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Numerous rebellions against China's Qing Dynasty took place between mid-19th and early 20th centuries, prior to the abdication of the last Emperor of China, Puyi, in February 1912. The table below lists some of these uprisings and important related events.
Red Turban rebels
Small Swords Society
20 years and 8 months (maximum)
Taiping Heavenly Kingdom
Red Turban rebels
|1850–1864||The Taiping Rebellion, led by the heterodox Christian convert Hong Xiuquan, sees southern China descend into civil war. The rebellion later becomes an inspiration to Sun Yat-sen, the leader of the 1911 Revolution.|
|1851–1868||The Nian Rebellion, revolt in Northern China|
|1861–1895||The Self-Strengthening Movement seeks institutional reform – members of China's elite seek to modernise the nation.|
|1890s||More intellectuals and members of the elite, mostly students studying abroad, vow to overthrow the Manchu Qing Dynasty and build a republic.|
|1892||Yeung Ku-wan, together with Tse Tsan-tai and others, start the Furen Literary Society in Hong Kong.|
|1894||Sun Yat-sen founds the Revive China Society (Xingzhonghui) in Honolulu, Hawaii.|
|1895||China is defeated in the First Sino-Japanese War, revealing the severe weaknesses of the Qing state, and the power of the modernised Japanese Empire.|
|1895||The Furen Literary Society is merged into the Hong Kong chapter of the Revive China Society, with Yeung Ku-wan as President and Sun Yat-sen as Secretary.|
|1895||The Gongche Shangshu movement – a petition of civil service candidates – becomes the first modern Chinese political movement, with intellectuals and members of the elite petitioning the Qing government for political reform. The leaders of the movement become the key figures of the Hundred Days' Reform.|
|1895||The abortive First Guangzhou uprising is organised by the Hong Kong chapter of the Revive China Society. Sun Yat-sen and Yeung Ku-wan are forced to leave China and Hong Kong, respectively.|
|1898||The Hundred Days' Reform sees the young Guangxu Emperor initiate 103 days of reform, which are ended by conservative opponents led by Empress Dowager Cixi. Many reformers are forced to leave the country.|
|1898||The Boxer Rebellion highlights hostility to foreigners and domestic political frustration. The movement targets foreign concessions and missionaries in China.|
|Early 1900s||The Revive China Society and other revolutionary groups stage abortive coups across the country, including the Huizhou uprising in 1900, the Ping-liu-li uprising in 1906, and the Huanggang uprising in 1907. Japan becomes the most popular destination for Chinese students, as revolutionary sentiments spread.|
|1901||Yeung Kui-wan is assassinated and buried in an unnamed tomb in Hong Kong.|
|1905||Sun Yat-sen and Song Jiaoren found the Tongmenghui, an alliance of many Chinese revolutionary groups, in Tokyo. Its oath is "To expel Tartar barbarians and to revive China, to establish a republic, and to distribute land equally among the people".|
|1911||The Railway Protection Movement begins in response to public anger over the sale, by the Qing government, of railway construction rights to foreigners. Violence spreads to Sichuan, Shaanxi and Hunan. The Qing government mobilises trops to put down unrest in Hubei.|
|April 27, 1911||Second Guangzhou Uprising or the Yellow Flower Mound revolt, is led by Huang Xing, the Tong Meng Hui leader. Over a hundred revolutionaries force their way into the residence of the viceroy of Guangdong and Guangxi provinces. The revolt ends in a catastrophic defeat, and most of the revolutionaries are killed.|
|October 10, 1911||Revolutionary groups organise the Wuchang Uprising in the Hubei city of Wuchang. This serves as the catalyst for the Xinhai Revolution and the establishment of the Republic of China.|
|January 1, 1912||Sun Yat-sen announces the establishment of the Republic of China in Nanking, and is inaugurated as the provisional president of the republic.|
|February 12, 1912||The last Qing emperor, Puyi, abdicates.|
|February 14, 1912||Yuan Shikai is elected provisional president of the Republic of China by the provisional Nanjing senate and on March 10, in Peking (Beijing), is sworn in.|
The Taiping Rebellion, also known as the Taiping Civil War or the Taiping Revolution, was a massive rebellion or civil war that was waged in China from 1850 to 1864, between the established Qing dynasty and the theocratic Taiping Heavenly Kingdom – though following the fall of Nanjing the last rebel army was not wiped out until 1871. After fighting the bloodiest civil war in world history, with 20 to 30 million dead, the established Qing government won decisively, although the outcome is considered a pyrrhic victory.
Hong Xiuquan, born Hong Huoxiu and with the courtesy name Renkun, was a Hakka Chinese revolutionary who was the leader of the Taiping Rebellion against the Qing Dynasty. He established the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom over varying portions of southern China, with himself as the "Heavenly King" and self-proclaimed younger brother of Jesus Christ.
The Tongzhi Emperor, born Zaichun of the Aisin Gioro clan, was the ninth Emperor of the Qing dynasty, and the eighth Qing emperor to rule over China proper. His reign, from 1861 to 1875, which effectively lasted through his adolescence, was largely overshadowed by the rule of his mother, Empress Dowager Cixi. Although he had little influence over state affairs, the events of his reign gave rise to what historians call the "Tongzhi Restoration", an unsuccessful modernization program.
