Bach Digital

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Bach Digital
Autograph-Manuscript-BWV639.jpg
The Bach Digital website features images and descriptions of composition manuscripts and related documents by members of the Bach family. For instance, the page for BWV 639 (Bach Digital Work 727) links to the source page on D-B Mus.ms. Bach P 283, which contains an image of Johann Sebastian Bach's autograph of that work (pictured above).
Type of site
Database portal [1]
Owners
Created by Uwe Wolf [3]
Website www.bach-digital.de
CommercialNo [4]
Launched2010;10 years ago (2010) [5]
Content license
Creative Commons (BY-NC) [4]
Written in MyCoRe [6]
OCLC  number 50480716

Bach Digital (German: Bach digital), developed by the Bach Archive in Leipzig, is an online database which gives access to information on compositions by Johann Sebastian Bach and members of his family. Early manuscripts of such compositions are a major focus of the website, which provides access to high-resolution digitized versions of many of these. Scholarship on manuscripts and versions of compositions is summarized on separate pages, with references to scholarly sources and editions. The database portal has been online since 2010. [7]

Contents

History

In 2000, two years after Uwe Wolf had suggested the possibility of supporting the publication of the New Bach Edition (NBE) with digital media, a project named Bach Digital started as an initiative of the Internationale Bachakademie Stuttgart, but without direct involvement of the then editor of the NBE, the Johann Sebastian Bach Institute in Göttingen. After four years the project remained unconvincing: it lagged behind technically and came to nothing, and its www.bachdigital.org web address went up for sale. [8]

The first steps towards a new project, with the same name, were taken that same year. The aim of making images of autographs and original manuscripts available via the internet was continued from the former project, but aiming in the new project at high-resolution scans, for which the Zoomify application was going to be used. The project would cooperate with the Bach Institute in Göttingen. As that institute was going to cease operations (which eventually happened in 2006), however, the idea arose to merge the institute and the project. With the input of the Göttingen institute, the website was now going to not only display high-resolution digital facsimiles but also offer detailed descriptions of manuscripts and compositions which were drawn from Der Göttinger Bach-Katalog / Die Quellen der Bach-Werke (The Göttingen catalogue / The Sources of Bach's works), developed in Göttingen since 2001. Funding for the project by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft was secured in 2007. [8]

With Uwe Wolf as a leading designer, [9] the development of the website began in 2008, [10] and the database went online in 2010. [7] At the time, around 40% of the 697 manuscripts of Bach's works held in libraries in Berlin, Dresden, Leipzig and Krakau (which account for about 90% of his works) were made available in digital form. [11] The site not only provides accessibility to the distributed documents but also helps their preservation. [11] Several international libraries made their documents available, including libraries in Europe and the U.S. [7] Works from the period of c. 1700 to 1850, in manuscripts, copies and early prints, have been collected and presented in high-resolution digitized form. New research has been added continuously, for example on watermarks and copyists. [11]

Partners

Bach Digital is a collaborative project of the Leipzig Bach Archive (together with the University Computer Centre of Leipzig University), Berlin State Library (SBB), Saxon State and University Library Dresden (SLUB) and Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Hamburg  [ de ] (SUB Hamburg). [2] [10] Apart from the sponsoring by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, funding for access to international documents has been granted by the national Beauftragter der Bundesregierung für Kultur und Medien  [ de ] since 2013. [7] An input of technical know-how was provided through a partnership with IBM. [12]

Bach Digital is part of the Deutsche Digitale Bibliothek and Europeana platforms. Internationally, contributions of information came from the British Library in London, the Library of Congress in Washington, Harvard University Library in Boston, and the music libraries of Yale University and the Juilliard School. Libraries also contributing have included the Frankfurt University Library, Bachhaus Eisenach, Universitätsbibliothek Johann Christian Senckenberg, Württembergische Landesbibliothek, Stadtbibliothek Leipzig  [ de ], Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Heimatmuseum Saalfeld, Herzogin Anna Amalia Bibliothek, and Stiftelsen Musikkulturens Fraemjande in Stockholm. [7]

Content and structure

The website was designed to serve Bach scholars, performers of his works, especially in historically informed performance, and interested lay people. [10] Information collected with scientific scrutiny is freely available, not only for works by J. S. Bach but also those of members of his family (Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, Wilhelm Friedemann Bach, Johann Christian Bach) and works found in the Altbachisches Archiv. [13]

Bach Digital aims at making Bach research easily available, [1] and uses an implementation of the MyCoRe platform to do so. [6] Its content is licensed under Creative Commons as Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0). [4]

