|Treaty of Tientsin|
Signing of the Anglo-Chinese treaty of Tianjin
|Traditional Chinese||天津 條約|
|Simplified Chinese||天津 条约|
The Treaty of Tientsin, now also known as the Treaty of Tianjin, is a collective name for several documents signed at Tianjin (then romanized as Tientsin) in June 1858. They ended the first phase of the Second Opium War, which had begun in 1856. The Qing, Russian, and Second French Empires, the Great Britain, and the United States were the parties involved. These treaties, counted by the Chinese among the so-called unequal treaties, opened more Chinese ports to foreign trade, permitted foreign legations in the Chinese capital Beijing, allowed Christian missionary activity, and effectively legalized the import of opium.
They were ratified by the Emperor of China in the Convention of Peking in 1860, after the end of the war.
The Xianfeng Emperor authorized negotiations for the treaty on May 29, 1858. ( 桂 良 ) and the Mongol Huashana ( 花 沙 納 ). The Russian treaty was negotiated by Yevfimiy Putyatin and finalized on June 13; the American treaty was negotiated by William Bradford Reed and finalized on June 18; the British treaty was negotiated by James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin, and finalized on June 26; and the French treaty was negotiated by Jean-Baptiste-Louis Gros and finalized on June 27.His chief representatives were the Manchu Guiliang
Following the pattern set by the great powers of Europe, the United States took on a protectionist stance, built up its navy, and tried to create a mercantile empire. The United States was one of the leading "treaty powers" in China, forcing open a total of 23 foreign concessions from the Chinese government. While it is often noted that the United States did not control any settlements in China, it shared British land grants and was actually invited to take land in Shanghai but refused because the land was thought to be disadvantageous.
The Treaties of Tientsin uses several words that have somewhat ambiguous meanings. For example, the words "settlement" and "concession" can often be confused. The term "settlement" refers to a parcel of land leased to a foreign power and is composed of both foreign and national peoples; locally elected foreigners govern them. The term "concession" refers to a long-term lease of land to a foreign power where the foreign nation has complete control of the land; it is governed by consular representation.
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The Opium Wars were two wars waged between the Qing dynasty and Western powers in the mid-19th century. The First Opium War, fought in 1839–1842 between the Qing and Great Britain, was triggered by the dynasty's campaign against the opium trade; the Second Opium War was fought between the Qing and Britain and France, 1856–1860. In each war, the European forces used recently developed military technology to defeat the Qing forces, and compelled the government to grant favorable tariffs, trade concessions, and territory.
The Burlingame Treaty, also known as the Burlingame–Seward Treaty of 1868, was a landmark treaty between the United States and Qing China, amending the Treaty of Tientsin, to establish formal friendly relations between the two nations, with the United States granting China the status of most favored nation with regards to trade. It was signed in the capital of the United States Washington in 1868 and ratified in Peking in 1869. The most significant result of the treaty was that it effectively lifted any former restrictions in regards to emigration to the United States from China; with large-scale immigration to the United States beginning in earnest by Chinese immigrants.
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Unequal treaty is the name given by the Chinese to a series of treaties signed between the Qing dynasty and various Western powers, Russia, and the Empire of Japan during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The agreements, often reached after a military defeat, contained one-sided terms requiring China to cede land, pay reparations, open treaty ports, or grant extraterritorial privileges to foreign citizens.
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