Treaty of Tientsin

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  1. Then known as "Canton". [7] [12] [13] [14]
  2. Then known as "Taiwan-fu", [7] "Tai-wan", [12] "Taiwan", [13] or "Taïwan". [14]
  3. Then known as "Tsion-chou", [7] "Kiungchow" [13] or "Kiung-Tchau". [14]
  4. Then known as "Chau-chau", [12] "Swatow", [12] "Chawchow", [13] and "Chaou-Chaou". [14]
  5. Then known as "Newchwang". [13]
  6. Then known as "Tǎngchow" [13] or "Tan-Tchau". [14]
  7. Then known as "Taashwi". [14]
  8. Then known as "Nanking" [13] or "Nankin". [14]
  9. Then known as "Chinkiang". [25]
  10. Specifically, the formerly separate city of Hankou north and west of the confluence of the Han and Yangtze Rivers.
  11. The third port was Nanjing, which had been opened by the French treaty [14] and the most-favored nation clauses of the others. [8] [9] [10]
  12. Then known as "Peking" [26] or "Pekin". [27] [28]

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  • Chan, Mitchell. "Rule of Law and China's Unequal Treaties: Conceptions of the Rule of Law and Its Role in Chinese International Law and Diplomatic Relations in the Early Twentieth Century." Penn History Review 25.2 (2018): 2. online
  • Bloch, Kurt (May 1939). "The Basic Conflict over Foreign Concessions in China". Far Eastern Survey. 8 (10): 111–116. doi:10.2307/3023092. JSTOR   3023092.
  • Cassel, Pär (2012), Grounds of Judgment, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Johnstone, William C. (October 1937). "International Relations: The Status of Foreign Concessions and Settlements in the Treaty Ports of China". The American Political Science Review. 31 (5): 942–8. doi:10.2307/1947920. JSTOR   1947920. S2CID   147155580.

Primary sources

Treaty of Tientsin
Signing the Treaty of Tientsin.jpg
Signing of the Anglo-Chinese treaty of Tianjin