Papyrus 45

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Papyrus 45
New Testament manuscript
P. Chester Beatty I, folio 13-14, recto.jpg
Folios 13-14 with part of the Gospel of Luke
NameP. Chester Beatty I
Sign45
Text Gospels, Acts
Datec. 250
Script Greek
Found Egypt
Now at Chester Beatty Library
CiteF.G. Kenyon, The Chester Beatty Biblical Papyri (London: E. Walker), 1933
Size30 leaves; 10 in x 8 in
Typeeclectic text-type
Category I

Papyrus 45 (45 or P. Chester Beatty I) is an early New Testament manuscript which is a part of the Chester Beatty Papyri. It has been paleographically dated to the early 3rd century CE. [1] It contains the texts of Matthew 20-21 and 25-26; Mark 4-9 and 11-12; Luke 6-7 and 9-14; John 4-5 and 10-11; and Acts 4-17. The manuscript is currently housed at the Chester Beatty Library, Dublin, Ireland, except for one leaf containing Matt. 25:41-26:39 which is at the Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vienna (Pap. Vindob. G. 31974). [2] [3]

New Testament Second division of the Christian biblical canon

The New Testament is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first being the Old Testament. The New Testament discusses the teachings and person of Jesus, as well as events in first-century Christianity. Christians regard both the Old and New Testaments together as sacred scripture.

Chester Beatty Papyri A collection of 3rd-century Christian manuscripts

The Chester Beatty Biblical Papyri or simply the Chester Beatty Papyri are a group of early papyrus manuscripts of biblical texts. The manuscripts are in Greek and are of Christian origin. There are eleven manuscripts in the group, seven consisting of portions of Old Testament books, three consisting of portions of the New Testament, and one consisting of portions of the Book of Enoch and an unidentified Christian homily. Most are dated to the 3rd century. They are housed in part at the Chester Beatty Library in Dublin, Ireland, and in part at the University of Michigan, among a few other locations.

Gospel of Matthew Books of the New Testament

The Gospel According to Matthew is the first book of the New Testament and one of the three synoptic gospels. It tells how the promised Messiah, Jesus, rejected by Israel, is killed, is raised from the dead, and finally sends the disciples to preach the gospel to the whole world. Most scholars believe it was composed between AD 80 and 90, with a range of possibility between AD 70 to 110. The anonymous author was probably a male Jew, standing on the margin between traditional and non-traditional Jewish values, and familiar with technical legal aspects of scripture being debated in his time. Writing in a polished Semitic "synagogue Greek", he drew on the Gospel of Mark as a source, and likely used a hypothetical collection of sayings known as the Q source, although the existence of Q has been questioned by some scholars. He also used material unique to his own community, called the M source or "Special Matthew".

Contents

Condition of the manuscript

The manuscript is heavily damaged and fragmented. The papyrus was bound in a codex, which may have consisted of 220 pages, however only 30 survive (two of Matthew, six of Mark, seven of Luke, two of John, and 13 of Acts). All of the pages have lacunae, with very few lines complete. The leaves of Matthew and John are the smallest. The original pages were roughly 10 inches by 8 inches. Unlike many of the other surviving manuscripts from the 3rd century which usually contained just the Gospels, or just the Catholic letters, or just the Pauline epistles, this manuscript possibly contained more than one grouping of New Testament texts. This hypothesis is attributed to the use of gatherings of two leaves, a single-quire that most other codices had. [4]

Codex book with handwritten content

A codex, plural codices, is a book constructed of a number of sheets of paper, vellum, papyrus, or similar materials. The term is now usually only used of manuscript books, with hand-written contents, but describes the format that is now near-universal for printed books in the Western world. The book is usually bound by stacking the pages and fixing one edge to a spine, which may just be thicker paper, or with stiff boards, called a hardback, or in elaborate historical examples a treasure binding.

