Unequal treaty

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Selected list of treaties

Imposed on China

Unequal treaty
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese 不平等條約
Simplified Chinese 不平等条约
TreatyYearImposerImposed on
  English name   Chinese name 
Treaty of Nanking 南京條約1842Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom Flag of the Qing Dynasty (1889-1912).svg  Qing dynasty
Treaty of the Bogue 虎門條約1843Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Treaty of Wanghia 中美望廈條約1844Flag of the United States (1837-1845).svg  United States
Treaty of Whampoa 黃埔條約1844Flag of France (1794-1815, 1830-1958).svg France
Treaty of Canton 中瑞廣州條約1847Swedish civil ensign (1844-1905).svg Sweden-Norway
Treaty of Kulja 中俄伊犁塔爾巴哈臺通商章程1851Flag of The Russian Empire 1883.svg  Russia
Treaty of Aigun 璦琿條約1858Romanov Flag.svg  Russia
Treaty of Tientsin (1858) 天津條約1858Flag of France (1794-1815, 1830-1958).svg France
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Romanov Flag.svg  Russia
Flag of the United States (1858-1859).svg  United States
Convention of Peking 北京條約1860Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Flag of France (1794-1815, 1830-1958).svg France
Romanov Flag.svg  Russia
Treaty of Tientsin (1861) 中德通商条约1861Flag of the Kingdom of Prussia (1701-1750).svg  Prussia , also for Deutscher Zollverein
Chefoo Convention 煙臺條約1876Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Treaty of Livadia 里瓦幾亞條約1879Romanov Flag.svg  Russia
Treaty of Saint Petersburg 伊犁條約1881Romanov Flag.svg  Russia
Treaty of Tientsin (1885) 中法新約1885Flag of France (1794-1815, 1830-1958).svg France
Sino-Portuguese Treaty of Peking 中葡北京條約1887Flag Portugal (1830).svg  Portugal
Treaty of Shimonoseki (Treaty of Maguan) 馬關條約1895Merchant flag of Japan (1870).svg  Japan
Li–Lobanov Treaty 中俄密約1896Flag of The Russian Empire 1883.svg  Russia
Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory 展拓香港界址專條1898Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Treaty of Kwangchow Wan  [ fr ]廣州灣租界條約1899Flag of France (1794-1815, 1830-1958).svg France
Boxer Protocol 辛丑條約1901Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Flag of the United States (1896-1908).svg  United States
Merchant flag of Japan (1870).svg  Japan
Flag of The Russian Empire 1883.svg  Russia
Flag of France (1794-1815, 1830-1958).svg France
Flag of the German Empire.svg  Germany
Flag of Italy (1861-1946) crowned.svg  Italy
Flag of Austria-Hungary (1869-1918).svg Austria-Hungary
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium
Flag of Spain (1785-1873 and 1875-1931).svg  Spain
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands
Simla Accord 西姆拉條約1914Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom Flag of the Republic of China 1912-1928.svg  Republic of China
Twenty-One Demands 二十一條1915Merchant flag of Japan (1870).svg  Japan
Tanggu Truce 塘沽協定1933Merchant flag of Japan (1870).svg  Japan

Imposed on Japan

TreatyYearImposerImposed on
English nameJapanese name
Convention of Kanagawa 日米和親条約1854 [13] Flag of the United States (1851-1858).svg  United States Tokugawa shogunate
Anglo-Japanese Friendship Treaty 日英和親条約1854 [14] Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Ansei Treaties
Treaty of Amity and Commerce between the United States and Japan (Harris Treaty)安政条約1858 [15] Flag of the United States (1858-1859).svg  United States
Treaty of Amity and Commerce between the Kingdom of the Netherlands and JapanFlag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands
Treaty of Amity and Commerce between the Russian Empire and JapanRomanov Flag.svg  Russia
Treaty of Amity and Commerce between British Empire and Japan Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Treaty of Amity and Commerce between France and Japan Flag of France (1794-1815, 1830-1958).svg France
Prussian-Japanese Treaty of Amity, Commerce and Navigation 日普修好通商条約1861 [16] Flag of the Kingdom of Prussia (1803-1892).svg Prussia
Treaty of Amity, Commerce and Navigation between Austria and Japan 日墺修好通商航海条約1868 [17] Flag of Austria-Hungary (1869-1918).svg Austria-Hungary Merchant flag of Japan (1870).svg  Japan
Spanish-Japanese Treaty of Amity, Commerce and Navigation 日西修好通商航海条約1868 [18] Flag of Spain (1785-1873 and 1875-1931).svg  Spain