Work pages

The website hosts separate pages for compositions: the static URLs for these pages start with http://www.bachdigital.de/receive/BachDigitalWork_work_ and end with an eight-digit number (the first four being leading zeros for works in the 1998 version of the BWV catalogue). Each of these numbers thus identifies a work, e.g.: [14]

Apart from later additions and corrections, these numbers follow the collation of BWV numbers, but with alternative versions of the same composition inserted immediately after the BWV number of the composition to which they belong, e.g.: [14]

An example of a later addition/correction: [14]

Start of the music in Johann Sebastian Bach's autograph score of the Christmas Oratorio BWV 248 Autograph.jpg
Start of the music in Johann Sebastian Bach's autograph score of the Christmas Oratorio

Source pages

Primary sources described on separate webpages (many with a facsimile of the original source) similarly have a unique number, which preceded by http://www.bachdigital.de/receive/BachDigitalSource_source_ gives the static URL for that page, e.g. [14]

Reception

Writing when the Bach Digital website was in its last stages of development, shortly before going online, Johannes Kepper of Paderborn University thought it would not only satisfy lay visitors feeling adoration for Bach but also had a role for scholars, for instance those initiating new critical editions of his music. According to Kepper, however, Bach Digital is not to be seen as a published edition of the composer's work but rather a collection of annotated sources: in itself it is not a critical edition of Bach's music. He sees another possible use of the website: it allows interested readers to check the quality of published editions of Bach's music and assess editorial choices by comparing such editions with the original manuscripts, displayed in high resolution on the website. [8]

According to Yo Tomita  [ fr ], writing in 2016, databases such as Bach Digital have largely replaced printed scholarship, such as the Critical Commentary volumes of the NBE, as the first point of entry for Bach scholars. [16]

An analysis of database usage in 2016 observed a total of 101,598 views, mainly from European countries, the U.S. and Japan but also from countries such as China, Brazil, Mexico, Vietnam and the Arabian Emirates. [10] In the month of December, 32,537 views were counted, 896 of them for the autograph of Bach's Christmas Oratorio, the manuscript creating the most interest. [10]

Related Research Articles

<i>Meine Seel erhebt den Herren</i>, BWV 10 church cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach

In 1724 Johann Sebastian Bach composed the church cantata Meine Seel erhebt den Herren, BWV 10, as part of his second cantata cycle. Taken from Martin Luther's German translation of the Magnificat canticle, the title translates as "My soul magnifies the Lord". Also known as Bach's German Magnificat, the work follows his chorale cantata format.

"Bist du bei mir, geh ich mit Freuden" is an aria from Gottfried Heinrich Stölzel's opera Diomedes. The aria is best known as "Bist du bei mir", BWV 508, a version for voice and continuo found as No. 25 in the 1725 Notebook for Anna Magdalena Bach.

The New Bach Edition (NBE), in German Neue Bach-Ausgabe (NBA), is the second complete edition of the music of Johann Sebastian Bach, published by Bärenreiter. The name is short for Johann Sebastian Bach: New Edition of the Complete Works. It is a historical-critical edition of Bach's complete works by the Johann Sebastian Bach Institute (Johann-Sebastian-Bach-Institut) in Göttingen and the Bach Archive (Bach-Archiv) in Leipzig,

Johann Sebastian Bach 18th-century German composer

Johann Sebastian Bach was a German composer and musician of the Baroque period. He is known for instrumental compositions such as the Brandenburg Concertos and the Goldberg Variations, and for vocal music such as the St Matthew Passion and the Mass in B minor. Since the 19th-century Bach Revival he has generally been regarded as one of the greatest composers of all time.

As Thomaskantor Johann Sebastian Bach provided Passion music for Good Friday services in Leipzig. The extant St Matthew Passion and St John Passion are Passion oratorios composed by Bach.

Bekennen will ich seinen Namen, BWV 200, is an arrangement by Johann Sebastian Bach of the aria "Dein Kreuz, o Bräutgam meiner Seelen" contained in Gottfried Heinrich Stölzel's passion-oratorio Die leidende und am Kreuz sterbende Liebe. Bach's arrangement, dated around 1742–1743, was possibly part of a cantata for the feast of Purification of the Virgin Mary.

Wer ist der, so von Edom kömmt is a pasticcio Passion oratorio based on compositions by Carl Heinrich Graun, Georg Philipp Telemann, Johann Sebastian Bach and others. The pasticcio was assembled around 1750.

<i>Chromatic Fantasia and Fugue</i> composition for keyboard by J. S. Bach

The Chromatic Fantasia and Fugue in D minor, BWV 903, is a work for harpsichord by Johann Sebastian Bach. Bach probably composed it during his time in Köthen from 1717 to 1723. The piece was already regarded as a unique masterpiece during his lifetime. It is now often played on piano.

BWV Anh.