Lacuna (manuscripts) Gap in a manuscript, inscription, text, painting, or a musical work

A lacuna is a gap in a manuscript, inscription, text, painting, or a musical work. A manuscript, text, or section suffering from gaps is said to be "lacunose" or "lacunulose". Some books intentionally add lacunas to be filled in by the owner, often as a game or to encourage children to create their own stories.

Textual character

Because of the extent of the damage, determining the text's type has been difficult for scholars. The manuscript was obtained by Alfred Chester Beatty in the first half of the 20th century, and published in The Chester Beatty Biblical Papyri, Descriptions and Texts of Twelve Manuscripts on Papyrus of the Greek Bible by Frederic G. Kenyon in 1933. In this work, Kenyon identified the text of the Gospel of Mark in 45 as Caesarean, following the definition of Burnett Hillman Streeter. [5] Hollis Huston criticized Kenyon's transcription of various partially surviving words, and concluded that chapters 6 and 11 of Mark in 45 could not neatly fit into one text-type, especially not Caesarean, because the manuscript predates the distinctive texts for each type from the 4th and 5th centuries. [6]

Alfred Chester Beatty Irish-American mining businessman, naturalised British, and honorary citizen of Ireland

Sir Alfred Chester Beatty, who always signed his name A. Chester Beatty, was an American mining magnate, philanthropist and one of the most successful businessmen of his generation, who was given the epithet the "King of Copper" as a reference to his fortune. He became a naturalised British citizen in 1933, knighted in 1954 and made an honorary citizen of Ireland in 1957. He was a collector of African, Asian, European and Middle Eastern manuscripts, rare printed books, prints and objets d'art. Upon his move to Dublin in 1950 he established the Chester Beatty Library on Shrewsbury Road to house his collection; it opened to the public in 1954. The Collections were bequeathed to the Irish people and entrusted to the care of the State in his Irish will. He donated a number of papyrus documents to the British Museum, his second wife's collection of Marie Antoinette's personal furniture to the Louvre and a number of his personal paintings that once hung in the Picture Gallery of his London home to the National Gallery of Ireland. He also founded the Chester Beatty Institute in London which was later renamed the Institute of Cancer Research.

Frederic G. Kenyon British palaeographer and biblical and classical scholar

Sir Frederic George Kenyon was a British palaeographer and biblical and classical scholar. He held a series of posts at the British Museum from 1889 to 1931. He was also the president of the British Academy from 1917 to 1921. From 1918 to 1952 he was Gentleman Usher of the Purple Rod.

Caesarean text-type is the term proposed by certain scholars to denote a consistent pattern of variant readings that is claimed to be apparent in certain Greek manuscripts of the four Gospels, but which is not found in any of the other commonly recognized New Testament text-types; the Byzantine text-type, the Western text-type and the Alexandrian text-type. In particular a common text-type has been proposed to be found: in the ninth/tenth century Codex Koridethi; in Minuscule 1 ; and in those Gospel quotations found in the third century works of Origen of Alexandria, which were written after he had settled in Caesarea. The early translations of the Gospels in Armenian and Georgian also appear to witness to many of the proposed characteristic Caesarean readings, as do the small group of minuscule manuscripts classed as Family 1 and Family 13.

45 has a great number of singular readings. [7] On the origin of these singular readings, E. C. Colwell comments:

Ernest Cadman Colwell was an American biblical scholar, textual critic and palaeographer.

"As an editor the scribe of 45 wielded a sharp axe. The most striking aspect of his style is its conciseness. The dispensable word is dispensed with. He omits adverbs, adjectives, nouns, participles, verbs, personal pronouns—without any compensating habit of addition. He frequently omits phrases and clauses. He prefers the simple to the compound word. In short, he favors brevity. He shortens the text in at least fifty places in singular readings alone. But he does not drop syllables or letters. His shortened text is readable." [8]

