Governor-general

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Governor-general (plural governors-general) or governor general [note 1] (plural governors general), in modern usage, is the title of an office-holder appointed to represent the monarch of a sovereign state in the governing of an independent realm [3] as a viceroy. Governors-general have also previously been appointed in respect of major colonial states or other territories held by either a monarchy or republic, such as Japan in Korea and France in Indochina.

Contents

Current uses

In modern usage, the term governor-general originated in those British colonies that became self-governing within the British Empire. Before World War I, the title was used only in federated colonies in which its constituents had had governors prior to federating, namely Canada, Australia, and the Union of South Africa. In these cases, the Crown's representative in the federated Dominion was given the superior title of governor-general. The first exception to this rule was New Zealand, which was granted Dominion status in 1907, but it was not until 28 June 1917 that Arthur Foljambe, 2nd Earl of Liverpool, was appointed the first Governor-General of New Zealand.

Since the 1950s, the title governor-general has been given to all representatives of the sovereign in independent Commonwealth realms. In these cases, the former office of colonial governor was altered (sometimes for the same incumbent) to become governor-general upon independence, as the nature of the office became an entirely independent constitutional representative of the monarch rather than a symbol of previous colonial rule. In these countries the governor-general acts as the monarch's representative, performing the ceremonial and constitutional functions of a head of state.

The only other nation which uses the governor-general designation is Iran, which has no connection with any monarchy or the Commonwealth. In Iran, the provincial authority is headed by a governor general [4] (Persian: استاندار ostāndār), who is appointed by the Minister of the Interior.

British colonialism and the governors-general

Lord Tweedsmuir was Governor General of Canada from 1935 to 1940. The uniform shown here was the unique ceremonial dress for Governors General of Canada. Btweedsmuir2.jpg
Lord Tweedsmuir was Governor General of Canada from 1935 to 1940. The uniform shown here was the unique ceremonial dress for Governors General of Canada.

Until the 1920s, governors-general were British subjects, appointed on the advice of the British government, who acted as agents of the British government in each Dominion, as well as being representatives of the monarch. As such they notionally held the prerogative powers of the monarch, and also held the executive power of the country to which they were assigned. The governor-general could be instructed by the colonial secretary on the exercise of some of his functions and duties, such as the use or withholding of the Royal Assent from legislation; history shows many examples of governors-general using their prerogative and executive powers. The monarch or imperial government could overrule any governor-general, though this could often be cumbersome, due to remoteness of the territories from London.

The governor-general was also usually the commander-in-chief of the armed forces in his or her territory and, because of the governor-general's control of the military, the post was as much a military appointment as a civil one. The governors-general are entitled to wear a unique uniform, which is not generally worn today. If of the rank of major general, equivalent or above, they were entitled to wear that military uniform.

Modern Commonwealth

Commonwealth realms

Following the Imperial Conference, and subsequent issuing of the Balfour Declaration in 1926, the role and responsibilities of the governor-general began to shift, reflecting the increased independence of the Dominions (which were in 1952 renamed Realms; a term which includes the UK itself). As the sovereign came to be regarded as monarch of each territory independently, and, as such, advised only by the ministers of each country in regard to that country's national affairs (as opposed to a single British monarch ruling all the Dominions as a conglomerate and advised only by an imperial parliament), so too did the governor-general become a direct representative of the national monarch only, who no longer answered to the British government. The report resulting from the 1926 Imperial Conference stated: "it is an essential consequence of the equality of status existing among the members of the British Commonwealth of Nations that the Governor General of a Dominion is the representative of the Crown, holding in all essential respects the same position in relation to the administration of public affairs in the Dominion as is held by His Majesty the King in Great Britain, and that he is not the representative or agent of His Majesty's Government in Great Britain or of any Department of that Government." [5] These concepts were entrenched in legislation with the enactment of the Statute of Westminster in 1931, and governmental relations with the United Kingdom were placed in the hands of a British High Commissioner in each country.

In other words, the political reality of a self-governing Dominion within the British Empire with a governor-general answerable to the sovereign became clear. British interference in the Dominion was not acceptable and independent country status was clearly displayed. Canada, Australia, and New Zealand were clearly not controlled by the United Kingdom. The monarch of these countries (Elizabeth II) is in law Queen of Canada, Queen of Australia, and Queen of New Zealand and only acts on the advice of the ministers in each country and is in no way influenced by the British government. Today, therefore, in former British colonies that are now independent Commonwealth realms, the governor-general is constitutionally the representative of the monarch in his or her state and may exercise the reserve powers of the monarch according to their own constitutional authority. The governor-general, however, is still appointed by the monarch and takes an oath of allegiance to the monarch of their own country. Executive authority is also vested in the monarch, though much of it can be exercisable only by the governor-general on behalf of the sovereign of the independent realm. Letters of Credence or Letters of Recall are in some realms received or issued in the name of the monarch, but in others (such as Canada and Australia) are issued in the name of the governor-general alone.