Imposed on Korea

TreatyYearImposerImposed on
English nameKorean name
Japan–Korea Treaty of 1876
(Treaty of Ganghwa)
강화도 조약 (江華島條約)1876 [19] Merchant flag of Japan (1870).svg  Japan Flag of Korea (1899).svg Joseon dynasty
United States–Korea Treaty of 1882 조미수호통상조약 (朝美修好通商條約)1882 [20] Flag of the United States (1867-1877).svg  United States
Japan–Korea Treaty of 1882
(Treaty of Chemulpo)
제물포 조약 (濟物浦條約)1882Merchant flag of Japan (1870).svg  Japan
China–Korea Treaty of 1882
(Joseon-Qing Communication and Commerce Rules)
조청상민수륙무역장정 (朝淸商民水陸貿易章程)1882 [21] Flag of the Qing Dynasty (1889-1912).svg  Qing dynasty
Germany–Korea Treaty of 1883 조독수호통상조약 (朝獨修好通商條約)1883 [22] Flag of the German Empire.svg  Germany
United Kingdom–Korea Treaty of 1883     조영수호통상조약 (朝英修好通商條約)1883 [23] Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Russia–Korea Treaty of 1884 조로수호통상조약 (朝露修好通商條約)1884 [24] Flag of The Russian Empire 1883.svg  Russia
Italy–Korea Treaty of 1884 조이수호통상조약 (朝伊修好通商條約)1884 [25] Flag of Italy (1861-1946) crowned.svg  Italy
Japan–Korea Treaty of 1885
(Treaty of Hanseong)
한성조약 (漢城條約)1885 [26] Merchant flag of Japan (1870).svg  Japan
France–Korea Treaty of 1886 조불수호통상조약 (朝佛修好通商條約)1886 [27] Flag of France (1794-1815, 1830-1958).svg France
Austria–Korea Treaty of 1892 조오수호통상조약 (朝奧修好通商條約)1892 [28] Flag of Austria-Hungary (1869-1918).svg Austria-Hungary
Belgium–Korea Treaty of 1901 조벨수호통상조약 (朝白修好通商條約)1901 [29] Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium Flag of Korea (1899).svg  Korean Empire
Denmark–Korea Treaty of 1902 조덴수호통상조약 (朝丁修好通商條約)1902 [30] Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark
Japan–Korea Treaty of 1904 한일의정서 (韓日議定書)1904 [31] Merchant flag of Japan (1870).svg  Japan [32]
Japan-Korea Protocol of August 1904 제1차 한일협약 (第一次韓日協約)1904 [33] Merchant flag of Japan (1870).svg  Japan [34]
Japan-Korea Protocol of April 1905 1905 [35] Merchant flag of Japan (1870).svg  Japan [36]
Japan-Korea Protocol of August 1905 1905 [37] Merchant flag of Japan (1870).svg  Japan [38]
Japan–Korea Treaty of 1905
제2차 한일협약 (第二次韓日協約)
(을사조약 (乙巳條約))
1905 [39] Merchant flag of Japan (1870).svg  Japan [40]
Japan–Korea Treaty of 1907 제3차 한일협약 (第三次韓日協約)
(정미조약 (丁未條約))
1907 [41] Merchant flag of Japan (1870).svg  Japan
Japan–Korea Treaty of 1910 한일병합조약 (韓日倂合條約)1910 [42] Merchant flag of Japan (1870).svg  Japan

See also

Related Research Articles

The politics of the Joseon dynasty, which ruled Korea from 1392 to 1897, were governed by the reigning ideology of Korean Confucianism, a form of Neo-Confucianism. Political struggles were common between different factions of the scholar-officials. Purges frequently resulted in leading political figures being sent into exile or condemned to death.

Japan–Korea Treaty of 1905 Unequal treaty subordinating Korea to the Japanese empire

The Japan–Korea Treaty of 1905, also known as the Eulsa Treaty, Eulsa Unwilling Treaty or Japan–Korea Protectorate Treaty, was made between the Empire of Japan and the Korean Empire in 1905. Negotiations were concluded on November 17, 1905. The treaty deprived Korea of its diplomatic sovereignty and made Korea a protectorate of Imperial Japan. It resulted from Imperial Japan's victory in the Russo-Japanese War in 1905.

The Japan–Korea Treaty of 1904 was made between representatives of the Empire of Japan and the Korean Empire in 1904. Negotiations were concluded on February 23, 1904. Though Korea declared neutral to Russo-Japanese War, Japanese troops entered Seoul on 9th February 1904, declared war to Russia and kidnapped some pro-Russia in Korea including Lee Yong-ik (이용익). The treaty was confirmed invalid in 1965 by Treaty on Basic Relations between Japan and the Republic of Korea

Eulenburg expedition

The Eulenburg expedition was a diplomatic mission conducted by Friedrich Albrecht zu Eulenburg on behalf of Prussia and the German Customs Union in 1859–1862. Its aim was to establish diplomatic and commercial relations with China, Japan and Siam.