Text-type

45 has a relatively close statistical relationship with Codex Washingtonianus in Mark, however, and to a lesser extent Family 13. Citing Larry Hurtado's study, Text-Critical Methodology and the Pre-Caesarean Text: Codex W in the Gospel of Mark, [9] Eldon Jay Epp has agreed that there is no connection to a Caesarean or pre-Caesarean text in Mark. There is also not a strong connection to the Neutral text of Codex Vaticanus, the Western text of Codex Bezae, and the Byzantine text of the textus receptus. [10] Another hypothesis is that 45 comes from the Alexandrian tradition, but has many readings intended to "improve" the text stylistically, and a number of harmonizations. While still difficult to place historically in a category of texts, most scholars today agree that the text is not Caesarean, contrary to Kenyon.

Codex Washingtonianus handwritten copy of the Bible in Greek

The Codex Washingtonianus or Codex Washingtonensis, designated by W or 032, ε 014 (Soden), also called the Washington Manuscript of the Gospels, and The Freer Gospel, contains the four biblical gospels and was written in Greek on vellum in the 4th or 5th century. The manuscript is lacunose.

Family 13, also known Ferrar Group, is a group of Greek Gospel manuscripts, varying in date from the 11th to the 15th century, which display a distinctive pattern of variant readings — especially placing the story of Jesus and the woman taken in adultery in the Gospel of Luke, rather than in the Gospel of John 7:53-8:11. Text of Luke 22:43-44 is placed after Matt 26:39. The text of Matthew 16:2b–3 is absent. They are all thought to derive from a lost majuscule Gospel manuscript, probably dating from the 7th century. The group takes its name from minuscule 13, now in Paris.

Alexandrian text-type

The Alexandrian text-type, associated with Alexandria, is one of several text-types used in New Testament textual criticism to describe and group the textual characters of biblical manuscripts.

The textual character of the manuscript varies from book to book. In Mark, multivariate analysis of apparatus data from the UBS Greek New Testament (4th ed.) [11] places 45 in a group which includes W (for chapters 5-16), Θ, Family 1, 28, 205, 565; the Sinaitic Syriac, Armenian, and Georgian versions; and Origen's quotations. [12] This group corresponds to what Streeter called an "Eastern type" of the text. [13] In Luke, an eleven-way PAM partition based on Greek manuscript data associated with the INTF's Parallel Pericopes volume [14] places the manuscript in a group with C (04), L (019), Ξ (040), 33, 892, and 1241. [15] In Acts it is closest to the Alexandrian text.

Codex Regius (New Testament) handwritten copy of the Bible

Codex Regius designated by siglum Le or 019, ε 56, is a Greek uncial manuscript of the New Testament, dated paleographically to the 8th century. The manuscript is lacunose. It has marginalia.

Codex Zacynthius manuscript

Codex Zacynthius (designated by siglum Ξ or 040 in the Gregory-Aland numbering; A1 in von Soden) is a Greek New Testament codex, dated paleographically to the 6th century. First thought to have been written in the 8th century, it is a palimpsest—the original (lower) text was washed off its vellum pages and overwritten in the 12th or 13th century. The upper text of the palimpsest contains weekday Gospel lessons; the lower text contains portions of the Gospel of Luke, deciphered by biblical scholar and palaeographer Tregelles in 1861. The lower text is of most interest to scholars.

It is calculated that the codex omitted the Pericope Adulterae (John 7:53-8:11). [16]

Notable readings

Matthew 25:41-46 in Papyrus 45 P45 Matthieu 25.41-46.jpg
Matthew 25:41-46 in Papyrus 45

Mark 6:40

κατὰ ἑκατὸν καὶ κατὰ πεντήκοντα:
Omit. : 45
Incl. : All other witnesses

Mark 6:44

τοὺς ἄρτους:
Omit. : 45 א D W Θ f1 f13 28 565 700 2542 lat copsa
Incl. : A B L 33. 2427 (c) f syp.h bo

