|Signed||1 December 1887|
|Location||Peking (Beijing), China|
|Effective||28 April 1888|
|Condition||Exchange of ratifications|
|Languages||Portuguese and Chinese|
|Sino-Portuguese Treaty of Peking|
|Alternative Chinese name|
|Portuguese||Tratado de Amizade e Comércio Sino-Português|
|This article is part of a series on the|
|History of Macau|
|Other Macau topics|
|History of China|
The Sino-Portuguese Treaty of Peking was a trade treaty between the Kingdom of Portugal and the Qing dynasty of China, signed on 1 December 1887. It is counted by the Chinese as among the unequal treaties in the aftermath of the Second Opium War. The treaty gave Portugal perpetual colonial rights to Macau on the condition that Portugal would cooperate in efforts to end the smuggling of opium.
On 13 August 1862, China and Portugal signed the Treaty of Friendship and Trade in Tientsin (Tianjin). The treaty was largely a trade agreement but it also defined Macau's political and juridical status, although it did not directly mention the issue of Portuguese sovereignty.It contained two clauses regarding Macau's status: Article II annulled earlier agreements and referred to Macau as "formerly in the Province of Canton", while Article III recognised the status of a "Governor General of Macao". However, China did not ratify the treaty and it became void in 1864.
In June 1886, a joint Sino-British commission advised that the administrative responsibility for controlling the import of opium into China should be transferred from the Hoppo in Canton (Guangzhou) to the Chinese Imperial Maritime Customs Service. Although Britain and China agreed to this, it could not be fully successful without Portuguese involvement. In 1887, China sent a diplomatic mission to Lisbon, which included James Campbell, a senior British member of the service, representing the superintendent of the customs service Sir Robert Hart. On 26 March 1887, Campbell and Portuguese Foreign Minister Henrique de Barros Gomes signed the four-point Lisbon Protocol:
Art. 1st.—A Treaty of friendship and commerce with the most favoured nation clause will be concluded and signed at Peking.
Art. 2nd.—China confirms perpetual occupation and government of Macao and its dependencies by Portugal, as any other Portuguese possession.
Art. 3rd.—Portugal engages never to alienate Macao and its dependencies without agreement with China.
Art. 4th.—Portugal engages to co-operate in opium revenue work at Macao in the same way as England at Hong Kong.
Portugal followed up on this agreement by sending an envoy to Peking (Beijing), where a treaty of amity and commerce based on the protocol was drawn up.On 1 December 1887, the Treaty of Peking was signed by Chinese representatives Prince Ch'ing and Sun Iu-uen, and Tomas de Sousa Rosa for Portugal on 1 December 1887. It contained 54 articles and was ratified on 28 April 1888. Articles II and III stated:
II. China confirms, in its entirety, the second Article of the Protocol of Lisbon, relating to the perpetual occupation and government of Macao by Portugal.
III. Portugal confirms, in its entirety, the third Article of the Protocol of Lisbon, relating to the engagement never to alienate Macao without previous agreement with China.
According to the Portuguese interpretation, sovereignty over Macau was surrendered to Portugal. In the Chinese interpretation, only administrative rights were transferred.
After December 1887, issues related to rent payments and the presence of a Chinese custom house or resident mandarin in Macau became irrelevant outside of academic interest.The early 20th century marked a new era for both countries, with Portugal's 1910 and China's 1911 republican revolutions establishing new governments. A growing nationalist movement in China voiced disapproval of the treaty and questioned its validity. These contentions manifested themselves in the unresolved topic of Macau's border demarcation. Although the Nationalist (Kuomintang) government in China vowed to abrogate the "unequal treaties", Macau's status remained unchanged. The 1928 Sino-Portuguese Treaty of Friendship and Trade reaffirmed Portuguese administration over Macau. In 1945, after the end of extraterritorial rights in China, the Nationalists called for the liquidation of foreign control over Hong Kong and Macau, but they were too preoccupied in the Chinese Civil War with the Communists to fulfil their goals of a "rights recovery" campaign.
