Third Javanese War of Succession

Last updated
Third Javanese War of Succession
Date15 December 1749 – February 1757
(7 years and 2 months)

Treaty of Giyanti

Flag of the Sultanate of Mataram.svg Mataram Sultanate
(until 1755)
Yogyakarta Sultanate (from 1755)
Surakarta Sunanate
(from 1755)
Anti-Dutch rebels
Commanders and leaders
Flag of the Sultanate of Mataram.svg Pakubuwana III
VOC.svg Nicolaas Hartingh
Hamengkubuwono I
(from 1755)
Flag of the Sultanate of Mataram.svg prince Mangkubumi
(until 1755)
Raden Mas Said
Unknown Unknown
Casualties and losses
Unknown Unknown

The Third Javanese War of Succession was an armed conflict that raged from 1749 to 1757 on the island Java. It led to the partition of the Mataram Sultanate into two, and later three, nominally independent 'Princely States': Surakarta, Yogyakarta and Mangkunegara.



The cause of the third Javanese succession war was the bad treatment by Governor-General of Imhoff of the brother of the Ruler Pakubuwana II of Surakarta. This Jason Mangku Bumi or Mangka, rebelled against the Dutch East India Company, which had disparaged him in his eyes, and against his brother, which he regarded as too compliant towards the Dutch (1749). Mangkubumi was in his fight against the Dutch supported by Raden Mas Said his cousin, a brilliant soldier, who has been a guerrilla warfare against the Dutch East India Company.


In the midst of Mangkubumi rebellion in 1749, Pakubuwana II fell ill and called Van Hohendorff, his trusted friend who saved his life during the fall of Kartasura in 1742. He asked Hohendorff to assume control over the kingdom. Hohendorff was naturally surprised and refused, thinking that he would be made king of Mataram, but when the king insisted on it, he asked his sick friend to confirm it in writing. On 11 December 1749, Pakubuwana II signed an agreement in which the "sovereignty" of Mataram was given to VOC. Mangku Bumi, who saw themselves as the rightful heir to the throne, demanded the title of ruler on. For its part the VOC continued a powerless puppet, Pakubuwana III of Surakarta on the throne. By the people of Mataram was Mangku Bumi, like Frost Hamengkubuwana called, as the only real ruler of Mataram and regarded as a freedom fighter. After years of changing fight with battles at Grobogan, Demak and members the Dutch under de Clerck a crushing defeat at the Bogowonto River. Hereinafter referred to as Governor-General Mossel decided to peace negotiations with Hamengkubuwana. This eventually led to the conclusion of the 'Treaty of Giyanti, named after the place East of Surakarta where the negotiations took place: the Kingdom of Mataram was divided between the two warring parties. The old capital Kartasura, which as a result of the fratricidal out there had taken place as a doom-laden place was considered, was abandoned.

The Pakubuwana III, founded as faithful to the Dutchmen Ruler a new kraton in Surakarta and controlled the eastern part of Mataram (Kasoenanan Solo or Surakarta) (1750-1788). On the other hand, reigned as sultan Hamengkubuwana I over the Western half of Mataram, and he built North of the old capital Kartasura, his new kraton Yogyakarta (Kasultanan Yogyakarta) (1755-1792). MAS Said the fight is not for also gave to him a part of Mataram as 'princely state' was given: he ruled as Mangkoenegara, built his own kraton in the proximity of the Surakarta/Solo and was especially areas in the extreme South-East of Mataram as its inheritance (Mangkoenegaran) (1757-1796).


Related Research Articles

Mataram Sultanate

The Sultanate of Mataram was the last major independent Javanese kingdom on Java before the island was colonised by the Dutch. It was the dominant political force radiating from the interior of Central Java from the late 16th century until the beginning of the 18th century.


Imogiri is a royal graveyard complex in Yogyakarta, in south-central Java, Indonesia, as well as a subdistrict under the administration of Bantul Regency. Imogiri is a traditional resting place for the royalty of central Java, including many rulers of the Sultanate of Mataram and of the current houses of Surakarta and Yogyakarta Sultanate. The name Imagiri is derived from Sanskrit Himagiri, which means 'mountain of snow'. The latter is another name for Himalaya.

