Psalm 130

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Psalm 130
"From the depths, I have cried out to you, O Lord"
Penitential psalm
Folio 70r - De Profundis.jpg
De profundis, in Les Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry , Folio 70r, held by the Musée Condé, Chantilly
Other name
  • Psalm 129 (Vulgate)
  • "De profundis"
LanguageHebrew (original)

Psalm 130 is the 130th psalm of the Book of Psalms, one of the Penitential psalms. The first verse is a call to God in deep sorrow, from "out of the depths" or "out of the deep", as it is translated in the King James Version of the Bible and the Coverdale translation (used in the Book of Common Prayer) respectively. It is one of 15 psalms that begin with the words "A song of ascents" (Shir Hama'alot). The Book of Psalms is in Ketuvim, the third section of the Hebrew Bible, and is a book of the Christian Old Testament. In the Greek Septuagint version of the Bible, and in the Latin Vulgate, this psalm is Psalm 129 in a slightly different numbering system. In Latin, it is known as De profundis. [1]

Contents

The psalm is a regular part of Jewish, Catholic, Lutheran, Anglican and other Protestant liturgies. It is paraphrased in hymns such as Martin Luther's "Aus tiefer Not schrei ich zu dir" in German. The psalm has been set to music often, by composers such as Orlando di Lasso and Heinrich Schütz. John Rutter set it in English as a movement of his Requiem.

Text

Hebrew Bible version

Following is the Hebrew text of Psalm 130:

VerseHebrew
1שִׁ֥יר הַֽמַּֽעֲל֑וֹת מִמַּֽעֲמַקִּ֖ים קְרָאתִ֣יךָ יְהֹוָֽה
2אֲדֹנָי֘ שִׁמְעָ֪ה בְק֫וֹלִ֥י תִּֽהְיֶ֣ינָה אָ֖זְנֶיךָ קַשֻּׁב֑וֹת לְ֜ק֗וֹל תַּֽחֲנוּנָֽי
3אִם־עֲו‍ֹנ֥וֹת תִּשְׁמָר־יָ֑הּ אֲ֜דֹנָ֗י מִ֣י יַֽעֲמֹֽד
4כִּֽי־עִמְּךָ֥ הַסְּלִיחָ֑ה לְ֜מַעַ֗ן תִּוָּרֵֽא
5קִוִּ֣יתִי יְ֖הֹוָה קִוְּתָ֣ה נַפְשִׁ֑י וְלִדְבָ֘ר֥וֹ הוֹחָֽלְתִּי
6נַפְשִׁ֥י לַֽאדֹנָ֑י מִשֹּֽׁמְרִ֥ים לַ֜בֹּ֗קֶר שֹֽׁמְרִ֥ים לַבֹּֽקֶר
7יַחֵ֥ל יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל אֶל־יְהֹ֫וָה כִּֽי־עִם־יְהֹוָ֥ה הַחֶ֑סֶד וְהַרְבֵּ֖ה עִמּ֣וֹ פְדֽוּת
8וְהוּא יִפְדֶּ֣ה אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל מִ֜כֹּ֗ל עֲוֹֽנוֹתָֽיו

A marginal note in the Masoretic Text tradition indicates that Psalm 130:2 is the middle of the whole Ketuvim (Book of Writings) section in Hebrew. [2]

King James Version

  1. Out of the depths have I cried unto thee, O LORD.
  2. Lord, hear my voice: let thine ears be attentive to the voice of my supplications.
  3. If thou, LORD, shouldest mark iniquities, O Lord, who shall stand?
  4. But there is forgiveness with thee, that thou mayest be feared.
  5. I wait for the LORD, my soul doth wait, and in his word do I hope.
  6. My soul waiteth for the Lord more than they that watch for the morning: I say, more than they that watch for the morning.
  7. Let Israel hope in the LORD: for with the LORD there is mercy, and with him is plenteous redemption.
  8. And he shall redeem Israel from all his iniquities.

