Northeast Asia or Northeastern Asia is a geographical subregion of Asia; its northeastern landmass and islands are bounded by the Pacific Ocean.
The term Northeast Asia was popularized during the 1930s by American historian and political scientist Robert Kerner. Under Kerner's definition, "Northeast Asia" included the Mongolian Plateau, the Northeast China Plain, the Korean Peninsula, the Japanese archipelago and the mountainous regions of the Russian Far East, stretching from the Lena River in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east.
The definition of Northeast Asia is not static but often changes according to the context in which it is discussed.
In common usage, the term Northeast Asia typically refers to a region which includes Northern China.Other countries and territories which make up Northeast Asia are the Russian Far East, Mongolia, Japan, North Korea and South Korea, which can be seen as a combination of North Asia and East Asia.
The Economic Research Institute for Northeast Asia defines the region as Russia, Mongolia, Japan, Korea and China.
The Yellow Sea, the Sea of Okhotsk, and the East China Sea are also included in discussions of the region.
Northeast Asia is one of the most important economic regions of the world, accounting for 25.3% of the world's nominal GDP in 2019, which is slightly larger than the United States. It is also one of the major political centers and has significant influence on international affairs. By the end of the 1990s, Northeast Asia had a share of 12% of the global energy consumption, with a strong increasing trend. By 2030, the major economic growth in the region is expected to double or triple this share.
In biogeography, Northeast Asia generally refers roughly to the area spanning Japan, the Korean Peninsula, Northeast China, and the Russian Far East between Lake Baikal in Central Siberia and the Pacific Ocean.
Northeast Asia is mainly covered by temperate forest, taiga, and the Eurasian steppe, while tundra is found in the region's far North. Summer and winter temperatures are highly contrasted. It is also a mountainous area.
Russia is the largest country in the world, covering over 17 million square kilometres, and encompassing more than one-eighth of Earth's inhabited land area. Russia extends across eleven time zones, and has the most borders of any country in the world, with sixteen sovereign nations.
Manchuria is an exonym for several large overlapping historical and geographic regions of Russia and China in Northeast Asia. Depending on the context, it may refer to:
The Trans–Siberian Railway is a network of railways connecting Western Russia to the Russian Far East. It is the longest railway line in the world, with a length of over 9,289 kilometres, starting from the capital Moscow, the largest city in Europe, and ending at Vladivostok, on the Pacific Ocean.
The Evenks are a Tungusic people of North Asia. In Russia, the Evenks are recognised as one of the indigenous peoples of the Russian North, with a population of 38,396. In China, the Evenki form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognised by the People's Republic of China, with a population of 30,875. There are 537 Evenks in Mongolia, called Khamnigan in the Mongolian language.
The Russian Far East is a region in Northeast Asia. It is the easternmost part of Russia, and is administered as part of the Far Eastern Federal District, which is located between Lake Baikal and the Pacific Ocean—and shares land borders with Mongolia, China, and North Korea to its south, as well as maritime boundaries with Japan to its southeast, and with the United States along the Bering Strait to its northeast.
The Soviet Union was the world's largest country throughout its entire existence, covering an area of over 22,402,200 square kilometres (8,649,500 sq mi), and approximately one-seventh of Earth's land surface. It was only slightly smaller in land area than the entire continent of North America, and spanned most of Europe and Asia, and thus Eurasia. Its largest and most populous republic, Russian SFSR, dominated the nation geographically, covering roughly three-quarters of the surface area of the union, having the same borders as contemporary Russia.
The Far Eastern Republic, officially The Far Eastern Soviet Republic, sometimes called the Chita Republic, was a nominally independent state that existed from April 1920 to November 1922 in the easternmost part of the Russian Far East. Although theoretically independent, it largely came under the control of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR), which envisaged it as a buffer state between the RSFSR and the territories occupied by Japan during the Russian Civil War of 1917–1922. Its first president was Alexander Krasnoshchyokov.