Mark 6:45

εἰς τὸ πέραν:
Omit. : 45 W f1 118 itq syrs
Incl. : All other witnesses

Mark 8:12

λέγω ὑμῖν:
Omit. : 45 W
Incl. (without ὑμῖν): B L 892 pc
Incl. (full): All other witnesses

Mark 8:15

των Ηρωδιανων: 45 W Θ f1,13 28 565 1365 2542 iti.k copsamss arm geo
Ἡρῴδου: All other witnesses

Mark 8:35

ἐμοῦ καὶ:
Omit. : 45 D 28 700 ita.b.d.i.k.n.r1 syrs arm Origen
Incl. : All other witnesses

Mark 9:27

καὶ ἀνέστη:
Omit. : 45(vid) W itk.l sys.p
Incl. : All other witnesses

Luke 6:48

διὰ τὸ καλῶς οἰκοδομῆσθαι αὐτήν: 75vid א B L W Ξ 33 157 579 892 1241 1342 2542 syhmg sa bopt
τεθεμελίωτο γὰρ ἐπὶ τὴν πέτραν: A C D Θ Ψ f1,13 700c Byz latt syrp.h cop bopt arm, geo, goth
Omit. : 45(vid) 700* syrs

Luke 11:33

οὐδὲ ὑπὸ τὸν μόδιον:
Omit. : 4575 L Γ Ξ 070 f1 22 69 700* 788 1241 2542 syrs copsa arm, geo
Incl. : א A B C D W Θ Ψ f 13 latt sy(c.p).h; (Cl)

Luke 11:44

γραμματεις και Φαρισαιοι υποκριται:
Omit. : 4575 א B C L f1 33 1241 2542 ita.aur.c.e.ff2.l vg syrs,c sa cop bopt arm geo
Incl. : A (D) W Θ Ψ f 13 it syp.h bopt

Luke 11:54

ινα κατηγορησωσιν αυτου:
Omit. : 4575 א B L 579 892* 1241 2542 syrs,c co
Incl. : A C (D) W Θ Ψ f 1.13 33 lat vg sy(p).h

Luke 12:9

Omit. verse: 45 it e syrs boms
Incl. verse: All other witnesses

Luke 12:47

μὴ ἑτοιμάσας ἢ:
Omit. : 45
Incl. : All other witnesses

John 11:7

τοῖς μαθηταῖς:
Omit. : 4566* it e l
Incl. : 6(vid).66c.75 א A B D K Γ Δ L W Θ Ψ 0250 f13 l 844 al lat sy co f1 33 m

John 11:25

καὶ ἡ ζωή:
Omit. : 45 it 1 syrs Diatessaronsyr Cyprian
Incl. : All other witnesses

John 11:51

τοῦ ἐνιαυτοῦ ἐκείνου:
Omit. : 45 it e l syrs
Incl. : All other witnesses

Acts 5:37

πάντες:
Omit. : 45 D it
Incl. : All other witnesses

Acts 8:18

το αγιον:
Omit. : א A c B sa mae
Incl. : 4574 A* C D E Ψ 33 1739 Byz latt syr copbo

Acts 9:17

Ἰησοῦς:
Omit. : Byz m
Incl. : 4574 א A B C E Ψ 33 81 323 614 945 1175 1739

Acts 9:21

οἱ ἀκούοντες:
Omit. : 4574 Ψ* pc
Incl. : All other witnesses

Acts 9:38

δύο ἄνδρας:
Omit. : Byz m
Incl. : 4574 א A B C E Ψ 36 81 323 614 945 1175 1739 latt syr co

Acts 10:10

ἐγένετο: 74vid א A B C 36 81 323 453 945 1175 1739 Origen
επεπεσεν: E Ψ 33 Byz latt syr
ηλθεν: 45

Acts 10:13

Πέτρε:
Omit. : 45 gig Clement Ambrose
Incl. : All other witnesses

Acts 10:16

εὐθὺς:
Omit. : 45 36 453 1175 it d syrp samss boms
Incl. : P74 א A B C E 81 pc vg syhmg bo
παλιν : (❦ D) Ψ 33vid. 1739 p syh samss mae