Liturgy: a hymn of penance and repentance

Judaism

Scroll of the Psalms Psalms scroll.PNG
Scroll of the Psalms

Psalm 130 is recited as part of the liturgy for the High Holidays, sung responsively before the open Torah ark during the morning service from Rosh Hashanah until Yom Kippur. The custom of reciting this psalm during these times had long lain dormant until it was revived in the Birnbaum and Artscroll siddurim in the 20th century. [3]

Psalm 130 is one of the 15 Songs of Ascents recited after the Shabbat afternoon prayer in the period between Sukkot and Shabbat HaGadol (the Shabbat prior to Passover). [4] In some congregations, it is said on every weekday. In Hebrew, it is often referred to as "Shir HaMa'alot MiMa'amakim" after its opening words.

It is recited during the Tashlikh prayer. [5]

It is one of the psalms traditionally recited "in times of communal distress". [6]

Verses 3-4 are part of the opening paragraph of the long Tachanun recited on Mondays and Thursdays. [7]

Catholic Church

Ordinary use

According to the Rule of Saint Benedict established around 530, the psalm was used at the beginning of the vespers service on Tuesday, followed by Psalm 131 (130). [8] [9]

Psalm 130 came to be associated with the seven penitential psalms which were recited after the hour of Lauds on Fridays in Lent in the medieval Christendom. [10]

In the current Liturgy of the Hours, the psalm is recited or sung at vespers on the Saturday of the fourth week, [lower-alpha 1] and on Wednesday evenings. In the Liturgy of the Mass, Psalm 130 is read on the 10th Sunday of Ordinary Time in Year B, on the 5th Sunday of Lent in Year A, [lower-alpha 2] and on the Tuesday in the 27th Week in Ordinary Time on weekday cycle I. [lower-alpha 3] It is also used as the entrance antiphon on the 28th Sunday in Ordinary Time.

Bell prayer

Requiem Mass and the prayer for the dead

The De Profundis bell is a slow, solemn and measured toll of the bell that marks the end of the day.

In 1610, Pope Paul V established the custom of ringing the De Profundis bell on All Saints' Day. [11]

Pope Clement XII encouraged Christians through his brief Caelestes Ecclesiae thesauros promulgated on August 14, 1736, to pray daily for the souls in Purgatory inviting all to kneel at the first hour of nightfall and devoutly recite Psalm 130 with a Requiem aeternam at the end of it. Pope Pius VI by a rescript of Mach 18, 1781, granted an equal indulgence to those who should pray the De Profundis in any place where no bell for the dead is sounded. [12] The Catholic tradition became that the De profundis and the versicle Requiem æternam were said after the evening Angelus. [13]

Consecration of new bell

According to the Rituale Romanum , the recitation of Psalm 130 accompanies the blessing of a new bell in a church or chapel, perhaps because the tolling of a church bell connotes a transition through death to life beyond. [14]

Literature

De Profundis was used as the title of a poem by Spanish author Federico García Lorca in Poema del cante jondo.

A long letter by Oscar Wilde, written to his former lover Lord Alfred Douglas near the end of Wilde's life while he was in prison, also bears the title "De Profundis", although it was given the title after Wilde's death. Poems by Alfred Tennyson, Elizabeth Barrett Browning, Charles Baudelaire, Christina Rossetti, C. S. Lewis, Georg Trakl, Dorothy Parker and José Cardoso Pires bear the same title.