At diplomatic functions where the governor-general is present, the visiting diplomat or head of state toasts "The King" or "The Queen" of the relevant realm, not the governor-general, with any reference to the governor-general being subsidiary in later toasts if featuring at all, and will involve a toast to them by name, not office. (E.g., "Mr. and Mrs. Smith", not "Her Excellency, the Governor-General". Sometimes a toast might be made using name and office, e.g., "Governor-General Smith".)

Except in rare cases (example, a constitutional crisis), the governor-general usually acts in accordance with constitutional convention and upon the advice of the national prime minister (who is Head of the nation's Government). [6] The governor-general is still the local representative of the sovereign and performs the same duties as they carried out historically, though their role is for the most part ceremonial (or partly ceremonial). Rare and controversial exceptions occurred in 1926, when Canadian Governor General the Viscount Byng of Vimy refused Prime Minister Mackenzie King's request for a dissolution of parliament; in 1953 and 1954 when the Governor-General of Pakistan, Ghulam Mohammad, staged a constitutional coup against the Prime Minister and then the Constituent Assembly; and in 1975, when the Governor-General of Australia, Sir John Kerr, dismissed the Prime Minister, Gough Whitlam (to name a few). [7] It should be remembered that while the governor-general does not normally take drastic action, he/she still has a responsibility to ensure that the constitution is respected and followed at all times. In many ways the governor-general acts as an Umpire/Mediator (who must remain independent/non partisan and objective) in the political scene. In some realms, the monarch could in principle overrule a governor-general,[ how? ] but this has not happened in recent times.

In Australia the present Queen is generally assumed to be Head of State, since the governor-general and the state governors are defined as her "representatives". [8] However, since the governor-general performs almost all national regal functions, the governor-general has occasionally been referred to as head of state in political and media discussion. To a lesser extent, uncertainty has been expressed in Canada as to which officeholder—the monarch, the governor general, or both—can be considered the head of state.

The governor-general is usually a person with a distinguished record of public service, often a retired politician, judge or military commander; but some countries have also appointed prominent academics, members of the clergy, philanthropists, or figures from the news media to the office.

Traditionally, the governor-general's official attire was a unique uniform, but this practice has been abandoned except on occasions when it is appropriate to be worn (and in some countries abandoned altogether). In South Africa, the Governor-General of the Union of South Africa nominated by the Afrikaner Nationalist government chose not to wear uniform on any occasion. Most governors-general continue to wear appropriate medals on their clothing when required.

The governor-general's official residence is usually called Government House. The Governor-General of the Irish Free State resided in the then Viceregal Lodge in Phoenix Park, Dublin, but the government of Éamon de Valera sought to downgrade the office and the last governor-general, Domhnall Ua Buachalla, did not reside there. The office was abolished there in 1936.

In most Commonwealth realms, the flag of the governor-general has been the standard pattern of a blue field with the Royal Crest (a lion standing on a crown) above a scroll with the name of the jurisdiction. In Canada, however, this was replaced with a crowned lion clasping a maple leaf. In the Solomon Islands, the scroll was replaced with a two-headed frigate bird motif, while in Fiji, the former Governor General's flag featured a whale's tooth. In New Zealand, the flag was replaced in 2008 with the shield of the coat of arms of New Zealand surmounted by a crown on a blue field.

Governors-general are accorded the style of His/Her Excellency . This style is also extended to their spouses, whether female or male.

Appointment

Tim Healy, first Governor-General of the Irish Free State Tim healy.jpg
Tim Healy, first Governor-General of the Irish Free State

Until the 1920s, the Governors General were British, and appointed on the advice of the British Government.

