International Campaign to Save the Monuments of Nubia

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International Campaign to Save the Monuments of Nubia
International Campaign to Save the Monuments of Nubia.pdf
UNESCO brochure on the anniversary of the campaign
Lake Nasser location.png
The relocated monuments were from Lower Nubia, roughly between Aswan and Wadi Halfa. The area was entirely submerged by the creation of Lake Nasser
Location Aswan Governorate, Egypt
Region Nubia
Official nameNubian Monuments from Abu Simbel to Philae
TypeCultural
Criteriai, iii, vi
Designated1979 (3rd session)
Reference no. 88
Region Arab States

The International Campaign to Save the Monuments of Nubia was the relocation of 22 monuments in Lower Nubia, in Southern Egypt and northern Sudan, between 1960 and 1980. This was done in order to make way for the building of the Aswan Dam, at the Nile's first cataract (shallow rapids) which was a necessary infrastructure project following the 1952 Egyptian Revolution. [1] This project was undertaken under UNESCO leadership and a coalition of 50 countries. This process infamously led to the creation of the World Heritage Convention in 1972, and thus the system of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. [2]

Contents

The construction of the Aswan Dam was a key objective of the new regime the Free Officers movement of 1952 in order to better control flooding, provide increased water storage for irrigation and generate hydroelectricity, [3] all of which were seen as pivotal for the industrialization of Egypt.

The building of the dam was to result in the creation of Lake Nasser, which would submerge the banks of the Nile along its entire 479 km (298 mi) length south of the dam – flooding the entire area of historical Lower Nubia. This region was home to 22 critical historical sites, including but not limited to the Abu Simbel temples; as well as the temples at Philae, Kalabsha and Amada.

It was described in the UNESCO Courier as "the greatest archaeological rescue operation of all time". [4]

In April 1979, the monuments were inscribed on the World Heritage List as the Nubian Monuments from Abu Simbel to Philae, as one of the second group of properties added to the list (the first 12 had been added in 1978). [5]

History

The UNESCO division of the UN logo UNESCO.svg
The UNESCO division of the UN logo

In 1954, UNESCO founded the CEDAE (Centre d'Étude et de Documentation sur l'Ancienne Égypte, in English the Documentation and Study Centre for the History of the Art and Civilization of Ancient Egypt) in Cairo under the direction of Christiane Desroches Noblecourt, who was a French Egyptologist at the Louvre. The Study Centre worked on documenting over 400 private tombs, primarily through photography and photogrammetry. [6] By September of 1955, field expeditions under Dr. Ahmed Badawi were undertaken in Nubia with UNESCO permission.

By 1959, Tharwat Okasha, the Egyptian Minister of Culture sought to work alongside UNESCO to safeguard and preserve Nubian monuments. He met with the Assistant Director-General of UNESCO, René Maheu to submit his appeal, which was quickly reassured to be responded to by Director-General Vittorino Veronese. [6] A proposal was submitted to the Executive Board of UNESCO, which would later mount the International Campaign to Save the Monuments of Nubia.

This was officially began after Vittorino Veronese's appeal to the Executive Board of UNESCO on March 8, 1960. During the proposal, he described it: "It is not easy to choose between a heritage of the past and the present well-being of a people, living in need in the shadow of one of history's most splendid legacies, it is not easy to choose between temples and crops." [7] Doing so, he pointed out various concerns regarding the need to preserve Nubian cultural heritage sites in Egypt and Sudan while promoting the welfare of Egypt in relation to the proposed Aswan Dam.

The proposal was accepted, by the participation of many member states of UNESCO, though with the rule that 50% of finds would be relocated to museums in participating countries. [8] The intention of the campaign became to perform a massive archeological survey of the region, and the second was to rescue temples and sites through feats of engineering. The level of fieldwork for the project had not been previous undertaken on equivalent scale or length of time, leaving many to praise the campaign as a feat of the field of archeology. [8]

Wadi es-Sebua, or Valley of the Lions Temples, Nubia - UNESCO - PHOTO0000003025 0001.tiff
Wadi es-Sebua, or Valley of the Lions

