Researches on Manchu Origins

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Researches on Manchu Origins
Manjusai bithe.jpg
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese 滿洲源流考
Simplified Chinese 满洲源流考
Mongolian name
Mongolian script ᠮᠠᠨᠵᠢᠢᠨ
Manchu name
Manchu script ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠᠰᠠᡳ
ᠰᡝᡴᡳᠶᡝᠨ ‍ᡳ
Abkai Manjusai da sekiyen-i kimqin bithe
Möllendorff Manjusai da sekiyen-i kimcin bithe

Researches on Manchu Origins, also known as Manzhou Yuanliu Kao, is an important history book published by the Qing Dynasty government in 1777. The Qianlong Emperor sponsored its compilation with the goal of legitimizing Qing rule, as well as identifying the Qing as a successor to the Jin Dynasty (1115–1234). [1] The Manzhou Yuanliu Kao also bolstered Qianlong's conception of the Manchu people as a wu , or martial race. [2]

It consists of 4 parts: Manchu tribes, territory, topography (mountains and rivers), and culture. Pamela Kyle Crossley analyses it as the apex of the Qing Dynasty's attempt at "documentary institutionalisation" of Manchu heritage and from it, Manchu ethnic identity. [3] Researches on Manchu Origins contained a list of corrections of transcribed Jurchen language words found in the History of Jin in Chapter 135, using the Manchu language to correct them, in Chapter 18. [4]

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The Manchu are an ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name. They are sometimes called "red-tasseled Manchus", a reference to the ornamentation on traditional Manchu hats. The Later Jin (1616–1636) and Qing dynasty (1636–1912) were established and ruled by Manchus, who are descended from the Jurchen people who earlier established the Jin dynasty (1115–1234) in China.

The Jurchen is a term used to collectively describe a number of East Asian Tungusic-speaking peoples who lived in the northeast of China, later known as Manchuria, before the 18th century. They are largely continuous with the Manchus of later history. Of obscure origins, different Jurchen groups lived as hunter-gatherers, pastoralist nomads, or sedentary agriculturists. Generally lacking a central authority, and having little communication with each other, many Jurchen groups fell under the influence of neighbouring dynasties, their chiefs paying tribute and holding nominal posts as effectively hereditary commanders of border guards.

Sibe people

The Sibe or Xibo, are an East Asian ethnic group living mostly in Xinjiang, Jilin and Shenyang in Liaoning. The Sibe form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by China.

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Aisin Gioro

Aisin Gioro was the Manchu ruling clan of the Later Jin dynasty (1616–1636), the Qing dynasty (1636–1912) and, nominally, Manchukuo (1932–1945). The House of Aisin Gioro ruled China proper from 1644 until the Xinhai Revolution of 1911–1912, which established a republican government in its place. The word aisin means gold in the Manchu language, and "gioro" is the name of the Aisin Gioro's ancestral home in present-day Yilan, Heilongjiang Province. In Manchu custom, families are identified first by their hala (哈拉), i.e. their family or clan name, and then by mukūn (穆昆), the more detailed classification, typically referring to individual families. In the case of Aisin Gioro, Aisin is the mukūn, and Gioro is the hala. Other members of the Gioro clan include Irgen Gioro (伊爾根覺羅), Šušu Gioro (舒舒覺羅) and Sirin Gioro (西林覺羅).

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  1. Smith, Richard (2015). The Qing Dynasty and Traditional Chinese Culture. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 80.
  2. Roy, Kaushik; Lorge, Peter (2014). Chinese and Indian Warfare – From the Classical Age to 1870. Routledge. p. 231.
  3. Crossley, Pamela Kyle (November 1987). "Manzhou yuanliu kao and the Formalization of the Manchu Heritage". Journal of Asian Studies. 46 (4). JSTOR   2057101.
  4. 金史/卷135 滿洲源流考/卷18 Archived 2016-10-08 at the Wayback Machine