Researches on Manchu Origins

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Researches on Manchu Origins
Manjusai bithe.jpg
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese 滿洲源流考
Simplified Chinese 满洲源流考
Mongolian name
Mongolian script ᠮᠠᠨᠵᠢᠢᠨ
ᠭᠠᠷᠠᠯ
ᠦᠦᠰᠯᠢᠢᠨ
ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠠᠷᠺᠬᠢ
ᠰᠦᠳᠠᠯᠭᠠᠠ
Manchu name
Manchu script ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠᠰᠠᡳ
ᡩᠠ
ᠰᡝᡴᡳᠶᡝᠨ ‍ᡳ
ᡴᡳᠮᠴᡳᠨ
ᠪᡳᡨᡥᡝ
Abkai Manjusai da sekiyen-i kimqin bithe
Möllendorff Manjusai da sekiyen-i kimcin bithe

Researches on Manchu Origins, also known as Manzhou Yuanliu Kao, is an important history book published by the Qing Dynasty government in 1777. The Qianlong Emperor sponsored its compilation with the goal of legitimizing Qing rule, as well as identifying the Qing as a successor to the Jin Dynasty (1115–1234). [1] The Manzhou Yuanliu Kao also bolstered Qianlong's conception of the Manchu people as a wu , or martial race. [2]

It consists of 4 parts: Manchu tribes, territory, topography (mountains and rivers), and culture. Pamela Kyle Crossley analyses it as the apex of the Qing Dynasty's attempt at "documentary institutionalisation" of Manchu heritage and from it, Manchu ethnic identity. [3] Researches on Manchu Origins contained a list of corrections of transcribed Jurchen language words found in the History of Jin in Chapter 135, using the Manchu language to correct them, in Chapter 18. [4]

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The Manchu are an ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name. They are sometimes called "red-tasseled Manchus", a reference to the ornamentation on traditional Manchu hats. The Later Jin (1616–1636) and Qing dynasty (1636–1912) were established and ruled by Manchus, who are descended from the Jurchen people who earlier established the Jin dynasty (1115–1234) in China.

The Jurchen is a term used to collectively describe a number of East Asian Tungusic-speaking peoples who lived in the northeast of China, later known as Manchuria, before the 18th century. They are largely continuous with the Manchus of later history. Of obscure origins, different Jurchen groups lived as hunter-gatherers, pastoralist nomads, or sedentary agriculturists. Generally lacking a central authority, and having little communication with each other, many Jurchen groups fell under the influence of neighbouring dynasties, their chiefs paying tribute and holding nominal posts as effectively hereditary commanders of border guards.

Sibe people

The Sibe or Xibo, are an East Asian ethnic group living mostly in Xinjiang, Jilin and Shenyang in Liaoning. The Sibe form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by China.

The Eight Banners were administrative and military divisions under the Later Jin and the Qing dynasty of China into which all Manchu households were placed. In war, the Eight Banners functioned as armies, but the banner system was also the basic organizational framework of all of Manchu society. Created in the early 17th century by Nurhaci, the banner armies played an instrumental role in his unification of the fragmented Jurchen people and in the Qing dynasty's conquest of the Ming dynasty.

Aisin Gioro

Aisin Gioro was the Manchu ruling clan of the Later Jin dynasty (1616–1636), the Qing dynasty (1636–1912) and, nominally, Manchukuo (1932–1945). The House of Aisin Gioro ruled China proper from 1644 until the Xinhai Revolution of 1911–1912, which established a republican government in its place. The word aisin means gold in the Manchu language, and "gioro" is the name of the Aisin Gioro's ancestral home in present-day Yilan, Heilongjiang Province. In Manchu custom, families are identified first by their hala (哈拉), i.e. their family or clan name, and then by mukūn (穆昆), the more detailed classification, typically referring to individual families. In the case of Aisin Gioro, Aisin is the mukūn, and Gioro is the hala. Other members of the Gioro clan include Irgen Gioro (伊爾根覺羅), Šušu Gioro (舒舒覺羅) and Sirin Gioro (西林覺羅).

