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Numerous rebellions against China's Qing dynasty took place between the mid-19th and early 20th centuries, prior to the abdication of the last Emperor of China, Puyi, in February 1912. The table below lists some of these uprisings and important related events.
|December 1850 – July 1864||Taiping Rebellion|| Qing China |
| Taiping Heavenly Kingdom |
Red Turban rebels
Small Swords Society
|10–30 million killed||13 years and 6 months (minimum)|
20 years and 8 months (maximum)
|1851 – 1868||Nian Rebellion||Qing China||Nian rebels |
Taiping Heavenly Kingdom
Red Turban rebels
|100,000+ killed||15 years|
1854 – 1873
4.9 million+ killed
1854 – 1856
Red Turban rebels
1855 – 1861
Hong Soldiers rebels
1856 – 1873
pro-Du Wenx forces
1862 – 1877
|1850–1864||The Taiping Rebellion, led by the heterodox Christian convert Hong Xiuquan, sees southern China descend into civil war. The rebellion later becomes an inspiration to Sun Yat-sen, the leader of the 1911 Revolution.|
|1851–1868||The Nian Rebellion, revolt in Northern China|
|1861–1895||The Self-Strengthening Movement seeks institutional reform – members of China's elite seek to modernise the nation.|
|1890s||More intellectuals and members of the elite, mostly students studying abroad, vow to overthrow the Manchu Qing Dynasty and build a republic.|
|1892||Yeung Ku-wan, together with Tse Tsan-tai and others, start the Furen Literary Society in Hong Kong.|
|1894||Sun Yat-sen founds the Revive China Society (Xingzhonghui) in Honolulu, Hawaii.|
|1895||China is defeated in the First Sino-Japanese War, revealing the severe weaknesses of the Qing state, and the power of the modernised Japanese Empire.|
|1895||The Furen Literary Society is merged into the Hong Kong chapter of the Revive China Society, with Yeung Ku-wan as president and Sun Yat-sen as Secretary.|
|1895||The Gongche Shangshu movement – a petition of civil service candidates – becomes the first modern Chinese political movement, with intellectuals and members of the elite petitioning the Qing government for political reform. The leaders of the movement become the key figures of the Hundred Days' Reform.|
|1895||The abortive First Guangzhou uprising is organised by the Hong Kong chapter of the Revive China Society. Sun Yat-sen and Yeung Ku-wan are forced to leave China and Hong Kong, respectively.|
|1898||The Hundred Days' Reform sees the young Guangxu Emperor initiate 103 days of reform, which are ended by conservative opponents led by Empress Dowager Cixi. Many reformers are forced to leave the country.|
|1898||The Boxer Rebellion highlights hostility to foreigners and domestic political frustration. The movement targets foreign concessions and missionaries in China.|
|Early 1900s||The Revive China Society and other revolutionary groups stage abortive coups across the country, including the Huizhou uprising in 1900, the Ping-liu-li uprising in 1906, and the Huanggang uprising in 1907. Japan becomes the most popular destination for Chinese students, as revolutionary sentiments spread.|
|1901||Yeung Kui-wan is assassinated and buried in an unnamed tomb in Hong Kong.|
|1905||Sun Yat-sen and Song Jiaoren found the Tongmenghui, an alliance of many Chinese revolutionary groups, in Tokyo. Its oath is "To expel Tartar barbarians and to revive China, to establish a republic, and to distribute land equally among the people".|
|1911||The Railway Protection Movement begins in response to public anger over the sale, by the Qing government, of railway construction rights to foreigners. Violence spreads to Sichuan, Shaanxi and Hunan. The Qing government mobilises troops to put down unrest in Hubei.|
|April 27, 1911||Second Guangzhou Uprising or the Yellow Flower Mound revolt, is led by Huang Xing, the Tong Meng Hui leader. Over a hundred revolutionaries force their way into the residence of the viceroy of Guangdong and Guangxi provinces. The revolt ends in a catastrophic defeat, and most of the revolutionaries are killed.|
|October 10, 1911||Revolutionary groups organise the Wuchang Uprising in the Hubei city of Wuchang. This serves as the catalyst for the Xinhai Revolution and the establishment of the Republic of China.|
|January 1, 1912||Sun Yat-sen announces the establishment of the Republic of China in Nanking, and is inaugurated as the provisional president of the republic.|
|February 12, 1912||The last Qing emperor, Puyi, abdicates.|
|February 14, 1912||Yuan Shikai is elected provisional president of the Republic of China by the provisional Nanjing senate and on March 10, in Peking (Beijing), is sworn in.|
The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing, was the Manchu-led last dynasty in the imperial history of China. It was proclaimed in 1636 in Manchuria, in 1644 entered Beijing, extended its rule to cover all of China proper, and then extended the empire into Inner Asia. The dynasty lasted until 1912. In orthodox Chinese historiography, the Qing dynasty was preceded by the Ming dynasty and succeeded by the Republic of China. The multiethnic Qing empire lasted for almost three centuries and assembled the territorial base for modern China. It was the largest Chinese dynasty and in 1790 the fourth-largest empire in world history in terms of territorial size. With a population of 432 million in 1912, it was the world's most populous country at the time.
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