Zeng Guofan, Marquis Yiyong, birth name Zeng Zicheng, courtesy name Bohan, was a Chinese statesman, military general, and Confucian scholar of the late Qing dynasty. He is best known for raising and organizing the Xiang Army to aid the Qing military in suppressing the Taiping Rebellion and restoring the stability of the Qing Empire. Along with other prominent figures such as Zuo Zongtang and Li Hongzhang of his time, Zeng set the scene for the Tongzhi Restoration, an attempt to arrest the decline of the Qing dynasty. Zeng was known for his strategic perception, administrative skill and noble personality on Confucian practice, but also for his ruthlessness in repressing rebellions.
Zuo Zongtang, Marquis Kejing, sometimes referred to as General Tso, was a Chinese statesman and military leader of the late Qing dynasty.
The Dungan Revolt (1862–1877) or Tongzhi Hui Revolt or Hui (Muslim) Minorities War was a war fought in 19th-century western China, mostly during the reign of the Tongzhi Emperor of the Qing dynasty. The term sometimes includes the Panthay Rebellion in Yunnan, which occurred during the same period. However, this article relates specifically to the uprising by members of the Muslim Hui and other Muslim ethnic groups in China's Shaanxi, Gansu and Ningxia provinces, as well as in Xinjiang, between 1862 and 1877.
The Age of Revolution is a period from the late 18th to the mid-19th centuries in which a number of significant revolutionary movements occurred in most of Europe and the Americas. The period is noted for the change from absolutist monarchies to representative governments with a written constitution, and the creation of nation states.
Shi Dakai, born in Guigang, Guangxi, also known as Wing King or phonetically translated as Yi-Wang, was one of the most highly acclaimed leaders in the Taiping Rebellion and a poet.
The Ma clique or Ma family warlords is a collective name for a group of Hui warlords in Northwestern China who ruled the Chinese provinces of Qinghai, Gansu and Ningxia for 10 years from 1919 until 1928. Following the overthrow of the Qing dynasty in 1911, the region came under Chinese Muslim warlord Ma Qi's control until the Northern Expedition by the Republic of China consolidated central control in 1928. There were three families in the Ma clique, each of them respectively controlled 3 areas, Gansu, Qinghai, and Ningxia. The three most prominent members of the clique were Ma Bufang, Ma Hongkui, and Ma Hongbin, collectively known as the Xibei San Ma. Some contemporary accounts, such as Edgar Snow's, described the clique as the "Four Ma", adding Ma Bufang's brother Ma Buqing to the list of the top warlords. Other prominent Mas included Ma Anliang, Ma Qi, Ma Lin, Ma Hu-shan, and Ma Zhongying.
The First rout of the Jiangnan Battalion took place between 1853 and 1856 when the Qing government raised the Green Standard Army to fight against the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom. The action involved Qing forces surrounding the city of Nanking, the capital of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom.
Anti-Qing sentiment refers to a sentiment principally held in China against Manchu rule during the Qing dynasty (1636–1912), which was criticized by opponents as being barbaric. The Qing was accused of destroying traditional Han culture by forcing Han to wear their hair in a queue in the Manchu style. It was blamed for suppressing Chinese science, causing China to be transformed from the world's premiere power to a poor, backwards nation. The people of the Eight Banners lived off government pensions unlike the general Han civilian population.
The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, later shortened to Heavenly Kingdom or Heavenly Dynasty, was an unrecognized oppositional state in China and Chinese Christian theocratic absolute monarchy from 1851 to 1864, supporting the overthrow of the Qing dynasty by Hong Xiuquan and his followers. The unsuccessful war it waged against the Qing is known as the Taiping Rebellion. Its capital was at Tianjing.
The Panthay rebellion (1856–1873), known to Chinese as the Du Wenxiu Rebellion, was a rebellion of the Muslim Hui people and other ethnic groups against the Manchu rulers of the Qing dynasty in southwestern Yunnan Province, as part of a wave of Hui-led multi-ethnic unrest.
The God Worshipping Society was a religious movement founded and led by Hong Xiuquan which drew on his own unique interpretation of Christianity and combined it with Chinese folk religion, faith in Shangdi, and other religious traditions. According to historical evidence, his first contact with Christian pamphlets occurred in 1836 when he directly received American Congregationalist missionary Edwin Stevens' personal copy of the Good Words to Admonish the Age . He only briefly looked over and did not carefully examine it. Subsequently, Hong had supposedly experienced mystical visions in the wake of his third failure of the imperial examinations in 1837 and after failing for a fourth time in 1843, he sat down to carefully examine the tracts with his distant cousin Feng Yunshan, believing that they were "the key to interpreting his visions" coming to the conclusion that he was "the son of God the Father and the younger brother of Jesus Christ who had been directed to rid the world of demon worship."
In 1759, the Qing dynasty of China defeated the Dzungar Khanate and completed the conquest of Dzungaria. Concurrent with this conquest, the Qing occupied the Altishahr region of Eastern Turkestan which had been settled by the followers of the Muslim political and religious leader Afaq Khoja.
Hong Xuanjiao, was a Chinese female general and rebel leader during the Taiping Rebellion. She was the sister of the leader of Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, Hong Xiuquan. She acted as co-commander of the Taiping forces during the civil war against the Imperial forces of the Qing dynasty. Xuanjiao and her brother, Xiuquan, established the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom over varying portions of southern China with himself as the "Heavenly King" and self-proclaimed younger brother of Jesus Christ
Events from the year 1855 in China.