The St Mark Passion (German : Markus-Passion), BWV 247, is a lost Passion setting by Johann Sebastian Bach, first performed in Leipzig on Good Friday, 23 March 1731 and again, in a revised version, in 1744.[ not verified in body ] Though Bach's music is lost, the libretto by Picander is still extant, and from this, the work can to some degree be reconstructed.
This section possibly contains original research .(January 2018)
Unlike Bach's earlier existing passions ( St John Passion and St Matthew Passion ), the Markus-Passion is probably a parody—it recycles previous works. The St Mark Passion seems to reuse virtually the whole of the Trauer Ode Laß, Fürstin, laß noch einen Strahl, BWV 198,along with the two arias from Widerstehe doch der Sünde, BWV 54. In addition, two choruses from the St Mark Passion were reused in the Christmas Oratorio. This leaves only a couple of missing arias, which are taken from other Bach works when reconstructions are attempted. However, since Bach's recitative is lost, most reconstructions use the recitatives composed for a Markus-Passion attributed to Reinhard Keiser, a work which Bach himself performed on at least two occasions, which gives a certain authenticity to things, although it could be viewed as somewhat disrespectful to Keiser's work. However, Keiser's setting starts slightly later than Bach's, which requires a small amount of composition on the part of the reconstructor.
Bach's St. Mark Passion was first performed in Leipzig on Good Friday, 23 March 1731. Written under the pseudonym Picander, Christian Friedrich Henrici's libretto survives in a 1732 poetry collection.The Markus-Passion is a modest setting, adding to Mark chapters 14 and 15 only eight free verse arias and 16 hymn stanzas. The chorales assume greater weight owing to their higher proportional use: 16 of the 46 movements are chorales in the St Mark Passion, whereas only 13 of 68 numbers are chorales in the St Matthew Passion. Five of the Markus-Passion texts appear to match the 1727 Trauer Ode, other likely parodies include BWV 54 and BWV 120a. However, no musical material remains for the Gospel texts or turba choruses. Further, we have no knowledge of the keys and orchestration which Bach used. While the libretto specifies which chorale melodies were used, Bach's harmonizations remain uncertain.
According to Bach Digital, the Passion was scored for SATB singers, two traversos, two oboes, two oboes d'amore, a string section consisting of two violin parts and two viola parts, organ and continuo, possibly complemented by two violas da gamba and two lutes.
|1||#||Number of movement according to libretto at Bach Digital website, followed, between brackets, by the movement number according to Heighes's reconstruction (1995).|
|2||Incipit||Text incipit of the movement.|
|3||Description||Description of the movement.|
|4||Text origin||Origin of the text.|
|5||≈BWV?||Conjectured relation to other known compositions by J. S. Bach, and other pieces used in reconstructions; Chorale settings outside the BWV 253–438 range indicate settings of the hymn tune included in other known larger works not necessarily reused in or composed for BWV 247; BC D 5, or BNB I/K/2, refers to Bach's second Leipzig version of the Jesus Christus ist um unsrer Missetat willen verwundet pasticcio, containing a setting of St Mark's Passion text.|
|(↑up↑)||— Part I —|
|1 (1)||Geh Jesu, geh zu deiner Pein!||Chorus||Picander 1732, p. 49||198/01|
|2 (2)||Und nach zween Tagen war||Recitative (ev.)||Mark 14:01–02a|
|3 (2)||Ja nicht auf das Fest||Chorus (turba)||Mark 14:02b|