Christiane Desroches Noblecourt, who remained in charge of the CEDAE (Centre d'Étude et de Documentation sur l'Ancienne Égypte, in English the Documentation and Study Centre for the History of the Art and Civilization of Ancient Egypt) in Cairo, held a leading role within the archeological survey aspect of the campaign. She was tasked with the manner in which notes would be circulated during the project, suggesting that archaeological missions working in Nubia would be required to hand over copies publications and notes produced during the project to the Centre, and abiding by the Centre's publication techniques. Excavations from Egypt would be only required to send over copies of notes, without requiring copies of publications or oversight into said publications. [9] This is theorized to be related to the post-colonial desire to fortify Egyptian identity in a cultural history following the 1952 Egyptian Revolution. [9]

The statue of Ramses the Great at the Great Temple of Abu Simbel is reassembled after having been moved in 1967 to save it from flooding. Abusimbel.jpg
The statue of Ramses the Great at the Great Temple of Abu Simbel is reassembled after having been moved in 1967 to save it from flooding.

The removal of temples was a project of greater difficulty. 18 of the 25 temples in the area affected by the Aswan Dam were rescued in whole or in part during the project. Sites were prioritized by importance, including the most expensive site excavated being Abu Simbel. [8]

A honorary committee was first founded by King Gustav VI Adolf of Sweden to create international support for the campaign, with various world political leaders and UNESCO members as participants. [6] An official International Action Committee was established after under the UNESCO Director General in order to secure funding, service, and equipment from participating member states. [6] They decided that UNESCO would be in charge of planning the program of operations, coordination of labor, and the collection of funding. The intention was for them to serve as an intermediaries between donors and the nations of Egypt and Sudan. [6]

Egyptians contested the oversight of UNESCO, insisting that they could meet demands of donors without UNESCO involvement. [6] Despite this, UNESCO continued a significant amount of oversight throughout the duration of the campaign. [10]

The construction of Lake Nasser, as well as the excavations required in the Nubia campaign, involved the relocation of many Nubians native to the region. First in 1902 due to the construction of the Aswan Lower Dam, then in both 1912 and 1933 due to the rising water levels, and a fourth time after the creation of the Aswan High Dam. The forced relocation stripped many native Nubians of their ancestral homelands, with the compensation of unsuitable homes for living and agriculture. This forced many Nubians to immigrate to cities in Egypt and later Sudan. [1]

Timeline

A timeline of the key dates of the campaign is shown below:

DiplomacyRelocation workAswan Dam
6 April 1959Egypt appeals to UNESCO
24 October 1959Sudan appeals to UNESCO
9 January 1960Work on the Aswan High Dam officially begun
8 March 1960Director-General of Unesco appeals to the international community
Summer 1960Temples of Taffeh, Dabod and Kertassi dismantled by the Egyptian Antiquities Service
Nov. Dec. 1962Unesco's General Conference creates Executive Committee for the International Campaign
1962–63Temple of Kalabsha dismantled, transferred and re-erected
Spring 1964Work begins on transfer of Abu Simbel temples
14 May 1964Diversion of Nile to feed the turbines of the High Dam
September 1964Lake Nasser begins to fill
22 September 1968Completion of the Abu Simbel operation
6 November 1968UNESCO launches International Campaign to save the Temples of Philae
1970Construction of Aswan High Dam completed
1972Work begins on Philae rescue operation; monuments to be transferred to nearby island of Agilkia
May 1974Cofferdam around the island of Philae is completed and water is pumped out
April 1977Foundations of the Philae monuments ready on the island of Agilkia and reconstruction work begins
August 1979Completed at Agilkia
10 March 1980Overall project completion

Overview of Campaign

The campaign was primarily led by Tharwat Okasha, [11] the Egyptian Minister of Culture, René Maheu, Assistant Director-General of UNESCO, and Christiane Desroches Noblecourt, French Egyptologist at the Louvre. [12]

The number of relocated monuments have been stated as 22 [13] or 24 [14] depending on how an individual site is defined. Only one archaeological site in Lower Nubia, Qasr Ibrim, remains in its original location and above water; previously a cliff-top settlement, it was transformed into an island. [15] [16] The relocated sites can be grouped as follows:

The list of relocated monuments is as follows:

