
樊增祥
Fan Zeng Xiang .jpg 28 June 1909Stand-in as Lieutenant-Governor of Jiangning
81 Zhang Renjun
張人駿
Zhang Renjun.jpg 28 June 190923 January 1912Dismissed from office
Zhang Xun
張勳
Zhangxun.jpg 23 January 1912Stand-in as Provincial Military Commander of Jiangnan

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