Acts 10:33

κυρίου: 45vid א A B C E Ψ 81* 323 614 945 1175 1739 lat syrh bo
θεου: 74 D Byz syrp sa mae boms

Acts 11:12

μηδὲν διακρίναντα:
Omit. : 45 D itl.p* syrh
Incl. : א(*) A B (E Ψ) 33. 81. 945. (1175). 1739 al

Acts 13:48

κυρίου: 4574 א A C Ψ 33 1739 Byz gig vg samss mae
θεου: B D E 049 323 453 sams bo
θεον: 614 syr pc

Acts 13:49

τοῦ κυρίου:
Omit. : 45 pc
Incl. : All other witnesses

Acts 15:20

τῆς πορνείας:
Omit. : 45
Incl. : All other witnesses

Acts 15:40

κυρίου: 74 א A B D 33 81 itd vgst sa
θεου: 45 C E Ψ 1739 Byz gig itw vgcl syr bo

Acts 16:32

κυρίου: 4574 א 2 A C (D) E Ψ 33 1739 Byz lat syr cop
θεου: א* B pc

Acts 17:13

καὶ ταράσσοντες:
Omit. : 45 E Byz
Incl. : 74 א A B D(*) (❦ Ψ) 33. 36. 81. 323. 614. 945. 1175. 1505. 1739 al lat sy sa (bo)

See also

Notes and references

  1. F. G. Kenyon, The Chester Beatty Biblical Papyri, Descriptions and Texts of Twelve Manuscripts on Papyrus of the Greek Bible, Fasciculus I, General Introduction (Emery Walker Ltd., 1933), p. x.
  2. Kurt and Barbara Aland, Der Text des Neuen Testaments. Einführung in die wissenschaftlichen Ausgaben sowie in Theorie und Praxis der modernen Textkritik. Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, Stuttgart 1989, p. 109. ISBN   3-438-06011-6
  3. "Liste Handschriften". Münster: Institute for New Testament Textual Research. Retrieved 26 August 2011.
  4. Bruce M. Metzger, Bart D. Ehrman, The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption and Restoration, Oxford University Press (New York - Oxford, 2005), p. 54.
  5. Huston 1955, p. 262
  6. Huston 1955, pp. 265, 268, 270-271.
  7. Barbara Aland, The Significance of the Chester Beatty in Early Church History, in: The Earliest Gospels ed. Charles Horton, London 2004, p. 110.
  8. Ernest Cadman Colwell, “Scribal Habits in the Early Papyri: A Study in the Corruption of the Text,” in: "The Bible in Modern Scholarship" ed. J. P. Hyatt, New York: Abingdon Press 1965, p.383.
  9. Hurtado, Text-Critical Methodology and the Pre-Caesarean Text, 1981.
  10. Epp 1974, p. 395
  11. Aland et al. (eds), Greek New Testament, 4th rev. ed., Stuttgart: German Bible Society, 1998
  12. Timothy J. Finney. "How To Discover Textual Groups" . Retrieved 2018-11-16.
  13. Streeter, B. H. (1924). The Four Gospels. London: Macmillan. pp. 27, 108.
  14. Holger Strutwolf and Klaus Wachtel (eds), Novum Testamentum Graecum: Editio Critica Maior: Parallel Pericopes: Special Volume Regarding the Synoptic Gospels (Stuttgart: German Bible Society, 2011)
  15. PAM (partitioning around medoids) is a multivariate analysis technique. For a description, see Timothy J. Finney. "Views of New Testament Textual Space" . Retrieved 2013-03-16.
  16. T. C. Skeat, A Codicological Analysis of the Chester Beatty Papyrus Codex of Gospels and Acts (P 45), in: T. C. Skeat and J. K. Elliott, The collected biblical writings of T. C. Skeat, Brill 2004, p. 147.

Further reading

Related Research Articles

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