Following the changes to the structure of the Commonwealth in the late 1920s, in 1929, the Australian Prime Minister James Scullin established the right of a Dominion prime minister to advise the monarch directly on the appointment of a governor-general, by insisting that his choice (Isaac Isaacs, an Australian) prevail over the recommendation of the British government. The convention was gradually established throughout the Commonwealth that the governor-general would be a citizen of the country concerned, and would be appointed on the advice of the government of that country, with no input from the British government; Governor General of Canada since 1952 and Governor-General of New Zealand since 1967. Since 1931 as each former Dominion has patriated its constitution from the UK, the convention has become law, or, since 1947, when the first realms established with a patriated constitution, India and Pakistan, were established, was always law, and no government of any realm can advise the Monarch on any matter pertaining to another realm, including the appointment of a governor-general. The monarch appoints a governor-general (in Canada: governor general) as a personal representative only on the advice of the prime minister of each realm; for example, the Governor-General of New Zealand is appointed by the Queen of New Zealand on the advice of the New Zealand prime minister, the Governor-General of Tuvalu is appointed by the Queen of Tuvalu on the advice of the Tuvaluan prime minister, and the Governor-General of Jamaica is appointed by the Queen of Jamaica on the advice of the Jamaican prime minister. In Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands, the Prime Minister's advice is based on the result of a vote in the national parliament.

Governors-General who were royal Princes
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught.jpg
The Duke of Connaught, son of Queen Victoria, was Governor-General of Canada.
Prince Arthur of Connaught colour.jpg
Prince Arthur of Connaught, son of The Duke of Connaught, was Governor-General of South Africa
Earlofathlone.jpg
The Earl of Athlone, brother of Queen Mary, was Governor General of both Canada and South Africa

The formalities for appointing governors-general are not the same in all the realms. For example: When appointed, a Governor-General of Australia issues a proclamation in his own name, countersigned by the head of government and under the Great Seal of Australia, formally announcing that he has been appointed by the monarch's commission, previously issued also under the Great Seal of Australia. [9] The practice in Canada is to include in the governor general's proclamation of appointment, issued under the Great Seal of Canada, [10] the monarch's commission naming the governor general as Commander-in-Chief of the Canadian Forces [10] [11] Also dissimilar among the realms are the powers of governors-general. The Belizean constitution provides the governor-general with the power to assent or to withhold assent to laws, [12] while Papua New Guinea has no requirement for royal assent at all, with laws entering into force when certified as having been passed in Parliament by the Speaker. [13]

Commonwealth countries with a governor-general

Commonwealth realmFrom
Antigua and Barbuda 1981 [14]
Australia 1901 [15]
Bahamas 1973 [16]
Barbados 1966 [17]
Belize 1981 [18]
Canada 1867 [19]
Grenada 1974 [20]
Jamaica 1962 [21]
New Zealand 1917 [22]
Papua New Guinea 1975
Saint Kitts and Nevis 1983 [23]
Saint Lucia 1979 [24]
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1979 [25]
Solomon Islands 1978
Tuvalu 1978 [26]

Other attributes

Different realms have different constitutional arrangements governing who acts in place of the governor-general in the event of his or her death, resignation, or incapacity.

Former Commonwealth realms

The title has been used in many former British colonies, which became independent realms and then later became republics. Each of these realms had a governor-general.

In Africa

In the Americas

In Asia

In Europe

In Oceania

Other colonial and similar usage

Belgium

France

The equivalent term in French is gouverneur général, [note 2] used in the following colonies:

Furthermore, in Napoleonic Europe successive French Governors-general were appointed by Napoleon I in:

Japan

From 1895 to 1945, Japanese-administered Taiwan had a governor-general. From 1910 to 1945, Japanese-administered Korea had a governor-general. From 1905 to 1910, Japan had a resident-general in Korea.

Netherlands

From 1691 to 1948 the Dutch appointed a gouverneur-generaal ("governor-general") to govern the Netherlands East Indies, now Indonesia.

While in the Caribbean, various other titles were used, Curaçao had three Governors-General between 1816 and 1820:

Portugal

The equivalent word in Portuguese is governador-geral. This title was only used for the governors of the major colonies, indicating that they had, under their authority, several subordinate governors. In most of the colonies, lower titles, mainly governador (governor) or formerly captain-major (capitão-mor), prevailed

Philippines

The Philippines from the 16th through the 20th century had a series of governors-general during the Spanish and American colonial periods, as well as the Japanese Occupation of the Philippines during World War II

Spain

From 21 November 1564 the Spanish East Indies had a governor-general, which was under the Viceroy of New Spain based in Mexico. After the successful Mexican War of Independence in 1821, the governor-general reported directly to Spain.

United States

future US President William Howard Taft was the First American Governor General of the Philippines William Howard Taft.jpg
future US President William Howard Taft was the First American Governor General of the Philippines

From 1899 to 1935 under the Insular Government, the Philippines was administered by a series of governors-general, first military and then civilian, appointed by the United States Federal Government.