Kraton (Indonesia) Javanese word for a royal palace

Kraton or Keraton is a type of royal palace in Indonesia. Its name is derived from the Javanese ka-ratu-an, meaning residence of the ratu, the traditional honorific title for a king or queen. In Java, the palace of a prince is called pura or dalem, while the general word for palace is istana, identical to Indonesian and Malay.


Susuhunan, or in short version Sunan, is a title used by the monarchs of Mataram and then by the hereditary rulers of Surakarta, Indonesia.

Yogyakarta Sultanate Javanese monarchy in Yogyakarta Special Region, Indonesia

The Sultanate of Yogyakarta is a Javanese monarchy in Yogyakarta Special Region, in the Republic of Indonesia. The current head of the Sultanate is Hamengkubuwono X.

Hamengkubuwono I, born Raden Mas Sujana, was the first sultan of Yogyakarta, reigning between 1755 and 1792.


The Vorstenlanden were four native, princely states on the island of Java in the colonial Dutch East Indies. They were nominally self-governing vassals under suzerainty of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Their political autonomy however became increasingly constrained by severe treaties and settlements. Two of these continues to exist as a princely territory within the current independent republic of Indonesia.

Yogyakarta City in Java, Indonesia

Yogyakarta is the capital city of Special Region of Yogyakarta in Indonesia, on the island of Java. As the only Indonesian royal city still ruled by a monarchy, Yogyakarta is regarded as an important centre for classical Javanese fine arts and culture such as ballet, batik textiles, drama, literature, music, poetry, silversmithing, visual arts, and wayang puppetry. Renowned as a centre of Indonesian education, Yogyakarta is home to a large student population and dozens of schools and universities, including Gadjah Mada University, the country's largest institute of higher education and one of its most prestigious.

Amangkurat II of Mataram Sultan of Mataram, 1677–1703

Amangkurat II was the Susuhunan of Mataram from 1677 to 1703. Prior to taking the throne, he was the crown prince and had the title Pangeran Adipati Anom.

Treaty of Giyanti

The Treaty of Giyanti was signed and ratified on February 13, 1755 in Giyanti between Prince Mangkubumi, the Dutch East India Company, and Sunan Pakubuwono III along with his allies. The accord officially divided the Sultanate of Mataram between Mangkubumi and Pakubuwono. The name Giyanti was taken from the location of the signing of the agreement, namely in Giyanti Village which is now located in Hamlet Kerten, Jantiharjo Village, southeast of Karanganyar, Central Java.


Mangkunegaran is a small Javanese princely state located within the region of Surakarta in Indonesia. It was established in 1757 by Raden Mas Said, when he submitted his army to Pakubuwono III in February, and swore allegiance to the rulers of Surakarta, Yogyakarta, and the Dutch East Indies Company, and was given an appanage of 4000 households.

Kartosuro is an Indonesian subdistrict (Kecamatan) in the Sukoharjo Regency, Central Java. Kartosuro is a Surakarta's satellite city, and a junction of Surabaya-Solo-Yogyakarta and Solo-Semarang highway. It can be reached within minutes southward of Surakarta's International Airport of Adi Sumarmo.

Merle Calvin Ricklefs was an American-born Australian scholar of the history and current affairs of Indonesia.

Mangkunegara I, also known as Pangeran Sambernyawa, was the first ruler of Mangkunegaran in Java in the eighteenth century.

Surakarta Sunanate

Surakarta Sunanate was a Javanese monarchy centred in the city of Surakarta, in the province of Central Java, Indonesia.

The First Javanese War of Succession was a struggle between Sultan Amangkurat III of Mataram and the Dutch East India Company who supported the claim of the Sultan's uncle, Pangeran Puger to the throne.

Pakubuwono I, uncle of Amangkurat III of Mataram was a combatant for the succession of the Mataram dynasty, in the First Javanese War of Succession.

Amangkurat III was a short-lived ruler of Sultan of Mataram, reigned 1703–1705.

Trunajaya rebellion 17th-century unsuccessful rebellion in Java

Trunajaya rebellion or Trunajaya War was the ultimately unsuccessful rebellion waged by the Madurese prince Trunajaya and fighters from Makassar against the Mataram Sultanate and its Dutch East India Company (VOC) supporters in Java during the 1670s.

The Mataram dynasty is a reference to a dynasty or family that occupies the throne of the Mataram Sultanate. After the Javanese Revolutionary War in the 18th century to the present, the Mataram dynasty ruled the fragmented monarchs of the Mataram Sultanate