The Jianzhou Jurchens were one of the three major groups of Jurchens as identified by the Ming dynasty. Although the geographic location of the Jianzhou Jurchens has changed throughout history, during the 14th century they were located south of the Wild Jurchens and the Haixi Jurchens, inhabiting modern-day Liaoning province and Jilin province in China. The Jianzhou Jurchens were known to possess an abundant supply of natural resources. They also possessed industrial secrets, particularly in processing ginseng and the dyeing of cloth. They were powerful due to their proximity to Ming trading towns such as Fushun, Kaiyuan, and Tieling in Liaodong, and to Manpojin camp on the Korean border.

Khitan or Kitan, also known as Liao, is a now-extinct language once spoken in northeast Asia by the Khitan people. It was the official language of the Liao Empire (907–1125) and the Qara Khitai (1124–1218).

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Nurhaci Jurchen chieftain (1559–1626)

Nurhaci was a Jurchen chieftain who rose to prominence in the late 16th century in Manchuria. Nurhaci was part of the Aisin Gioro clan, and reigned as the founding Khan of Later Jin from 1616 to 1626.

Jin Qicong Chinese historian and linguist

Jin Qicong or Aisin-Gioro Qicong was a Chinese historian and linguist of Manchu ethnicity who is known for his studies of the Manchu and Jurchen languages. His works include the first modern dictionary of Jurchen (1984), various books about the Manchu people, and editions of the poetry of his great-great-grandfather Aisin-Gioro Yihui (1799–1838) and his wife Gu Taiqing.

The History of Jin is a Chinese historical text, one of the Twenty Four Histories, which details the history of the Jin dynasty founded by the Jurchens in northern China. It was compiled by the Yuan dynasty historian and minister Toqto'a.

Shamanism was the dominant religion of the Jurchen people of northeast Asia and of their descendants, the Manchu people. As early as the Jin dynasty (1111–1234), the Jurchens conducted shamanic ceremonies at shrines called tangse. There were two kinds of shamans: those who entered in a trance and let themselves be possessed by the spirits, and those who conducted regular sacrifices to heaven, to a clan's ancestors, or to the clan's protective spirits.

Identity in the Eight Banners considers the subject of how identity was interpreted in China prior to and during the Manchu-led Qing dynasty (1644–1912). China consisted of multiple ethnic groups, primarily Han, Mongol and Manchu. Identity, however, was defined much more by culture, language and participation in the military until the Qianlong Emperor resurrected the ethnic classifications.

The New Qing History is a historiographical school that gained prominence in the United States in the mid-1990s by offering a wide-ranging revision of history of the Manchu Qing dynasty. Earlier historians had emphasized the power of Han Chinese to “sinicize” their conquerors, that is, to assimilate and make them Chinese in their thought and institutions. In the 1980s and early 1990s, American scholars began to learn Manchu and took advantage of newly opened Chinese- and Manchu-language archives. This research found that the Manchu rulers were savvy in manipulating their subjects and from the 1630s through at least the 18th century, emperors developed a sense of Manchu identity and used Central Asian models of rule as much as they did Confucian ones. According to some scholars, at the height of their power, the Qing regarded "China" as only a part, although a very important part, of a much wider empire that extended into the Inner Asian territories of Mongolia, Tibet, the Northeast and Xinjiang, or Chinese (Eastern) Turkestan.

Evelyn Sakakida Rawski is Distinguished University Professor in the Department of History of the University of Pittsburgh and a scholar in Chinese and Inner Asian history. She was born in Honolulu, Hawaii, United States of Japanese-American ancestry. She served as president of the Association for Asian Studies in 1995–1996.

Bukūri Yongšon was a legendary ancestor of the future emperors of the Qing dynasty.

Jurchen unification

The Jurchen unification was a series of events in the late 16th and early 17th centuries that led to the unification of the Jurchens under Nurhaci. In 1616, Nurhaci established the Later Jin dynasty.

References

  1. Smith, Richard (2015). The Qing Dynasty and Traditional Chinese Culture. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 80.
  2. Roy, Kaushik; Lorge, Peter (2014). Chinese and Indian Warfare – From the Classical Age to 1870. Routledge. p. 231.
  3. Crossley, Pamela Kyle (November 1987). "Manzhou yuanliu kao and the Formalization of the Manchu Heritage". Journal of Asian Studies. 46 (4). JSTOR   2057101.
  4. 金史/卷135 滿洲源流考/卷18 Archived 2016-10-08 at the Wayback Machine