HistoricalRelocationCurrent
MonumentImage [17] LocationPeriodDateLed byImageLocation
Abu Simbel (two temples) Illustration by David Roberts, digitally enhanced by rawpixel-com 6.jpg 65m below current location13th century BCE1964–68Coalition Ramsis, Aswan Governorate, Egypt - panoramio.jpg 65m above historical location, in artificial hill
Philae temple complex Illustration by David Roberts, digitally enhanced by rawpixel-com 24.jpg Philae Island 300 BCE – 100 AD1972–79Coalition The-Temple-of-Philae-on-Agilika-Island.jpg Agilkia Island
Temple of Amada Illustration by David Roberts, digitally enhanced by rawpixel-com 59.jpg Amada1400s BCEFrance Tempel Amada 008.jpg New Amada
Temple of Derr Derr ( 125 miles south of Aswan, right bank). Temple dedicated to Pa - Horakhti.jpg Derr1200s BCEEgypt Flickr - archer10 (Dennis) - Egypt-9B-045 - Temple of Derr (Published in Wikipedia).jpg
Tomb of Pennut at Aniba El-Fourdjeh - (architecture hypogeene) - vue exterieure du tombeau - Felix Teynard. LCCN2001695389 (cropped).jpg AnibaEgypt Egypt-9B-068 - Tomb of Pennut (2216653025).jpg
Temple of Kalabsha (except gate, see below) Illustration by David Roberts, digitally enhanced by rawpixel-com 79.jpg Kalabsha30 BCE1962–63Germany Neu-Kalabscha Tempel 03.JPG New Kalabsha
Temple of Gerf Hussein Illustration by David Roberts, digitally enhanced by rawpixel-com 7.jpg Gerf Hussein1200s BCEEgypt The temple of Gerf Hussein by George Snyder.jpg
Kiosk of Qertassi Illustration by David Roberts, digitally enhanced by rawpixel-com 67.jpg Qertassi0 – 100 AD1960Egypt Kiosk of Qertassi by Dennis Jarvis.jpg
Temple of Beit el-Wali John Beasly Greene (American, born France - (Bet-Oualli, Sculptures Historiques de la Paroi de Gauche) - Google Art Project.jpg Beit el-Wali1200s BCEEgypt Beit el-Wali 03.jpg
Temple of Dakka Illustration by David Roberts, digitally enhanced by rawpixel-com 17.jpg Dakka200 BCE – 100 ADEgypt The Temple of Dakka by Dennis Jarvis.jpg New Wadi es-Sebua
Temple of Maharraqa Illustration by David Roberts, digitally enhanced by rawpixel-com 21.jpg Maharraqa0 – 100 ADEgypt Tempel Maharraka 26.jpg
Temples of Wadi es-Sebua Illustration by David Roberts, digitally enhanced by rawpixel-com 41.jpg Wadi es-Sebua1400–1200 BCEEgypt The Wadi es-Sebua Temple by Dennis G. Jarvis.jpg
Horemheb Temple at Abu Oda Abuhoda church.jpg Abu Oda Nubian Museum, Aswan
Temple of Aksha Aksha1200s BCE SNMTempleAksha.jpg National Museum of Sudan
The temples in the fortified town of Buhen Buhen ( 220 miles south of Aswan, left bank ).jpg Buhen1800s BCE The Buhen temple (2) (33690109520).jpg
The temples at Semna East and West fortresses Semna Kumma view from west.jpg Semna1900s BCE Re-erected Semna Temple - Sudan National Museum.jpg
Temple of Debod Illustration by David Roberts, digitally enhanced by rawpixel-com 71.jpg Debod100s BCE1960Spain Templo de Debod in Madrid.jpg Madrid, Spain
Temple of Dendur Illustration by David Roberts, digitally enhanced by rawpixel-com 61.jpg Dendur23 BCEUnited States The Temple of Dendur MET DT563.jpg Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City, United States
Temple of Taffeh Illustration by David Roberts, digitally enhanced by rawpixel-com 5.jpg Taffeh25 BCE – 14 CE1960Netherlands Temple of Taffeh in Leiden by Paul Garland.jpg Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, Leiden, the Netherlands
Temple of Ellesyia Ellesyia1400s BCEItaly Tempio di Ellesiya 8SA0459.tif Museo Egizio, Turin, Italy
Kalabsha Gate Illustration by David Roberts, digitally enhanced by rawpixel-com 26.jpg Kalabsha30 BCE1962–63Germany Kalabsha Gate, ca. 30 BCE, Scharf-Gerstenberg Museum, Berlin (2) (40205520311).jpg Egyptian Museum of Berlin, Germany – part of the Temple of Kalabsha