|4 (2)||Und da er zu Bethanien war||Recitative (ev.)||Mark 14:03–04a|
|5 (2)||Was soll doch dieser Unrat?||Chorus (turba)||Mark 14:04b–05a|
|6 (2)||Und murreten über sie||Recitative (ev.)||Mark 14:05b|
|7 (3)||Sie stellen uns wie Ketzern nach||Chorale||"Wo Gott der Herr", v. 4||256 257 258|
|8 (4)||Jesus aber sprach||Recitative (ev., Christ)||Mark 14:06–11|
|9 (5)||Mir hat die Welt trüglich gericht||Chorale||"In dich hab ich gehoffet", v. 5||52/6 244/32 248/46|
|10 (6)||Und am ersten Tage||Recitative (ev.)||Mark 14:12a|
|11 (6)||Wo willst du, dass wir hingehen||Chorus (turba)||Mark 14:12b|
|12 (6)||Und er sandte seiner Jünger||Recitative (ev., Christ)||Mark 14:13–19|
|13 (7)||Ich, ich und meine Sünden||Chorale||"O Welt, sieh hier dein Leben", v. 4||393|
|14 (8)||Er antwortete, und sprach zu||Recitative (ev., Christ)||Mark 14:20–25|
|15 (9)||Mein Heiland, dich...||Aria (alto)||Picander 1732, p. 52||198/05|
|16 (10)||Und da sie den Lobgesang||Recitative (ev., Christ)||Mark 14:26–28||BC D 5/02a|
|17 (11)||Wach auf, o Mensch||Chorale||"O Ewigkeit, du Donnerwort", v. 13||397|
|18 (12)||Petrus aber sagte zu ihm||Recitative (ev., Peter, Christ)||Mark 14:29–34||BC D 5/02b, /04a|
|19 (13)||Betrübtes Herz sei wohlgemut||Chorale||"Betrübtes Herz", v. 1||428 430|
|20 (14)||Und ging ein wenig fürbaß||Recitative (ev., Christ)||Mark 14:35–36||BC D 5/04b|
|21 (15)||Mach's mit mir Gott||Chorale||"Mach's mit mir Gott", v. 1||377|
|21 (16)||Und kam und fand sie schlafend||Recitative (ev., Christ)||Mark 14:37–42||BC D 5/06a|
|22 (17)||Er kommt, er kommt||Aria (soprano)||Picander 1732, p. 55||198/03|
|23 (18)||Und alsbald, da er noch redete||Recitative (ev., Judas)||Mark 14:43–45||BC D 5/06b|
|24 (19)||Falsche Welt||Aria (alto)||Picander 1732, p. 56||54/1|
|25 (20)||Die aber legten ihre Hände||Recitative (ev., Christ)||Mark 14:46–49||BC D 5/08a|
|26 (21)||Jesu, ohne Missetat||Chorale||"Jesu Leiden", v. 8||159/5 245/14, /28|
|27 (22)||Und die Jünger verließen ihn||Recitative (ev.)||Mark 14:50–52||BC D 5/08b(a)|
|28 (23)||Ich will hier bei dir stehen||Chorale||"O Haupt voll Blut", v. 6||270 271|
|(↑up↑)||— Part II —|
|29 (24)||Mein Tröster ist nicht mehr||Aria (tenor)||Picander 1732, p. 57||198/08|
|30 (25)||Und sie führeten Jesum||Recitative (ev., testes)||Mark 14:53–59||BC D 5/08b(b)–08d(a)|
|31 (26)||Was Menschenkraft||Chorale||"Wo Gott der Herr", v. 2||248/28 257|
|32 (27)||Und der Hohe Priester||Recitative (ev., high pr.)||Mark 14:60–61a||BC D 5/08d(b)|
|33 (28)||Befiehl du deine Wege||Chorale||"Befiehl du deine Wege", v. 1||270 271|
|34 (29)||Da fragte ihn der Hohe Priester||Recitative (ev., high pr., Chr., choir)||Mark 14:61b–65||BC D 5/08d(c), /10a–c|
|35 (30)||Du edles Angesichte||Chorale||"O Haupt voll Blut", v. 2||271|
|36 (31)||Und Petrus war danieden||Recitative (ev., ancilla, Pet., choir)||Mark 14:66–72||BC D 5/10c–e|
|37 (32)||Herr, ich habe missgehandelt||Chorale||"Herr, ich habe", v. 1||331|
|38 (33)||Und bald am Morgen||Recitative (ev., Pilate, Chr., choir)||Mark 15:01–14||BC D 5/14, /16a–d|
|39 (34)||Angenehmes Mordgeschrei!||Aria (soprano)||Picander 1732, p. 62||248/45|
|39 (35)||Pilatus aber gedachte||Recitative (ev., choir)||Mark 15:15–19||BC D 5/19a–c|
|40 (36)||Man hat dich sehr hart||Chorale||"Jesu, meines Lebens Leben", v. 4|
|41 (37)||Und da sie ihn verspottet hatten||Recitative (ev.)||Mark 15:20–24||BC D 5/19c, /21, /23|
|42 (38)||Das Wort sie sollen lassen||Chorale||"Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott", v. 4||302|
|43 (39)||Und es war um die dritte Stunde||Recitative (ev., choir, Chr.)||Mark 15:25–34||BC D 5/23, /25a–e, /27a–c|