Other Western usage

Greece

The Balkan Wars of 1912–13 led to the Greek acquisition of the so-called "New Lands" (Epirus, Macedonia, Crete and the islands of the eastern Aegean), almost doubling the country's territory. Instead of fully incorporating these new lands into Greece by dividing them into prefectures, the Ottoman administrative system continued in existence for a while, and Law ΔΡΛΔ΄ of 1913 established five governorates-general (Γενικαὶ Διοικήσεις, sing. Γενική Διοίκησις): Epirus, Macedonia, Crete, Aegean and SamosIkaria. The governors-general had wide-ranging authority in their territories, and were almost autonomous of the government in Athens.

Law 524 in 1914 abolished the governorates-general and divided the New Lands into regular prefectures, but in 1918 Law 1149 re-instated them as a superordinate administrative level above the prefectures, with Macedonia now divided in two governorates-general, those of Thessaloniki and KozaniFlorina. The governors-general of Thessaloniki, Crete and Epirus were also given ministerial rank. To these was added the Governorate-General of Thrace in 1920–22, comprising Western Thrace and Eastern Thrace (returned to Turkey in the Armistice of Mudanya in 1922). The extensive but hitherto legally rather undefined powers of the governors-general created friction and confusion with other government branches, until their remit was exactly delineated in 1925. The governorates-general, except for that of Thessaloniki, were abolished in 1928, but re-established in December 1929—for Crete, Epirus, Thrace, and Macedonia—and delegated practically all ministerial authorities for their respective areas. Over the next decade, however, in a see-saw of legislative measures that in turns gave and took away authority, they gradually lost most of their powers in favour of the prefectures and the central government in Athens.

Following liberation from the Axis occupation, in 1945 the Governorate-General of Northern Greece was established, initially with subordinate governorates for West Macedonia, Central Macedonia, East Macedonia, and Thrace, the first three of which were then grouped anew into a new Governorate-General of Macedonia, albeit still subject to the Governorate-General of Northern Greece. This awkward arrangement lasted until 1950, when the administration of Macedonia was streamlined, the junior governorates abolished and only the Governorate-General of Northern Greece retained. Finally, in 1955, the Governorate-General of Northern Greece was transformed into the Ministry of Northern Greece, and all other governorates-general elsewhere in Greece were abolished.

Other

Asian counterparts

See also

Notes and references

Notes

  1. In Canada the title "Governor General" is always used unhyphenated. In Australia and New Zealand, the term is always hyphenated. [1] [2]
  2. The term Gouverneur général is still the official title in French in Canada, but refers to the British-instituted office.


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References

  1. Governor General of Australia ~ Welcome Message - Main Home Page
  2. gov-gen.govt.nz Archived 24 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  3. See, e.g., Markwell, Donald (2016). Constitutional Conventions and the Headship of State: Australian Experience. Connor Court. ISBN   9781925501155.
  4. 1 2 IRNA, Online Edition. "Paris for further cultural cooperation with Iran". Archived from the original on 23 October 2007. Retrieved 21 October 2007.
  5. Heard, Andrew (1990), "Canadian Independence", CANADIAN INDEPENDENCE, Vancouver: Simon Fraser University, retrieved 25 August 2010
  6. In particular, see the history of the Governor General of Australia
  7. Letter from the Queen's Private Secretary to the Speaker of the House of Representatives of Australia of 17 November 1975 Archived 14 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine , at The Whitlam Dismissal, retrieved 15 February 2006.
  8. Constitution, s 2; Australia Act 1986 (Cth and UK), s 7.
  9. Proclamatrion, 28 March 2014
  10. 1 2 Proclamation, February 1995
  11. "Governor-General's Role". Archived from the original on 11 April 2019. Retrieved 27 January 2015.
  12. Constitution of Belize - Organization of American States
  13. "Papua New Guinea: Constitution of the Independent State of Papua New Guinea".
  14. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 9 September 2010. Retrieved 24 November 2010.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  15. gg.gov.au
  16. "The Government of Bahamas - Landing Page". Bahamas.gov.bs. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
  17. Archived 20 August 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  18. "My Government(The Belize Government's Official Portal)". 6 December 2012. Archived from the original on 6 December 2012.
  19. gg.ca
  20. "Office of the Governor General". GOV.gd. 7 May 2013. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
  21. kingshouse.gov.jm
  22. gg.govt.nz
  23. Archived 11 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  24. Archived 28 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  25. Archived 19 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  26. "Government". Tuvaluislands.com. 26 April 1999. Retrieved 25 August 2013.

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