In the novel Fires on the Plain by Shōhei Ōoka, the character Tamura makes reference to the psalm's first line "De profundis clamavi" in a dream sequence. [15]

Musical settings

This psalm has been frequently set to music. It was sometimes used for funeral services, especially under its Latin incipit "De profundis":

Psalm 130

Latin

Some other works named De profundis but with texts not derived from the psalm are:

English

French

German

Other

  • Arne Nordheim (Clamavi for solo cello)
  • Simon Steen Andersen (De Profundis for solo soprano saxophone also playing percussion)
  • Djuro Zivkovic (in Citadel of Love the second movement 'De Profundis' - for chamber ensemble)

Hymns

Martin Luther paraphrased Psalm 130 as the hymn "Aus tiefer Not schrei ich zu dir" (Out of deep distress I cry to you), which has inspired several composers, including Bach (cantatas Aus der Tiefen rufe ich, Herr, zu dir, BWV 131 and Aus tiefer Not schrei ich zu dir, BWV 38 ), Mendelssohn and Reger.

Notes

  1. The main cycle of liturgical prayers takes place over four weeks.
  2. The cycle of Sunday Mass readings takes place over three years.
  3. The lectionary on weekdays follows a bi-yearly cycle, alternating every other year.

Related Research Articles

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Penitential Psalms Psalms expressive of sorrow for sin

The Penitential Psalms or Psalms of Confession, so named in Cassiodorus's commentary of the 6th century AD, are the Psalms 6, 31, 37, 50, 101, 129, and 142.

Psalm 98

Psalm 98 is the 98th psalm of the Book of Psalms, beginning in English in the King James Version: "O sing unto the Lord a new song; for he hath done marvellous things". The Book of Psalms starts the third section of the Hebrew Bible, and, as such, is a book of the Christian Old Testament. In the slightly different numbering system in the Greek Septuagint version of the Bible, and in the Latin Vulgate, this psalm is Psalm 97. In Latin, it is known as "Cantate Domino". The psalm is a hymn psalm, one of the Royal Psalms, praising God as the King of His people.

Psalm 147

Psalm 147 is the 147th psalm of the Book of Psalms, beginning in English in the King James Version, "Praise ye the LORD: for it is good to sing praises". The Book of Psalms is part of the third section of the Hebrew Bible, and a book of the Christian Old Testament. In the Greek Septuagint version of the Bible, and in its Latin translation in the Vulgate/Vulgata Clementina, this psalm is divided into Psalm 146 and Psalm 147 in a slightly different numbering system. In Latin, Psalm 146 is known as "Laudate Dominum quoniam bonum psalmus", and Psalm 147 as "Lauda Jerusalem Dominum".

<i>Aus tiefer Not schrei ich zu dir</i>, BWV 38 Church cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach

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Psalm 126

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<i>Aus der Tiefen rufe ich, Herr, zu dir</i>, BWV 131 Church cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach

Aus der Tiefen rufe ich, Herr, zu dir, BWV 131, is a church cantata by the German composer Johann Sebastian Bach. It was composed in either 1707 or 1708, which makes it one of Bach's earliest cantatas. Some sources suggest that it could be his earliest surviving work in this form, but current thinking is that there are one or two earlier examples.

Aus tiefer Not schrei ich zu dir 1524 Lutheran hymn

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Psalm 4

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Psalm 13

Psalm 13 is the 13th psalm of the Book of Psalms, beginning in English in the King James Version (KJV): "How long, O Lord". The Book of Psalms is part of the third section of the Hebrew Bible, and a book of the Christian Old Testament. In the Greek Septuagint and the Latin Vulgate, this psalm is Psalm 12 in a slightly different numbering system. In Latin, it is known as "Usquequo Domine".

Psalm 138

Psalm 138 is the 138th psalm of the Book of Psalms, beginning in English in the King James Version: "I will praise thee with my whole heart". The Book of Psalms is found in the third section of the Hebrew Bible, and a book of the Christian Old Testament. In the Greek Septuagint version of the bible, and in its Latin translation in the Vulgate, this psalm is Psalm 137 in a slightly different numbering system. In Latin, it is known as "Confitebor tibi Domine in toto corde meo". The psalm is a hymn psalm.