|44 (40)||Keinen hat Gott verlassen||Chorale||"Keinen hat Gott verlassen", v. 1||369|
|45 (41)||Und Etliche, die dabei stunden||Recitative (ev., choir, miles)||Mark 15:35–37||BC D 5/27c–e|
|46 (42)||Welt und Himmel nehmt||Aria (bass)||Picander 1732, p. 66||7/2|
|47 (43)||Und der Vorhang im Tempel||Recitative (ev., centurio)||Mark 15:38–45||BC D 5/21, /33|
|48 (44)||O! Jesu du||Chorale||"O Traurigkeit, o Herzeleid", v. 8||404|
|49 (45)||Und er kaufte ein Leinwand||Recitative (ev.)||Mark 15:46–47||BC D 5/35|
|50 (46)||Bei deinem Grab||Chorus||Picander 1732, p. 67||198/10 244a/7|
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (January 2018)
BWV 247 contains the text of the entire chapters 14 and 15 of the Gospel of Mark, sung as recitatives, and turba choruses.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (January 2018)
Diethard Hellmann completed a reconstruction in 1964 based on parodies and chorale harmonization choices only. The English premiere took place in Oxford, July 1965. A 1976 edition includes additional choruses to be used with a spoken delivery of the gospel text. Carus-Verlag published Hellmann's work with newly composed recitatives and arias by Johannes Koch in 1999. The orchestration for the work matches that of BWV 198.[ citation needed ]
Simon Heighes's reconstruction is completed in 1995.
Andor Gomme edited a 1997 reconstruction published by Bärenreiter that utilizes BWV 198 and choruses from BWV 204, 216, 120a, and 54. The recitatives and turba choruses are drawn from a St Mark Passion traditionally attributed to Reinhard Keiser (1674–1739), which Bach himself adapted for use in Weimar in 1713.[ citation needed ]
In 1998 Rudolf Kelber reconstructed the St Mark Passion as a pasticcio: he completed Bach's fragments using arias from cantatas by Bach, recitatives by Keiser, motives by Telemann and his own additions.[ citation needed ]
In 1999, Ton Koopman presented a reconstruction that does not utilize BWV 198, but instead draws on Es ist nichts Gesundes an meinem Leibe, BWV 25 (opening chorus) and Siehe zu, daß deine Gottesfurcht nicht Heuchelei sei, BWV 179 (turba choruses) and his own freely composed recitatives.[ citation needed ]
Recordings conducted by Ton Koopman:
In 2010, harpsichordist and conductor Jörn Boysen made a new version utilizing choruses and arias from BWV 198 and an aria from BWV 54. He composed all missing recitatives, turba choirs and one aria. This version has been performed in the Netherlands and Germany in 2011 and 2012.
In 2010, Alexander Ferdinand Grychtolik made a first edition of the late version of the St Mark Passion (from 1744) as a stylistically consistent reconstruction, published by Edition Peters. The text of this unknown later version was discovered in 2009 in Saint Petersburg. In this version, Bach added two arias and he made small changes in Picander's text.
In 2015, Organist Freddy Eichelberger offered a second reconstruction of the 1744 version based on the BWV 198 and composed all missing recitatives, turba choirs and some chorals. This version was written in collaboration with the musicologist Laurent Guillo, the editor Sharon Rosner and Itay Jedlin who performed it with Le Concert Étranger at the 2015 Ambronay Festival, concert filmed by French national television.[ citation needed ]
In 2016, composer and conductor Andrew Wilson-Dickson made a new stylistically coherent reconstruction using BWV 198, 7, 54 and 171, and newly composed music for the missing recitatives and turba choruses. The work was premiered by the Welsh Camerata and Welsh Baroque Orchestra at the Royal Welsh College of Music & Drama, Cardiff, on Good Friday, 2016.