Historical images, monuments in situ

Description and Contributions

Abu Simbel

A scale model showing the original and current location of the temple (with respect to the water level) at the Nubian Museum, in Aswan Abu Simbel relocation by Zureks.jpg
A scale model showing the original and current location of the temple (with respect to the water level) at the Nubian Museum, in Aswan

One scheme to save the Abu Simbel temples was based on an idea by William MacQuitty to build a clear freshwater dam around the temples, with the water inside kept at the same height as the Nile. There were to be underwater viewing chambers. In 1962 the idea was made into a proposal by architects Jane Drew and Maxwell Fry and civil engineer Ove Arup. [18] They considered that raising the temples ignored the effect of erosion of the sandstone by desert winds. However, the proposal, though acknowledged to be extremely elegant, was rejected. [19]

The salvage of the Abu Simbel temples began in 1964 by a multinational team of archeologists, engineers and skilled heavy equipment operators working together under the UNESCO banner; it cost some US$40 million (equivalent to $632 million in 2024). Between 1964 and 1968, the entire site was carefully cut into large blocks (up to 30 tons, averaging 20 tons), dismantled, lifted and reassembled in a new location 65 metres higher and 200 metres back from the river, in one of the greatest challenges of archaeological engineering in history. [20] Some structures were even saved from under the waters of Lake Nasser. [19]

Philae

Philae flooded by the Aswan Low Dam in 1906. Philae (1906) - TIMEA.jpg
Philae flooded by the Aswan Low Dam in 1906.

In 1902, the Aswan Low Dam was completed on the Nile River by the British. This threatened to submerge many ancient landmarks, including the temple complex of Philae. The height of the dam was raised twice, from 1907 to 1912 and from 1929 to 1934, and the island of Philae was nearly always flooded. In fact, the only times that the complex was not underwater was when the dam's sluices were open from July to October. During this period it was proposed that the temples be relocated, piece by piece, to nearby islands, such as Bigeh or Elephantine. However, the temples' foundations and other architectural supporting structures were strengthened instead. Although the buildings were physically secure, the island's attractive vegetation and the colors of the temples' reliefs were washed away. Also, the bricks of the Philae temples soon became encrusted with silt and other debris carried by the Nile. With each inundation the situation worsened and in the 1960s the island was submerged up to a third of the buildings all year round. [21]

The work began in 1972, and in 1974 a large coffer dam was built, [22] constructed of two rows of steel plates between which a 1 million cubic metres (35 million cubic feet ) of sand was tipped. Any water that seeped through was pumped away. Next the monuments were cleaned and measured, by using photogrammetry, a method that enables the exact reconstruction of the original size of the building blocks that were used by the ancients. Then every building was dismantled into about 40,000 units from 2 to 25 tons, and then transported to the nearby Island of Agilkia, [22] situated on higher ground some 500 metres (1,600 ft) away. Foundations of the Philae monuments were ready on Agilkia by April 1977, and the transfer itself took place between 1977 and 1980. [23]

Individual Egyptian campaigns

The Temple of Dendur at the MET Museum in New York, USA The Temple of Dendur MET DP240337.jpg
The Temple of Dendur at the MET Museum in New York, USA

In addition to participating directly in the high profile salvage operations of Abu Simbel and Philae, the Egyptian Antiquities Organization carried out the rescue of many smaller temples and monuments alone using their own financial and technical means. [24] As early as 1960 Egypt had started to rescue the temples of Taffeh (or Taffa), Debod and Qertassi, followed by Dakka and Maharraqa in 1961 and Dendur in 1962. The temples of Wadi es-Sebua and Beit el Wali and the rock tomb of Pennut at Aniba were moved in 1964 with the support of a US grant, whilst the subsequent re-erection was carried out with Egyptian resources. The Temple of Derr was rescued in 1965, and the temples of Gerf Husein, the chapel of Abu Oda (cut out of rock), the chapels of Qasr Ibrim (the rest of which has remained in situ), and many rock inscriptions and drawings, were also saved. [25]