After the 1974 Revolution in Portugal, a new decolonisation policy paved the way for Macau's retrocession to the People's Republic of China (PRC).Portugal offered to withdraw from Macau in late 1974, but China declined the offer in favour of a later time because it sought to preserve international and local confidence in Hong Kong, which was still under British rule, and also because it prioritised the reunification of Taiwan. In January 1975, Portugal recognised the PRC as the sole legitimate government of China and ended ties with the Nationalists in Taipei. In 1976, Portugal unilaterally changed the legal designation of Macau from a "colony" to "territory under Portuguese administration". In 1987, the Sino-Portuguese Joint Declaration was signed and Macau became a "Chinese territory under Portuguese administration". On 20 December 1999—two years after the handover of Hong Kong—Macau was returned to Chinese rule.
Macau, also spelled Macao and officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is a city and special administrative region of the People's Republic of China in the western Pearl River Delta by the South China Sea. With a population of about 680,000 and an area of 32.9 km2 (12.7 sq mi), it is the most densely populated region in the world.
Macau is a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the People's Republic of China. In 1557 it was leased to Portugal as a trading post in exchange for an annual rent of 500 tael in order to stay in Macau, it remained under Chinese sovereignty and authority until 1887, the Portuguese came to consider and administer it as a de facto colony. Following the signing of the Treaty of Nanking between China and Britain in 1842, and the signing of treaties between China and foreign powers during the 1860s, establishing the benefit of "the most favoured nation" for them, the Portuguese attempted to conclude a similar treaty in 1862, but the Chinese refused, owing to a misunderstanding over the sovereignty of Macau. In 1887 the Portuguese finally managed to secure an agreement from China that Macao was Portuguese territory. In 1999 it was handed over to China. Macau was the last extant European territory in continental Asia.
The Treaty of Nanking (Nanjing) was a peace treaty which ended the First Opium War (1839–1842) between the United Kingdom and China on 29 August 1842. It was the first of what the Chinese later called the unequal treaties.
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The Sino-British Joint Declaration is a joint statement by the United Kingdom and China on Hong Kong under Chinese sovereignty. Signed on 19 December 1984 in Beijing and deposited as an international treaty at the United Nations, the declaration describes the sovereign and administrative arrangement of Hong Kong after 1 July 1997, when the lease of the New Territories was set to expire according to the Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory.
The Convention of Peking or First Convention of Peking is an agreement comprising three distinct treaties concluded between the Qing dynasty of China and Great Britain, France, and Russian Empire in 1860. In China, they are regarded as among the unequal treaties. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of China keeps the original copy of the convention in the National Palace Museum in Taiwan.
The Macau Peninsula is the most populous and historic part of Macau. It has an area of 8.5 square kilometers (3.3 sq mi) and is geographically connected to Guangdong province at the northeast through an isthmus 200 meters (660 ft) wide. The peninsula, together with downtown Zhuhai, sits on an island separated from the continent by distributaries of the Pearl River. The Border Gate was built on the northern isthmus. At the south, the peninsula is connected to Taipa Island by three bridges, the Friendship Bridge ; the Macau-Taipa Bridge ; and the Sai Van Bridge . The longest axis extends 4 kilometers (2.5 mi) from the Border Gate to the southwestern edge, Barra (媽閣嘴). There is a western "Inner Harbor" (內港) paralleled by an "Outer Harbor" (外港) to the east. The 93 meters (305 ft) Guia Hill (松山) is the highest point on the peninsula, which has an average elevation of 50 to 75 meters. Many coastal places are reclaimed from the sea. The Historic Center of Macau, which is entirely on the Macau Peninsula, became a World Heritage Site in 2005.
The transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong, commonly known as the handover of Hong Kong, occurred at midnight at the start of 1 July 1997, when the United Kingdom returned sovereignty over the British Dependent Territory of Hong Kong to China. China formed the special administrative region of Hong Kong, which continues to maintain governing and economic systems separate from those of mainland China.
The act of cession is the assignment of property to another entity. In international law it commonly refers to land transferred by treaty. Ballentine's Law Dictionary defines cession as "a surrender; a giving up; a relinquishment of jurisdiction by a board in favor of another agency." In contrast with annexation, where property is forcibly seized, cession is voluntary or at least apparently so.
