Three-source hypothesis

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The arrows indicate information flow. As with the two-source hypothesis, supporters of the three-source hypothesis may or may not posit that Mark had access to the sayings collection. Three-source (Mark-Q Matthew) theory.svg
The arrows indicate information flow. As with the two-source hypothesis, supporters of the three-source hypothesis may or may not posit that Mark had access to the sayings collection.

The three-source hypothesis is a candidate solution to the synoptic problem. It combines aspects of the two-source hypothesis and the Farrer hypothesis. It states that the Gospel of Matthew and the Gospel of Luke used the Gospel of Mark and a sayings collection as primary sources, but that the Gospel of Luke also used the Gospel of Matthew as a subsidiary source. The hypothesis is named after the three documents it posits as sources, namely the sayings collection, the Gospel of Mark, and the Gospel of Matthew.

Contents

The sayings collection may be identified with Q, or with a subset of Q [1] if some (typically narrative-related) material normally assigned to Q is instead attributed to Matthew's creativity in conjunction with Luke's use of Matthew.

This theory has been advocated by Heinrich Julius Holtzmann, [2] Eduard Simons, [3] Hans Hinrich Wendt, [4] Edward Y. Hincks, [5] Robert Morgenthaler [6] and Robert H. Gundry. [7]

Alternatively, M.A.T. Linssen [8] proposes it as a variant by equating the sayings collection to The Gospel of Thomas, suggesting that Matthew and Luke worked together to write different gospels, each targeted at their own audience

See also

Related Research Articles

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A four-document hypothesis or four-source hypothesis is an explanation for the relationship between the three Gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke. It posits that there were at least four sources to the Gospel of Matthew and the Gospel of Luke: the Gospel of Mark, and three lost sources: Q, M, and L. It was proposed by Burnett Hillman Streeter in 1925, who refined the two-source hypothesis into a four-source hypothesis.

The Common Sayings Source is one of many theories that attempts to provide insight into the Synoptic Problem. The theory posits that the Gospel of Thomas, a sayings gospel, and the Q source, a hypothetical sayings gospel, have a common source. Elements of this Common Sayings Source can be found in the text of the Gospel of Thomas and what scholars are proposing existed in the Q source. The high level of similarities between the two sources suggests that both documents are later redactions of a single source, the original Common Sayings Source, which was then redacted by different groups to suit their own needs.

Jerusalem school hypothesis Hypothesis for the synoptic problem, developed by Robert Lindsey, that Luke and Matthew both relied on older texts now lost

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Two-gospel hypothesis Hypothesis is that the Gospel of Matthew was written before the Gospel of Luke, and that both were written earlier than the Gospel of Mark; proposed solution to the Synoptic Problem

The two-gospel hypothesis is that the Gospel of Matthew was written before the Gospel of Luke, and that both were written earlier than the Gospel of Mark. It is a proposed solution to the synoptic problem, which concerns the pattern of similarities and differences between the three Gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke. The hypothesis, following an original proposal by Augustine of Hippo and expanded by Johann Jakob Griesbach, was introduced in its current form by William Farmer in 1964.

Q source Hypothetical source of gospel contents

The Q source is a hypothetical written collection of primarily Jesus' sayings (logia). Q is part of the common material found in the Gospels of Matthew and Luke but not in the Gospel of Mark. According to this hypothesis, this material was drawn from the early Church's oral tradition.

Oral gospel traditions

Oral gospel traditions, cultural information passed on from one generation to the next by word of mouth, were the first stage in the formation of the written gospels. These oral traditions included different types of stories about Jesus. For example, people told anecdotes about Jesus healing the sick and debating with his opponents. The traditions also included sayings attributed to Jesus, such as parables and teachings on various subjects which, along with other sayings, formed the oral gospel tradition.

Hebrew Gospel hypothesis Group of theories for the synoptic problem, stating that a lost Hebrew or Aramaic gospel lies behind the canonical gospels; based upon a 2nd-century tradition from Papias of Hierapolis, that the apostle Matthew composed such a gospel

The Hebrew Gospel hypothesis is a group of theories based on the proposition that a lost gospel in Hebrew or Aramaic lies behind the four canonical gospels. It is based upon an early Christian tradition, deriving from the 2nd-century bishop Papias of Hierapolis, that the apostle Matthew composed such a gospel. Papias appeared to say that this Hebrew or Aramaic gospel was subsequently translated into the canonical gospel of Matthew, but modern studies have shown this to be untenable. Modern variants of the hypothesis survive, but have not found favor with scholars as a whole.

Q+/Papias hypothesis Hypothesis about the synoptic problem that Mark knew Q, Mathew knew Q and Mark, and Luke knew Q, Mark, and Matthew, and that Papias mention of a Hebrew Matthew actually refers to Q

Advanced by Dennis R. MacDonald, the Q+/Papias hypothesis (Q+/PapH) offers an alternative solution to the synoptic problem. MacDonald prefers to call this expanded version of Q Logoi of Jesus, which is supposed to have been its original title.

Wilke hypothesis Proposed solution to the synoptic problem, that Mark was used as a source by Luke, and both of these were used as sources by Matthew

The Wilke hypothesis, named after Christian Gottlob Wilke, is a proposed solution to the synoptic problem, holding that the Gospel of Mark was used as a source by the Gospel of Luke, then both of these were used as sources by the Gospel of Matthew. Thus, it posits Marcan priority and Matthaean posteriority.

References

  1. W. Wilkens "Die Versuchung Jesu nach Matthäus" NTS 28 (1982) 479-489
  2. H. J. Holtzmann, "Zur synoptischen Frage", pp. 553–54 in Jahrbücher für protestantische Theologie 4 (1878)
  3. E. Simons, Hat der dritte Evangelist den kanonischen Matthäus benutzt? (Bonn: Carl Georgi 1880)
  4. H. H. Wendt, Die Lehre Jesu (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht 1886)
  5. E. Y. Hincks, "The Probable Use of the First Gospel by Luke", JBL Vol. 10 No. 2 (1891), pp. 92–106
  6. R. Morgenthaler, Statistische Synopse (Zürich: Gotthelf 1971)
  7. R.H.Gundry, Matthew, A Commentary on His Literary and Theological Art (Michigan: Eerdmans 1982)
  8. Linssen, Martijn (2020-08-12). "Absolute Thomasine priority - the Synoptic Problem solved in the most unsatisfactory manner". Absolute Thomasine priority. Part I: 83 via academia.edu.