West German operation at Kalabsha

Early in the campaign, the West German authorities offered to dismantle and re-erect the Temple of Kalabsha, the largest temple in all of Lower Nubia, with costs paid by West Germany. [26] Germany's interest in making a significant contribution stemmed from its Egyptological heritage, including Lepsius' milestone work Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien , as more specifically the work of Franz Christian Gau who had documented Kalabsha as early as 1819. [27]

French operation at Amada

In addition to the work of French archaeologists at Abu Simbel, the French government provided significant technical and financial support for the removal of the Temple of Amada. In 1964, the front portion of the temple was dismantled and transported on rails by the U.A.R. Antiquities Service. French archeologists then excavated the rest of the temple with the same railway system. [28]

Amada was considered "one of the most distinctive and best preserved examples of the art of the 18th dynasty." [29]

Wider archaeological campaign

Given the impending flooding of a wide area, Egypt and Sudan encouraged archaeological teams from across the world to carry out work as broadly as possible. Approximately 40 teams from across the world came to the region, to explore an area of approximately 500 km in length. [30]

In addition to the relocation operations, many countries participated in excavation and preservation work. Some of this work took place at the CEDAE (Centre d'Étude et de Documentation sur l'Ancienne Égypte, in English the Documentation and Study Centre for the History of the Art and Civilization of Ancient Egypt), founded in Cairo in 1955 to coordinate the academic efforts: [31]

Financial contributions

The table below summarizes the contributions towards the project by the global coalition of nations. The vast majority of these contributions funded the operations at Abu Simbel and Philae. [33]

ContributorUSD (thousands)Notes
Flag of the Taliban.svg  Afghanistan 2Government contribution
Flag of Algeria.svg  Algeria 105
Flag of Austria.svg  Austria 37
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium 82
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 2
Flag of Cuba.svg  Cuba 160
Flag of Cyprus.svg  Cyprus 5
Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark 15
Flag of France.svg  France 1,268
Flag of Germany.svg  West Germany 678
Flag of Ghana.svg  Ghana 49
Flag of Greece.svg  Greece 30
Flag of the Vatican City - 2001 version.svg  Holy See 35
Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia 10
Flag of Iraq.svg  Iraq 63
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 1,176
Flag of Japan.svg  Japan 190
Flag of Cambodia.svg  Cambodia 5
Flag of Kuwait.svg  Kuwait 105
Flag of Lebanon.svg  Lebanon 40
Flag of Libya.svg  Libya 26
Flag of Luxembourg.svg  Luxembourg 2
Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia 14
Flag of Mali.svg  Mali 2
Flag of Malta.svg  Malta 0.2
Flag of Monaco.svg  Monaco 10
Flag of Morocco.svg  Morocco 4
Flag of Nepal.svg    Nepal 1
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 557
Flag of Nigeria.svg  Nigeria 128
Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan 130
Flag of the Philippines.svg  Philippines 10
Flag of Qatar.svg  Qatar 60
Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg  Saudi Arabia 8
Flag of Sierra Leone.svg  Sierra Leone 3
Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 525
Flag of Sri Lanka.svg  Sri Lanka 1
Flag of Sudan.svg  Sudan 2
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 500
Flag of Switzerland (Pantone).svg   Switzerland 332
Flag of Syria.svg  Syria 152
Flag of Togo.svg  Togo 1
Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey 3
Flag of Uganda.svg  Uganda 6
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 213
Flag of the United States.svg  United States 18,501
Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg  Yugoslavia 226
Flag of India.svg  India (in kind)415
Flag of Romania.svg  Romania (in kind)5
Total Government contribution25,893
Miscellaneous private contributions36Private contributions
American Committee for the Preservation of Abu Simbel1,251
African Emergency Programme21
Belgium exhibition proceeds154
Canada exhibition proceeds4
France exhibition proceeds459
West Germany exhibition proceeds1,208
Japan exhibition proceeds1,089
Norway exhibition proceeds6
Sweden exhibition proceeds29
UK exhibition proceeds1,601
USSR exhibition proceeds1,602
Flag of the Order of St. John (various).svg  Sovereign Order of Malta 1
Egypt Tourist Tax1,879Other Income
Interest and exchange adjustments1,408
World Food Programme3,518
Philatelic revenue and income from Philae Medals113
Grand total40,273