Chinese-United Kingdom relations, more commonly known as British–Chinese relations, Anglo-Chinese relations and Sino-British relations, refers to the interstate relations between China and the United Kingdom. The United Kingdom and China were on opposing sides of the Cold War. Both countries are permanent members of the United Nations Security Council. The relationship between the two countries has deteriorated in recent months due to the Hong Kong national security law that was passed by China on 30 June 2020.
The Convention between the United Kingdom and China, Respecting an Extension of Hong Kong Territory, commonly known as the Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory or the Second Convention of Peking, was a lease signed between Qing China and the United Kingdom on 9 June 1898. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of China now keeps the original copy of the Convention in the National Palace Museum in Taiwan.
Chinese nationality law details the conditions in which a person holds People's Republic of China (PRC) nationality. Foreign nationals may naturalize if they are immediate family members of Chinese citizens or permanently resident in any part of China. Residents of Taiwan are also considered Chinese citizens, due to the PRC's continuing claims over areas controlled by the Republic of China (ROC).
Under the Basic Law, Macau's diplomatic relations and defence are the responsibility of the PRC. Except diplomatic relations and defence, nonetheless, Macau has retained considerable autonomy in all aspects, including economic and commercial relations, customs control.
The transfer of sovereignty of Macau from Portugal to the People's Republic of China (PRC) occurred on 20 December 1999.
The Joint Declaration on the Question of Macau, or Sino-Portuguese Joint Declaration, was a treaty between Portugal and the People's Republic of China over the status of Macau. The full name of the treaty is Joint Declaration of the Government of the People's Republic of China and the Government of the Portuguese Republic on the question of Macao. Signed on 26 March 1987 the Declaration established the process and conditions of the transfer of the territory from Portuguese rule to the People's Republic of China. The Joint Declaration served also as the main source of fundamental rights that were implemented in the Macau Special Administrative Region Basic Law. The process was otherwise similar to the handover of Hong Kong to Chinese sovereignty by the United Kingdom in 1997.
The 12-3 incident refers to a political demonstrations and rioting against Portuguese rule in Macau that occurred on 3 December 1966. The incident, inspired by the Cultural Revolution in the People's Republic of China, occurred in direct response to a violent police crackdown against Chinese protestors demonstrating against corruption and colonialism in Macau. The incident is known as "12-3", in reference to the date of the riots. Pressured by business leaders in Macau and the mainland Chinese government, the colonial government agreed to meet the demands of the protestors and apologized for the police crackdown. Portuguese sovereignty over Macau diminished after the incident, leading to de facto Chinese control over the territory.
Hong Kong was a colony and dependent territory of the British Empire from 1841 to 1997, apart from a brief period under Japanese occupation from 1941 to 1945. The colonial period began with the occupation of Hong Kong Island in 1841 during the First Opium War. The island was ceded by the Qing Empire in the aftermath of the war in 1842 and established as a Crown colony in 1843. The colony expanded to the Kowloon Peninsula in 1860 after the Second Opium War and was further extended when the UK obtained a 99-year lease of the New Territories in 1898.
The Macau Liaison Office, officially known as the Liaison Office of the Central People's Government in the Macao Special Administrative Region is the representative office of the State Council of the People's Republic of China (CPG) in Macau. Its counterpart body in Mainland China is the Office of the Macau Special Administrative Region in Beijing.It is one of the three agencies of the Central People's Government in the Macao Special Administrative Region. The other two are the Office of the Commissioner of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China in the Macao Special Administrative Region and the People's Liberation Army Macau Garrison.
Portuguese Macau covers Macau's history from the establishment of a Portuguese settlement in 1557 to the end of Portuguese colonial rule and transfer of full sovereignty to the People's Republic of China in 1999. Macau was both the first and last European holding in China.
Ho Yin or He Xian (traditional Chinese: 何賢; simplified Chinese: 何贤; pinyin: Hé Xián; Jyutping: Ho4 Jin4; December 1, 1908 – December 6, 1983) ComB was a businessman, politician and senior leader of the Chinese community in Macau.
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Sino-Portuguese Treaty of Peking