A Treaty of Peace, Amity, Commerce and Navigation, also known as the Shufeldt Treaty, was negotiated between representatives of the United States and Korea in 1882.

The France–Korea Treaty of 1886 was negotiated between representatives of France and Korea.

The Italy–Korea Treaty of 1884 was negotiated between representatives of Italy and Korea.

The Russia–Korea Treaty of 1884 was negotiated between representatives of Russia and Korea.

The Germany–Korea Treaty of 1883 was negotiated between representatives of Germany and Korea.

The United Kingdom–Korea Treaty of 1883 was negotiated between representatives of the United Kingdom and Korea.

The Austria–Korea Treaty of 1892 was negotiated between representatives of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the Korean Empire.

The Belgium–Korea Treaty of 1901 was negotiated between representatives of the Kingdom of Belgium and the Korean Empire.

The Denmark–Korea Treaty of 1902 was negotiated between representatives of the Kingdom of Denmark and the Korean Empire.

The China–Korea Treaty of 1882 was negotiated between representatives of the Qing dynasty and the Joseon dynasty in October 1882. This agreement has been described as the Joseon-Qing Communication and Commerce Rules; and it has been called the Sino-Korean Regulations for Maritime and Overland Trade. The treaty remained in effect until 1895. After 1895, China lost its influence over Korea because of the First Sino-Japanese War.

The Japan–Korea Protocol of August 1904 was made between representatives of the Empire of Japan and the Korean Empire in 1904. Negotiations were concluded on August 22, 1904.

The Japan–Korea Protocol of August 1905 was made between the Empire of Japan and the Korean Empire in 1905. Negotiations were concluded on April 1, 1905.

The Japan-Korea Protocol of August 1905 was made between representatives of the Empire of Japan and the Korean Empire in 1905. Negotiations were concluded on August 13, 1905.

Ambassador of Japan to South Korea Wikipedia list article

Ambassadors from Japan to South Korea started when Toshikazu Maeda presented his credentials to the Korean government in 1965.