BWV Anh., abbreviation of Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis Anhang, is a list of lost, doubtful and spurious compositions by, or once attributed to, Johann Sebastian Bach.

Jauchzet dem Herrn alle Welt is a three-movement pasticcio motet for double SATB choir. It includes music by Georg Philipp Telemann and Johann Sebastian Bach. The text of the motet is a German paraphrase of Psalm 100.

Kyrie–Gloria Mass for double choir, BWV Anh. 167

The Kyrie–Gloria Mass for double choir, BWV Anh. 167, is a mass composition in G major by an unknown composer. The work was likely written before the second quarter of the 18th century. In the 1730s Johann Sebastian Bach produced a manuscript copy of the Mass. In the early 19th century, it was published and performed as a composition by Bach. Scholarship published in the second half of the 19th century contested the work's attribution to Bach.

Late church cantatas by Johann Sebastian Bach refers to sacred cantatas he composed after his fourth cycle of 1728–29. Whether Bach still composed a full cantata cycle in the last 20 years of his life is not known, but the extant cantatas of this period written for occasions of the liturgical year are sometimes referred to as his fifth cycle, as, according to his obituary, he would have written five such cycles – inasmuch as such cantatas were not late additions to earlier cycles, or were adopted in his oratorios.

<i>Twelve Little Preludes</i>

Twelve Little Preludes, BWV 924–930, 939–942 and 999, is a 19th-century compilation of short pieces, collected from various 18th-century manuscripts written by Johann Sebastian Bach and others. Notwithstanding their diverse origin and characteristics they were published as a set of twelve keyboard preludes by Bach, in, amongst others, the 36th volume of the Bach-Gesellschaft Ausgabe (BGA).

The Triple Concerto, BWV 1044, is a concerto in A minor for traverso, violin, harpsichord, and string orchestra by Johann Sebastian Bach. He based the composition on his Prelude and Fugue BWV 894 for harpsichord and on the middle movement of his Organ Sonata BWV 527, or on earlier lost models for these compositions.

The Fantasia or Pièce d'Orgue in G major, BWV 572, is a composition for organ by Johann Sebastian Bach.

Uwe Wolf is a German musicologist. He worked for the Johann Sebastian Bach Institute in Göttingen and Bach-Archiv Leipzig, where he developed the Bach Digital website. Since 2011, he has been chief editor of Carus-Verlag, editing the 2013 edition of Monteverdi's Vespro della Beata Vergine, among others.

References

  1. 1 2 Aim of the project at Bach Digital website. Retrieved2019-11-19.
  2. 1 2 Legal note at Bach Digital website. Retrieved2019-11-19.
  3. Contributors at Bach Digital website. Retrieved2019-11-19.
  4. 1 2 3 License at Bach Digital website. Retrieved2019-11-19.
  5. History at Bach Digital website. Retrieved2019-11-19.
  6. 1 2 Documentation at Bach Digital website. Retrieved2019-11-19.
  7. 1 2 3 4 5 "Bach-Handschriften in höchster Bildqualität im Netz". Neue Musikzeitung (in German). 9 June 2010. Retrieved 23 March 2015.
  8. 1 2 3 Kepper, Johannes (2011). "4.2.3 Bach Digital". Musikedition im Zeichen neuer Medien: historische Entwicklung und gegenwärtige Perspektiven musikalischer Gesamtausgaben (in German). Books on Demand  [ de ]. pp. 143–144. ISBN   9783844800760.
  9. "Uwe Wolf". Carus-Verlag . Retrieved 9 September 2019.
  10. 1 2 3 4 5 "Weihnachtsoratorium beliebteste Bach-Handschrift im Internet". Neue Musikzeitung (in German). 9 June 2010. Retrieved 18 November 2017.
  11. 1 2 3 "www.bach-digital.de ist freigeschaltet". Berlin State Library (in German). 8 June 2010. Retrieved 18 November 2017.
  12. Bruhn, Manfred (2014). Unternehmens- und Marketingkommunikation: Handbuch für ein integriertes Kommunikationsmanagement (in German). Vahlen. p.  801. ISBN   9783800648597.
  13. "Bach digital". University of Leipzig (in German). Retrieved 18 November 2017.
  14. 1 2 3 4 "3.2 Datenstruktur", pp. 16ff. in Bach digital Dokumentation, version 5.5 (12 February 2019) at Leipzig University website. Retrieved2019-11-19.
  15. Digitized image of D-B Mus.ms. Bach P 32 found at Bach Digital Source page 850
  16. Tomita, Yo (2016). "Locating sources". In Leaver, Robin A. (ed.). The Routledge Research Companion to Johann Sebastian Bach. Taylor & Francis. pp. 49–51. ISBN   9781315452807.

Further reading