A subregion is a part of a larger region or continent and is usually based on location. Cardinal directions, such as south are commonly used to define a subregion.
The Soviet invasion of Manchuria, formally known as the Manchurian strategic offensive operation or simply the Manchurian operation, began on 9 August 1945 with the Soviet invasion of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo. It was the largest campaign of the 1945 Soviet–Japanese War, which resumed hostilities between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the Empire of Japan after almost six years of peace. Since 1983, the operation has sometimes been called Operation August Storm after U.S. Army historian David Glantz used this title for a paper on the subject.
The Asia-Pacific (APAC) is the part of the world in or near the Western Pacific Ocean. Asia-Pacific varies in area depending on context, but it generally includes East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, Australia, and Oceania.
The Amurian Plate is a minor tectonic plate in the northern and eastern hemispheres. It covers Manchuria, the Korean Peninsula, the Sea of Japan, and Primorsky Krai. Once thought to be a part of the Eurasian Plate, the Amurian Plate is now generally considered to be a separate plate moving southeast with respect to the Eurasian Plate. The Amurian Plate is named after the Amur River, which forms the border between the Russian Far East and Northeastern China. It is bounded on the north, west, and southwest by the Eurasian Plate, on the east by the Okhotsk Plate, to the southeast by the Philippine Sea Plate along the Suruga Trough and the Nankai Trough, and the Okinawa Plate, and the Yangtze Plate.
The Soviet–Japanese War, known in Mongolia as the Liberation War of 1945 was a military conflict within the Second World War beginning soon after midnight on 9 August 1945, with the Soviet invasion of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo. The Soviets and Mongolians ended Japanese control of Manchukuo, Mengjiang, northern Korea, Karafuto, and the Chishima Islands. The defeat of Japan's Kwantung Army helped bring about the Japanese surrender and the termination of World War II. The Soviet entry into the war was a significant factor in the Japanese government's decision to surrender unconditionally, as it made apparent that the Soviet Union was not willing to act as a third party in negotiating an end to hostilities on conditional terms.
East Asia, sometimes defined geographically as Northeast Asia and abbreviated as EA or NEA, is along with Southeast Asia located at the far eastern regions of Asia, which is defined in both geographical and ethno-cultural terms.
The Khorchin are a subgroup of the Mongols that speak the Khorchin dialect of Mongolian and predominantly live in northeastern Inner Mongolia of China.
The Amur Annexation was the annexation of the southeast corner of Siberia by the Russian Empire in 1858–1860 through a series of unequal treaties forced upon the Qing dynasty of China. The two areas involved are Priamurye between the Amur River and the Stanovoy Range to the north, and Primorye which runs down the coast from the Amur mouth to the Korean border, including the island of Sakhalin. The territory of Outer Manchuria was formerly under the administration of Qing China.
Hokushin-ron was a pre-World War II political doctrine of the Empire of Japan which stated that Manchuria and Siberia were Japan's sphere of interest and that the potential value to Japan for economic and territorial expansion in those areas was greater than elsewhere. Its supporters were sometimes called the Strike North Group. It enjoyed wide support within the Imperial Japanese Army during the interwar period, but was abandoned in 1939 after military defeat on the Mongolian front at the Battles of Khalkhin Gol and the signing of Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact in 1941. It was superseded by the diametrically-opposite rival policy, Nanshin-ron, which regarded Southeast Asia and the Pacific Islands as Japan's political and economic sphere of influence and aimed to acquire the resources of European colonies while neutralising the threat of Western military forces in the Pacific.
Kantokuen was an operational plan created by the General Staff of the Imperial Japanese Army for an invasion and occupation of the Russian Far East, capitalizing on the outbreak of the Soviet-German War in June 1941. Involving seven Japanese armies and a major portion of the empire's naval and air forces, it would have been the largest combined arms operation in Japanese history up to that point, and one of the largest of all time.