In 2015, church musician Andreas Fischer reconstructed the Markus Passion by parodying only works by Bach. He paid attention to the proximity of text and music and avoided using music from the known passions, so as not to produce a "small" St. Matthew Passion. Ortus (Berlin, Germany) published this work in the year 2016.
In 2017 the Dutch organist and harpsichordist Robert Koolstra made a new reconstruction based on the 1744 booklet and BWV 198, 13, 54 and 55.[ citation needed ] Robert Koolstra composed the recitatives but he used models from Bach's other passions.[ citation needed ] He also added a new chorus Keinen hat Gott verlassen: Picander wrote Chorus instead of Choral here in the 1744 booklet.[ citation needed ] In this version the drama is the most important element.[ citation needed ] Koolstra firmly believes that St Mark's gospel text and Picander's poetry are intimately connected, and served as sources for one dramatic piece of art.[ citation needed ] The work was premiered by the Luthers Bach Ensemble in March 2017.[ citation needed ] The score and parts are available on the IMSLP website.
On 30 March 2018, Jordi Savall produced a reconstruction which aired on BBC Radio 3.
In 2019-2020, Swiss and German musician and composer Nikolaus Matthes (*1981) has produced the first integral setting to music of Picander's libretto since Bach in 1731, and the first contemporary one completely following the baroque style.The composition, «Markuspassion», follows the 1731 version of the libretto, including the two arias from the 1744 version.
The piece will be first performed in March 2023 in four Swiss cities, with its premiere on the 23rd March 2023, right on the day 292 years after the first performance of Bach's own St Mark passion on Good Friday, 23rd March 1731 in Leipzig.
The St Matthew Passion, BWV 244, is a Passion, a sacred oratorio written by Johann Sebastian Bach in 1727 for solo voices, double choir and double orchestra, with libretto by Picander. It sets the 26th and 27th chapters of the Gospel of Matthew to music, with interspersed chorales and arias. It is widely regarded as one of the greatest masterpieces of Baroque sacred music. The original Latin title Passio Domini nostri J.C. secundum Evangelistam Matthæum translates to "The Passion of our Lord J[esus] C[hrist] according to the Evangelist Matthew".
Throughout his life as a musician, Johann Sebastian Bach composed cantatas for both secular and sacred use. His church cantatas are cantatas which he composed for use in the Lutheran church, mainly intended for the occasions of the liturgical year.
The Christmas Oratorio, BWV 248, is an oratorio by Johann Sebastian Bach intended for performance in church during the Christmas season. It was written for the Christmas season of 1734 and incorporates music from earlier compositions, including three secular cantatas written during 1733 and 1734 and a largely lost church cantata, BWV 248a. The date is confirmed in Bach's autograph manuscript. The next performance was not until 17 December 1857 by the Sing-Akademie zu Berlin under Eduard Grell. The Christmas Oratorio is a particularly sophisticated example of parody music. The author of the text is unknown, although a likely collaborator was Christian Friedrich Henrici (Picander).
St Mark Passion refers to the Passion of Christ as told in chapters 14 and 15 of the Gospel of Mark.
The cantatas composed by Johann Sebastian Bach, known as Bach cantatas, are a body of work consisting of over 200 surviving independent works, and at least several dozen that are considered lost. As far as known, Bach's earliest cantatas date from 1707, the year he moved to Mühlhausen, although he may have begun composing them at his previous post in Arnstadt. Most of Bach's church cantatas date from his first years as Thomaskantor and director of church music in Leipzig, a position which he took up in 1723.
Es erhub sich ein Streit, BWV 19, is a church cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach. He composed it in Leipzig in 1726 for the Feast of Saint Michael and first performed it on 29 September 1726. It is the second of his three extant cantatas for this feast.
Gott, wie dein Name, so ist auch dein Ruhm, BWV 171, is a church cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach. He composed it in Leipzig for New Year's Day and probably first performed it on 1 January 1729.
Klagt, Kinder, klagt es aller Welt, also known as Köthener Trauermusik, BWV 1143, BWV 244a, is a cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach. He composed it in 1729 for the funeral of Leopold, Prince of Anhalt-Köthen. The music is lost, but the libretto survives. As Bach is known to have used musical material which also appeared in two surviving works, one being the St Matthew Passion, it has been possible to make reconstructions.