Psalm 124

Psalm 124 is the 124th psalm of the Book of Psalms, beginning in English in the King James Version: "If it had not been the LORD who was on our side, now may Israel say". The Book of Psalms is part of the third section of the Hebrew Bible, and a book of the Christian Old Testament. In the Greek Septuagint and the Latin Vulgate, this psalm is known as Psalm 123 in a slightly different numbering system. In Latin, it is known by as, "Nisi quia Dominus". It is one of fifteen psalms that begin with the words "A song of ascents".

Psalm 122

Psalm 122 is the 122nd psalm of the Book of Psalms, beginning in English in the King James Version: "I was glad". In the Greek Septuagint version of the bible, and in its Latin translation in the Vulgate, this psalm is Psalm 121 in a slightly different numbering system. It is titled Laetatus sum. It is one of the fifteen psalms initially described as A song of ascents.

Psalm 68

Psalm 68 is the 68th psalm of the Book of Psalms, or Psalm 67 in Septuagint and Vulgate numbering. In the English of the King James Version it begins "Let God arise, let his enemies be scattered". In the Latin Vulgate version it begins "Exsurgat Deus et dissipentur inimici eius". It has 35 verses. Methodist writer Arno C. Gaebelein calls it "The Great Redemption Accomplished" and describes it as "one of the greatest Psalms".

Psalm 70

Psalm 70 is the 70th psalm of the Book of Psalms, beginning in English in the King James Version: "Make haste, O God, to deliver me". The Book of Psalms is part of the third section of the Hebrew Bible, and a book of the Christian Old Testament. In the slightly different numbering system used in the Greek Septuagint and Latin Vulgate translations of the Bible, this psalm is Psalm 69. In Latin, it is known as "Deus, in adiutorium meum intende".

Psalm 113

Psalm 113 is the 113th psalm of the Book of Psalms, beginning in English in the King James Version: "Praise ye the Lord, O ye servants of the Lord". The Book of Psalms is part of the third section of the Hebrew Bible, and a book of the Christian Old Testament. In the Greek Septuagint version of the bible, and in the Latin translation in the Vulgate, this psalm is Psalm 112 in a slightly different numbering system. In Latin, it is known as "Laudate pueri Dominum".

Tenebrae responsories

Tenebrae responsories are the responsories sung following the lessons of Tenebrae, the Matins services of the last three days of Holy Week: Maundy Thursday, Good Friday and Holy Saturday. Polyphonic settings to replace plainchant have been published under a various titles, including Responsoria pro hebdomada sancta.

Es woll uns Gott genädig sein

"Es woll uns Gott genädig sein" is a Lutheran hymn, with words written by Martin Luther based on the Psalm 67. The hymn in three stanzas of nine lines each was first published in Wittenberg in 1524. Its best known hymn tune, Zahn No. 7247, was published in Strasbourg in 1524. Heinrich Schütz and Johann Sebastian Bach wrote settings of the hymn. It was translated to English and has appeared in dozens of hymnals.

Es spricht der Unweisen Mund wohl

"Es spricht der Unweisen Mund wohl" is a Lutheran hymn of 1524, with words written by Martin Luther in 1523, paraphrasing Psalm 14. It was published as one of eight songs in 1524 in the first Lutheran hymnal, the Achtliederbuch. It was also published later that year in the Erfurt Enchiridion. It has appeared in many hymnals, both in German and in translation. The text inspired vocal and organ music by composers such as Johann Pachelbel.

Credo (Penderecki)

Credo is a large-scale sacred composition for soloists, children's choir, mixed choir and orchestra by Krzysztof Penderecki, completed in 1998. It was commissioned by Helmuth Rilling for the Oregon Bach Festival, where it was first performed on 11 July 1998. Penderecki expanded the liturgical text by hymns and Bible verses in Latin, Polish and German. A recording won the 2000 Grammy Award for best choral performance.