References

  1. Fravel, M. Taylor (October 1, 2005). "Regime Insecurity and International Cooperation: Explaining China's Compromises in Territorial Disputes". International Security. 30 (2): 46–83. doi:10.1162/016228805775124534. ISSN   0162-2889. S2CID   56347789.
  2. Fravel, M. Taylor (August 25, 2008). Strong Borders, Secure Nation: Cooperation and Conflict in China's Territorial Disputes. Princeton University Press. ISBN   978-1-4008-2887-6.
  3. 1 2 Wang, Dong. (2005). China's Unequal Treaties: Narrating National History. Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books. pp. 1–2. ISBN   9780739112083.
  4. Hsu, Immanuel C. Y. (1970). The Rise of Modern China. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 239. ISBN   0195012402.
  5. Cobbs, Elizabeth (2013). American Umpire. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. p. 111. ISBN   9780674055476.
  6. 1 2 Dong Wang, China's Unequal Treaties: Narrating National History (Lanham, Md.: Lexington Books, 2005).
  7. Akira Iriye, After Imperialism: The Search for a New Order in the Far East, 1921–1931 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1965; Reprinted: Chicago: Imprint Publications, 1990), passim.
  8. "CHINA: Nationalist Notes". TIME. June 25, 1928. Archived from the original on November 21, 2010. Retrieved April 11, 2011.
  9. Andreas Steen: Deutsch-chinesische Beziehungen 1911-1927: Vom Kolonialismus zur „Gleichberechtigung“. Eine Quellensammlung. Berlin, Akademie-Verlag 2006, S. 221.
  10. Michael R. Auslin (2006). Negotiating with Imperialism: The Unequal Treaties and the Culture of Japanese Diplomacy. Harvard University Press. pp. 17, 44. ISBN   9780674020313.
  11. Preston, Peter Wallace. [1998] (1998). Blackwell Publishing. Pacific Asia in the Global System: An Introduction. ISBN   0-631-20238-2
  12. I. H. Nish, "Japan Reverses the Unequal Treaties: The Anglo-Japanese Commercial Treaty of 1894," Journal of Oriental Studies (1975) 13#2 pp 137-146.
  13. Auslin, Michael R. (2004) Negotiating with Imperialism: The Unequal Treaties and the Culture of Japanese Diplomacy, p. 17. , p. 17, at Google Books
  14. Auslin, p. 30. , p. 30, at Google Books
  15. Auslin, pp. 1, 7. , p. 1, at Google Books
  16. Auslin, p. 71. , p. 71, at Google Books
  17. Auslin, Michael R. (2004) Negotiating with Imperialism: The Unequal Treaties and the Culture of Japanese Diplomacy, p. 154. , p. 154, at Google Books
  18. Howland, Douglas (2016). International Law and Japanese Sovereignty: The Emerging Global Order in the 19th Century. Springer. ISBN   9781137567772.
  19. Korean Mission to the Conference on the Limitation of Armament, Washington, D.C., 1921–1922. (1922). Korea's Appeal to the Conference on Limitation of Armament, p. 33. , p. 33, at Google Books; excerpt, "Treaty Between Japan and Korea, dated February 26, 1876."
  20. Korean Mission, p. 29. , p. 29, at Google Books; excerpt, "Treaty and Diplomatic Relations Between the United States and Korea. Treaty of Friendship, Commerce, and Navigation dated May 22, 1882."
  21. Moon, Myungki. "Korea-China Treaty System in the 1880s and the Opening of Seoul: Review of the Joseon-Qing Communication and Commerce Rules," Archived October 5, 2011, at the Wayback Machine Journal of Northeast Asian History, Vol. 5, No. 2 (Dec 2008), pp. 85–120.
  22. Korean Mission, p. 32. , p. 32, at Google Books; excerpt, "Treaty and Diplomatic Relations Between Germany and Korea. Treaty of Amity and Commerce dated November 23, 1883."
  23. Korean Mission, p. 32. , p. 32, at Google Books; excerpt, "Treaty and Diplomatic Relations Between Great Britain and Korea ... dated November 26, 1883."
  24. Korean Mission, p. 32. , p. 32, at Google Books; excerpt, "Treaty and Diplomatic Relations Between Korea and Russia. Treaty of Amity and Commerce dated June 25, 1884."
  25. Korean Mission, p. 32. , p. 32, at Google Books; excerpt, "Treaty and Diplomatic Relations Between Korea and Italy. Treaty of Friendship and Commerce dated June 26, 1884."
  26. Yi, Kwang-gyu and Joseph P. Linskey. (2003). Korean Traditional Culture, p. 63. , p. 63, at Google Books; excerpt, "The so-called Hanseong Treaty was concluded between Korea and Japan. Korea paid compensation for Japanese losses. Japan and China worked out the Tien-Tsin Treaty, which ensured that both Japanese and Chinese troops withdraw from Korea."
  27. Korean Mission, p. 32. , p. 32, at Google Books; excerpt, "Treaty and Diplomatic Relations Between Korea and France. Treaty of Friendship, Commerce, and Navigation dated June 4, 1886."
  28. Korean Mission, p. 32. , p. 32, at Google Books; excerpt, "Treaty and Diplomatic Relations Between Korea and Austria. Treaty of Amity and Commerce dated July 23, 1892."
  29. Korean Mission, p. 32. , p. 32, at Google Books; excerpt, "Treaty and Diplomatic Relations Between Korea and Belgium. Treaty of Amity and Commerce dated March 23, 1901."
  30. Korean Mission, p. 32. , p. 32, at Google Books; excerpt, "Treaty and Diplomatic Relations Between Korea and Denmark. Treaty of Friendship, Commerce, and Navigation dated July 15, 1902."
  31. Korean Mission, p. 34. , p. 34, at Google Books; excerpt, "Treaty of Alliance Between Japan and Korea, dated February 23, 1904."
  32. Note that the Korean Mission to the Conference on the Limitation of Armament in Washington, D.C., 1921–1922 identified this as "Treaty of Alliance Between Japan and Korea, dated February 23, 1904"
  33. Korean Mission, p. 35. , p. 35, at Google Books; excerpt, "Alleged Treaty, dated August 22, 1904."
  34. Note that the Korean diplomats in 1921–1922 identified this as "Alleged Treaty, dated August 22, 1904"
  35. Korean Mission, p. 35. , p. 35, at Google Books; excerpt, "Alleged Treaty, dated April 1, 1905."
  36. Note that the Korean diplomats in 1921–1922 identified this as "Alleged Treaty, dated April 1, 1905"
  37. Korean Mission, p. 35. , p. 35, at Google Books; excerpt, "Alleged Treaty, dated August 13, 1905."
  38. Note that the Korean diplomats in 1921–1922 identified this as "Alleged Treaty, dated August 13, 1905"
  39. Korean Mission, p. 35. , p. 35, at Google Books; excerpt, "Alleged Treaty, dated November 17, 1905."
  40. Note that the Korean diplomats in 1921–1922 identified this as "Alleged Treaty, dated November 17, 1905"
  41. Korean Mission, p. 35. , p. 35, at Google Books; excerpt, "Alleged Treaty, dated July 24, 1907."
  42. Korean Mission, p. 36. , p. 36, at Google Books; excerpt, "Alleged Treaty, dated August 20, 1910."

Bibliography

Primary sources