Singet dem Herrn ein neues Lied, BWV 90.2, BWV 190a, is a cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach. The work was written in 1730 in commemoration of the Augsburg Confession.
As Thomaskantor, Johann Sebastian Bach provided Passion music for Good Friday services in Leipzig. The extant St Matthew Passion and St John Passion are Passion oratorios composed by Bach.
Jesus Christus ist um unsrer Missetat willen verwundet is a St Mark Passion which originated in the early 18th century and is most often attributed to Reinhard Keiser. It may also have been composed by his father Gottfried or by Friedrich Nicolaus Bruhns. Johann Sebastian Bach produced three performance versions of the Passion, the last of which is a pasticcio with arias from George Frideric Handel's Brockes Passion. There are two other extant 18th-century versions of the Passion, both of them independent of Bach's versions. The Passion was performed in at least three cities in the first half of the 18th century: in Hamburg in 1707 and 1711, in Weimar around 1712, and in Leipzig in 1726 and around 1747.
Herr Jesu Christ, wahr' Mensch und Gott, BWV 127, is a cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach for use in a Lutheran service. He composed the chorale cantata in 1725 in Leipzig for the Sunday Estomihi, the Sunday before Lent. It is based on Paul Eber's 1582 hymn in eight stanzas "Herr Jesu Christ, wahr Mensch und Gott". Bach first performed it on 11 February 1725.
Johann Sebastian Bach's St Matthew Passion, BWV 244, is structured on multiple levels: the composition is structured in three levels of text sources and by the different forms that are used for musical expression.
Ich lebe, mein Herze, zu deinem Ergötzen, BWV 145, is a five-movement church cantata on a libretto by Picander which Johann Sebastian Bach, as its composer, probably first performed in Leipzig on Easter Tuesday, 19 April 1729. As a seven-movement pasticcio, with one of the added movements composed by Georg Philipp Telemann, it is an Easter cantata known as So du mit deinem Munde bekennest Jesum or as Auf, mein Herz!.
Ihr Tore zu Zion also called Ihr Pforten zu Zion, BWV 193, is a sacred cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach. He composed it in Leipzig for Ratswechsel, the inauguration of a new town council, in 1727 and first performed it on 25 August 1727. The music survives in an incomplete state.
Man singet mit Freuden vom Sieg, BWV 149, is a church cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach. He composed the work in Leipzig for Michaelmas and first performed it on 29 September 1729. It is the last of his three extant cantatas for the feast.
Picander's cycle of 1728–29 is a cycle of church cantata librettos covering the liturgical year. It was published for the first time in 1728 as Cantaten auf die Sonn- und Fest-Tage durch das gantze Jahr. Johann Sebastian Bach set several of these librettos to music, but it is unknown whether he covered a substantial part of the cycle. This elusive cycle of cantata settings is indicated as the composer's fourth Leipzig cycle, or the Picander cycle.
Jauchzet, frohlocket! Auf, preiset die Tage, BWV 248I, is a 1734 Christmas cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach that serves as the first part of his Christmas Oratorio. Bach was then Thomaskantor, responsible for church music at four churches in Leipzig, a position he had assumed in 1723. For the oratorio, the libretto by an unknown author followed the nativity of Jesus from the Gospel of Luke, interspersed with reflecting texts for recitatives and arias, and stanzas from Lutheran hymns.
Lost versions of compositions by Johann Sebastian Bach can be reconstructed on the basis of extant versions of similar music. Reasons for such reconstructions include extension of the repertoire and testing hypotheses about the genesis history of known pieces. For instance, in the late 19th century it was discovered that Bach likely transcribed his Concerto for two harpsichords in C minor, BWV 1060, from a lost earlier version for violin and oboe. Reconstructions of BWV 1060 to its presumed original version, published from the 1920s, extended the Bach repertoire for oboists.
St Mark Passion is a Passion, written in baroque style by Nikolaus Matthes (*1981) between April 2019 and April 2020. It describes the passion, death and sepulture of Jesus. It contains the entire text of chapters 14 and 15 of the Gospel of Mark.