World Heritage Site

In April 1979, the monuments were inscribed on the World Heritage List as the "Nubian Monuments from Abu Simbel to Philae". The inscribed area includes ten sites, five of which were relocated (all south of the city of Aswan), and five of which remain in their original position (near to the city of Aswan): [34]

Relocated sites, south of the Aswan Low Dam [34]

The relocated Abu Simbel monuments Ramsis, Aswan Governorate, Egypt - panoramio.jpg
The relocated Abu Simbel monuments

Sites in their original location, north of the Aswan Low Dam [34] – although these five sites are grouped within the "Nubian Monuments from Abu Simbel to Philae", they are neither Nubian, nor between Abu Simbel and Philae

Bibliography

UNESCO publications

Other publications

See also

Related Research Articles

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Agilkia Island is an island in the reservoir of the Old Aswan Dam along the Nile River in southern Egypt; it is the present site of the relocated ancient Egyptian temple complex of Philae. Partially to completely flooded by the old dam's construction in 1902, the Philae complex was dismantled and relocated to Agilkia island, as part of a wider UNESCO project related to the 1960s construction of the Aswan High Dam and the eventual flooding of many sites posed by its large reservoir upstream.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Temple of Ellesyia</span> Ancient Egyptian temple now in Italy

The Temple of Ellesyia is an ancient Egyptian rock-cut temple originally located near the site of Qasr Ibrim. It was built during the 18th Dynasty by the Pharaoh Thutmosis III. The temple was dedicated to the deities Amun, Horus and Satis. Tuthmosis III had a small temple carved into the rock at Ellesiya, not far from Abu Simbel, dedicated to Horus of Miam and Satet. The temple is only accessible from the river. The interior features an inverted T-shaped structure, consisting of a corridor and two side chambers. On the walls, scenes depict offerings made by the king to the Egyptian and Nubian gods. The figures face the back wall, where statues of Horus, Satet, and Tuthmosis III on a throne are carved in half-relief.

New Amada is a promontory located near Aswan in Egypt.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Gebel Adda</span>

Gebel Adda was a mountain and archaeological site on the right bank of the Nubian Nile in what is now southern Egypt. The settlement on its crest was continuously inhabited from the late Meroitic period to the Ottoman period, when it was abandoned by the late 18th century. It reached its greatest prominence in the 14th and 15th centuries, when it seemed to have been the capital of late kingdom of Makuria. The site was superficially excavated by the American Research Center in Egypt just before being flooded by Lake Nasser in the 1960s, with much of the remaining excavated material, now stored in the Royal Ontario Museum in Canada, remaining unpublished. Unearthed were Meroitic inscriptions, Old Nubian documents, a large amount of leatherwork, two palatial structures and several churches, some of them with their paintings still intact. The nearby ancient Egyptian rock temple of Horemheb, also known as temple of Abu Oda, was rescued and relocated.

