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|State||New South Wales|
The Timbarra Gold Mine was a highly controversial gold mine located on the Timbarra Plateau, at the head waters of the Clarence River, near Tenterfield, New South Wales, Australia. The gold ore body consisted of a greisen type granite. The protracted controversy attracted national and international attention, and catalysed an anti-cyanide extraction campaign in Australia.
The mine was initially developed in the late 1990s by a medium-sized mining company, Ross Mining. After six months the mine went into "care and maintenance", and never re-opened. Delta Gold acquired the mine through a take-over of Ross Mining. Eventually the mine was acquired by Placer Dome who were in turn taken over in 2006 by Barrick Gold.
Placer Dome undertook an intensive rehabilitation programme at the mine site, setting new standards for mining rehabilitation in New South Wales.
Precious Metal Resources ( ASX: PMR ) has applied for an exploration licence over the mine and is planning to develop the project and start job creation in the area. The senior management at PMR have continued their extensive research in the project and believe over the coming years they will be able to reopen the mine and start production.
The Timbarra Gold Mine has in excess of 300MT of Resource.
Timbarra Gold Mine was subject to intensive protest for several reasons:
Ross Mining countered the criticism with arguments in favour of the mine:
Anti-mine action took on different forms:
The controversy surrounding the mine was the subject of a 2002 documentary, Demon Fault, which was commissioned by Australia's Special Broadcasting Service and featured miners, protesters, environmental and legal specialists, local farmers and landowners in a protracted battle over the mining operation.
The mine is now owned by an Australian ASX company called Precious Metal Resources ( ASX:PMR)
The project was the subject of litigation in the NSW courts. Ross Mining NL had been granted a development consent by the Tenterfield Shire Council pursuant to the Environmental Planning and Assessment Act 1979, which required a Species Impact Statement to be submitted with an application for development consent if the development is "likely to significantly affect threatened species".The respondent did not submit a Species Impact Statement, and the Timbarra Protection Coalition sought to rely upon this to invalidate the development consent. Talbot J who heard the Class 4 proceedings in the Land and Environment Court held that the decision of the Council to accept the application without a Species Impact Statement was not reviewable as it was not an error of jurisdictional fact and, accordingly, refused to admit evidence on the issue of "likely to significantly affect threatened species". The decision of Talbot J of the Land and Environment Court was appealed to the Court of Appeal. The central issue for determination was whether the decision of council to accept a development application without a Species Impact Statement was reviewable. The Court of Appeal had to rule on the question of whether a development 'likely to significantly affect threatened species' involves a jurisdictional fact and whether evidence of the existence or non-existence of that fact was admissible in appeal from council's decision. Spigelman CJ held that the issue of "likely to significantly affect threatened species" involves a jurisdictional fact. It was held that the decision of council regarding need for a Species Impact Statement was reviewable and related evidence was admissible.
The mine was closed in 2001 after heavy rainfall resulted in two successive overflows from the cyanide ponds vindicated concerns about the site. Fortunately, cyanide extraction had ceased and actual cyanide levels were low.
Then owners, Delta Gold, undertook a Mine Closure Plan which included former protestors as stakeholders. This resulted in a pioneering consensus approach to the rehabilitation that continued throughout the Mine's ownership by Placer Dome.
The impact from the improved road access to the mine site is an ongoing concern to environmentalists as it has opened up the Timbarra Plateau to potential development, especially agriculture.
Land rehabilitation as a part of environmental remediation is the process of returning the land in a given area to some degree of its former state, after some process has resulted in its damage. Many projects and developments will result in the land becoming degraded, for example mining, farming and forestry.
Rum Jungle is a locality in the Northern Territory of Australia located about 105 kilometres south of Darwin on the East Branch of the Finniss River. It is the site of a uranium deposit, found in 1949, which has been mined.
The Fimiston Open Pit, colloquially known as the Super Pit, was Australia's largest open cut gold mine until 2016 when it was surpassed by the Newmont Boddington gold mine also in Western Australia. The Super Pit is located off the Goldfields Highway on the south-east edge of Kalgoorlie, Western Australia. The pit is oblong in plan view and is approximately 3.5 kilometres long, 1.5 kilometres wide and over 600 metres deep.
Roșia Montană is a commune of Alba County in the Apuseni Mountains of western Transylvania, Romania. It is located in the Valea Roșiei, through which the small river Roșia Montană flows. The commune is composed of sixteen villages: Bălmoșești, Blidești, Bunta, Cărpiniș (Abrudkerpenyes), Coasta Henții, Corna (Szarvaspatak), Curături, Dăroaia, Gârda-Bărbulești, Gura Roșiei (Verespataktorka), Iacobești, Ignățești, Roșia Montană, Șoal, Țarina, and Vârtop (Vartop).
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The Thacker Pass Lithium Mine is a lithium clay mining development project in Humboldt County, Nevada which is the largest known lithium deposit in the US, and one of the largest in the world. There has been significant exploration of Thacker Pass since 2007. The Bureau of Land Management issued a Record of Decision approving development of the mine in January, 2021. Construction began in March 2023 after an emergency appeal was denied by the court. The project site would cover 18,000 acres (7,300 ha), with less than 6,000 acres (2,400 ha) of that being mined, on a site 21 miles (34 km) west-northwest of Orovada, Nevada within the McDermitt Caldera. The mine is a project of Lithium Nevada, LLC - a wholly owned subsidiary of Lithium Americas Corp, whose largest shareholder is the world's largest lithium mining company, Chinese Ganfeng Lithium. At full capacity it would produce 66,000 tons annually, equivalent to 25% of the current (2021) demand for lithium globally, which is expected to triple over the next five years. Development of the mine is driven by increasing demand for lithium used in electric vehicle batteries and grid storage of intermittently generated electricity from sources such as solar power or wind power. In late January 2023, car giant General Motors announced it would invest $650M in the mine project, giving GM exclusive access to the first phase of production.
The Olympic Dam mine is a large poly-metallic underground mine located in South Australia, 550 km (340 mi) NNW of Adelaide. It is the fourth largest copper deposit and the largest known single deposit of uranium in the world. Copper is the largest contributor to total revenue, accounting for approximately 70% of the mine's revenue, with the remaining 25% from uranium, and around 5% from silver and gold. BHP has owned and operated the mine since 2005. The mine was previously owned by Western Mining Corporation.
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The Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (TSC Act) was enacted by the Parliament of New South Wales in 1995 to protect threatened species, populations and ecological communities in NSW. In 2016 it was replaced by the Biodiversity Conservation Act 2016. These acts form the basis and the mechanisms in NSW by which species, populations and ecological communities are declared endangered, vulnerable or critically endangered, and under which people and corporations are prosecuted for destruction of habitat sheltering such species, populations or communities.
Lydian International Limited is a multinational corporation with gold mining interests in Armenia and Georgia. Founded in 2005 the company is registered in the British Crown dependency of Jersey but headquartered in Greenwood Village, Colorado, United States. While it was formerly listed on the Toronto Stock Exchange, it was delisted in February 2020 as it sought creditor protection. Lydian International's major shareholders and lenders are the Resource Capital Funds, Orion Resource Partners, Franklin Advisers of the Franklin Templeton Investments, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), the state-owned Swedish Export Credit Corporation and others. Its ongoing active development is the Amulsar Gold Project located in south-central Armenia and 100% owned by Lydian International.