References

  1. Parallel Latin/English Psalter / Psalmus 129 (130) Archived 2017-05-07 at the Wayback Machine medievalist.net
  2. Shepherd, Michael (2018). A Commentary on the Book of the Twelve: The Minor Prophets. Kregel Exegetical Library. Kregel Academic. p. 23. ISBN   978-0825444593.
  3. Cohen, Jeffrey M, 1,001 Questions and Answers on Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur, p. 167.
  4. Scherman, Rabbi Nosson (1984). The Complete Artscroll Siddur (3rd ed.). Mesorah Publications Ltd. p. 530. ISBN   0-89906-650-X.
  5. Scherman (2003), p. 772.
  6. Weintraub, Rabbi Simkha Y. "Psalms as the Ultimate Self-Help Tool". My Jewish Learning. Retrieved January 18, 2018.
  7. Scherman (2003), p. 125.
  8. Psautier latin-français du bréviaire monastique, 2003 [1938], p. 502.
  9. Rule of Saint Benedict , traduction de Prosper Guéranger, Abbaye Saint-Pierre de Solesmes, 2007 [réimpression]{{citation}}: CS1 maint: others (link).
  10. Jeffrey, David Lyle (1992). A Dictionary of Biblical Tradition in English Literature. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 185. ISBN   978-0-8028-3634-2.
  11. Hillier, Paul (1997-04-24). Arvo PÄrt. Clarendon Press. p. 20. ISBN   978-0-19-159048-1.
  12. Society of Saint Vincent de Paul (1869). Rules and Indulgences Granted by the Sovereign Pontiffs: With the Explanatory Notes Annexed. From the Manual of the Society. Council of New York. p. 65.
  13. Heaven (1866). The path to Heaven, a collection of all the devotions in general use. p. 193.
  14. Jeffrey, David Lyle (1992). A Dictionary of Biblical Tradition in English Literature. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 185. ISBN   978-0-8028-3634-2.
  15. Ōoka, Shōhei (1957), Fires on the Plain, Tokyo, Japan: Tuttle Co., p.  86, ISBN   978-0-8048-1379-2 .
  16. Psalm 130 Sikorski
  17. Francesco Barsanti: Sei Antifon, Op. 5 in Sacred Vocal Music, 2018
  18. Free scores by De profundis clamavi (Nicolaus Bruhns) in the Choral Public Domain Library (ChoralWiki)
  19. Free scores by De Profundis H 156 (Marc-Antoine Charpentier) in the Choral Public Domain Library (ChoralWiki)
  20. Free scores by De Profundis H 189 (Marc-Antoine Charpentier) in the Choral Public Domain Library (ChoralWiki)
  21. De Profundis Clamavi ad Te, Lietuvą: Elements of Lithuanian Nationalism in Čiurlionis’s De Profundis Cantata
  22. De Profundis, S.23 (Lalande, Michel Richard de) : Scores at the International Music Score Library Project
  23. "Henry Desamrest". data.bnf.fr.
  24. Free scores by De profundis clamavi (Josquin des Prez) in the Choral Public Domain Library (ChoralWiki)
  25. De Profundis Oratorienchor Potsdam
  26. De profundis clamavi / composer / Andrea Gabrieli (c1510-1586) Hyperion Records
  27. Free scores by De profundis clamavi (Christoph Willibald Gluck) in the Choral Public Domain Library (ChoralWiki)
  28. David Fay: Sofia’s Choice: Gubaidulina at 80 at the Royal Academy of Music BachTrack.com, 23 February 2012.
  29. [Arthur Honegger / Symphony No. 3 'Liturgique'] BBC
  30. La Flute de Pan. "De profundis".
  31. Pothárn Imre. "De Profundis Clamavi"
  32. Out Of The Depths (Psalm 130) op. 142; 3 Edition Peters
  33. "Boulanger, Lili, Musical score". Repertoire Explorer. Retrieved 12 March 2016.
  34. The attribution of the melody is uncertain, see Braatz, Thomas; Oron, Aryeh. "Chorale Melody: Aus tiefer Not schrei ich zu dir (I+II)". www.bach-cantatas.com. Retrieved 17 February 2020.

Sources