References

  1. 1 2 Hassan, Fekri A. (28 November 2007). "The Aswan Dam and the International Rescue Nubia Campaign". The African Archaeological Review. 24 (3/4): 73–94 via JSTOR.
  2. The World Heritage Convention: "The event that aroused particular international concern was the decision to build the Aswan High Dam in Egypt, which would have flooded the valley containing the Abu Simbel temples, a treasure of ancient Egyptian civilization. In 1959, after an appeal from the governments of Egypt and Sudan, UNESCO launched an international safeguarding campaign. Archaeological research in the areas to be flooded was accelerated. Above all, the Abu Simbel and Philae temples were dismantled, moved to dry ground and reassembled. The campaign cost about US$80 million, half of which was donated by some 50 countries, showing the importance of solidarity and nations' shared responsibility in conserving outstanding cultural sites. Its success led to other safeguarding campaigns, such as saving Venice and its Lagoon (Italy) and the Archaeological Ruins at Moenjodaro (Pakistan), and restoring the Borobodur Temple Compounds (Indonesia). Consequently, UNESCO initiated, with the help of the International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS), the preparation of a draft convention on the protection of cultural heritage."
  3. Hassan, Fekri A. (28 November 2007). "The Aswan Dam and the International Rescue Nubia Campaign". The African Archaeological Review. 24 (3/4): 73–94 via JSTOR.
  4. Victory in Nubia: the greatest archaeological rescue operation of all time
  5. Meskell, L. (2018). A Future in Ruins: UNESCO, World Heritage, and the Dream of Peace. Oxford University Press. pp. 71–72. ISBN   978-0-19-064834-3 . Retrieved 4 November 2022.
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Hassan, Fekri A. (28 November 2007). "The Aswan Dam and the International Rescue Nubia Campaign". The African Archaeological Review. 24 (3/4): 73–94 via JSTOR.
  7. A Common trust: the preservation of the ancient monuments of Nubia, 1960, UNESCO CUA.60/D.22/A, page 22
  8. 1 2 3 Wilson, John A. (16 October 1967). "The Nubian Campaign: An Exercise in International Archaeology". Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. 111 (5): 268–271 via JSTOR.
  9. 1 2 Carruthers, William (1 July 2020). "Records of Dispossession: Archival Thinking and UNESCO'S Nubian Campaign in Egypt and Sudan". International Journal of Islamic Architecture. 9 (2): 1–13 via intellectdiscover.com.
  10. Carruthers, William (2022). Flooded Pasts: UNESCO, Nubia, and the Recolonization of Archaeology. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press. pp. 237–273. ISBN   9781501766442.
  11. Sometimes spelled Saroite Okacha (in the French style of Arabic transliteration) in literature related to the International Nubian Campaign.
  12. Säve-Söderbergh 1987, p. 67.
  13. File:International Campaign to Save the Monuments of Nubia.pdf
  14. 1 2 3 4 5 Allais 2012, p. 179.
  15. A.J. Clapham; P.A. Rowley-Conwy (2007). "New Discoveries at Qasr Ibrim". In R.T.J. Cappers (ed.). Fields of Change: Progress in African Archaeobotany. Groningen archaeological studies. David Brown Book Company. p. 157. ISBN   978-90-77922-30-9 . Retrieved 5 November 2022. ... Qasr Ibrim is the only in situ site left in Lower Nubia since the flooding of the Nile valley
  16. Ruffini, G.R. (2012). Medieval Nubia: A Social and Economic History. Oxford University Press. ISBN   978-0-19-999620-9 . Retrieved 5 November 2022. Qasr Ibrim is critically important in a number of ways. It is the only site in Lower Nubia that remained above water after the completion of the Aswan high dam.
  17. The monuments of Nubia had been documented by early travellers and archaeologists, particularly in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Below are notable illustrations of the monuments published in the 1840s by David Roberts in his The Holy Land, Syria, Idumea, Arabia, Egypt, and Nubia
  18. Fry Drew Knight Creamer, 1978, London, Lund Humphries
  19. 1 2 Säve-Söderbergh 1987, p. 98-126.
  20. Spencer, Terence (1966). The Race to Save Abu Simbel Is Won. Life magazine, 2 December 1966.
  21. Säve-Söderbergh 1987.
  22. 1 2 Kockelmann, Holger (24 April 2012). "Philae". UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology. 1 (1): 8 via escholarship.org.
  23. Säve-Söderbergh 1987, p. 229-231.
  24. Säve-Söderbergh 1987, p. 135.
  25. Säve-Söderbergh 1987, p. 135-136.
  26. Stock, H.; Siegler, K.G. (1965). Kalabsha: der grösste Tempel Nubiens und das Abenteuer seiner Rettung (in German). F.A. Brockhaus. Retrieved 10 November 2022.
  27. Säve-Söderbergh 1987, p. 128-129.
  28. "Amada; a whole temple moved on rails". UNESCO. December 1964. pp. 9–10. Retrieved 18 March 2024.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  29. Säve-Söderbergh 1987, p. 132-133.
  30. Säve-Söderbergh 1987, p. 205.
  31. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Säve-Söderbergh 1987, p. Annex I, page 223-226.
  32. Excavation Shokan. Research in Nubia from 1962 to 1964 on website rmo.nl. Retrieved 2023-08-23.
  33. Säve-Söderbergh 1987, p. Annex IV, page 232-233.
  34. 1 2 3 Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "Nubian Monuments from Abu Simbel to Philae". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 12 October 2022.