|Mataram conquest of Surabaya|
Duchy of Surabaya
|Commanders and leaders|
Sultan Agung of Mataram
The Mataram conquest of Surabaya or Mataram-Surabaya War was a military campaign by the Sultanate of Mataram in the early 17th century that resulted in the capture of the Duchy of Surabaya (Kadipaten Surabaya) and its allies in eastern Java, in modern-day Indonesia. Prior to this conquest, Mataram and Surabaya were rivals for power in central and eastern Java.The campaign began in 1614 when Mataram, under the leadership of Sultan Agung, attacked Surabaya's allies, including Wirasaba. Surabaya and its allies launched a counterattack but were defeated near Pajang in 1616. Over the next few years, Mataram gradually conquered members of the Surabayan alliance, and by 1620, the city of Surabaya itself was under siege, holding out until it surrendered in 1625. With this conquest, Mataram unified most of central and eastern Java under its control, and cemented its position as the dominant power in Java. Surabaya and other conquered areas would remain in Mataram's hands until it was ceded to the Dutch East India Company in 1743.
In the latter half of the 16th century, the Sultanate of Demak, the dominant power on the island of Java, disintegrated into several independent states. 1588, Demak (1588), Madiun (c. 1590), and Kediri (1591). Following Mataram's unsuccessful westward expedition against Banten in about 1597, Mataram turned its expansion eastward, into areas under the influence of Surabaya.At the turn of the 17th century, three of these states emerged as the leading powers: the Sultanate of Banten in western Java, the Sultanate of Mataram in inland central Java, and the Duchy of Surabaya in coastal eastern Java. Mataram consolidated its power by absorbing other principalities: Pajang in c.
The Duchy of Surabaya was centered roughly in today's city of Surabaya on the northern coast of eastern Java. 37 kilometres (23 mi) in circumference, and was fortified by canals and cannons. Allied with the nearby state of Pasuruan, the Duchy expanded its influence throughout the eastern part of Java in the beginning of the 17th century. By 1622, it was in control of Gresik and Sedayu in eastern Java. It was also the overlord of Sukadana and Banjarmasin in southern Borneo. More doubtful reports said it might have also extended its influence to Pasuruan, Blambangan, the Brantas valley region, and Wirasaba. Other than these, Surabaya was also allied with Tuban, Malang, Kediri, Lasem, all in eastern Java, as well as Madura off the northern coast. This alliance was primarily a response to the growing power of Mataram, and Surabaya was the founder and the most powerful member.It was a wealthy and powerful state, and the city was an important port in the trade route between Malacca and the Spice Islands. The city was approximately
In 1613 Hanyakrakusuma (r. 1613 – 1645, later titled Sultan Agung , "the Great Sultan", and referred to in literature with that title) rose to the throne of Mataram. He began the eastward conquest by an incursion towards Surabaya's southern flank, the Eastern Salient, Malang, and possibly Pasuruan in 1614. Surabayan forces attacked this Mataram army during its homeward march, but was defeated. In 1615 Agung conquered Wirasaba, personally leading the troops there. Surabaya did not commit its troops to help Wirasaba, due to the fear that its other ally, Tuban, would take advantage, betray Surabaya, and attack it from the rear.
The conquest of the strategically important Wirasaba posed such a clear threat to Surabaya and other eastern states that the alliance rallied. They mobilized their troops and marched towards Pajang, a city under Mataram's control but ostensibly on the verge of rebellion.However, a Mataram spy in Tuban deceived the allied forces into taking a bad route towards Pajang. As a result, the allied army found itself isolated in Siwalan, near Pajang. This army was surrounded by Sultan Agung and defeated in January 1616.
Agung then won victories in Lasem (1616) and Pasuruan (1616–17). In 1617 Pajang finally rebelled against Mataram but was defeated, and the lord of Pajang fled to Surabaya.In 1619 Agung conquered Tuban, one of the strongest members of Surabaya's alliance. This conquest put Agung in control of Tuban's shipbuilding activities, and therefore allowed him to build a navy to challenge Surabaya's previous naval supremacy.
By 1620, Mataram's main target shifted towards the city of Surabaya itself. From 1620 to 1625, Mataram forces periodically besieged Surabaya.The siege was difficult because part of Surabaya (including the ducal palace) was located between branches of the River Brantas, and it was in many parts surrounded by swampland, which formed a natural fortification and health risk for besiegers. In addition, the city was walled and fortified with cannons. Surabaya's position as a port city made it necessary for Mataram to blockade Surabaya by sea and by land. Logistical limitations and annual rainy seasons prevented Mataram from maintaining a continuous siege. Instead, Mataram followed a pattern of attacking during the dry season, destroying crops and pillaging harvests from the areas surrounding Surabaya.
Mataram sent five expeditions to attack Surabaya.The first, in 1620, involved 70,000 Mataram troops against Surabaya's 30,000, but the siege failed due to insufficient supplies for the Mataram troops. The second attempt in 1622 also failed due to lack of food supplies. The third attempt in 1623 also failed to conquer Surabaya. Mataram besieged Surabaya again in 1624, occupying and pillaging the surrounding settlements and forcing their residents to flee to the city. At the same time, Mataram also sent expeditions against Surabaya's remaining allies, notably Sukadana in Borneo, which fell in 1622, and Madura, which fell in 1624. These two overseas allies had been supplying Surabaya, and their defeat severely cut off the city.
The fifth and final siege took place in 1625, and Mataram troops were led by Tumenggung Mangun Oneng, assisted by Tumenggung Yuda Prasena and Tumenggung Ketawangan.Mataram dammed the river Brantas, limiting the water supply to the city, and spoiled the remaining water supply using dead animals. The overland siege, and previous conquest of Surabaya's overseas allies, caused a lack of food and other supplies in the city. Notably, only a sea route to Makassar was open. Considering the effects of the siege and the starvation in the city, Jayalengkara, the Duke of Surabaya, called a council with the city's nobility. One faction, notably including the exiled Duke of Pajang, pushed for continued resistance, but other nobles convinced Jayalengkara to surrender.
Jayalengkara became Sultan Agung's vassal in Surabaya, and the elderly dukewas said to have died shortly afterwards. His son Pangeran Pekik was exiled to an ascetic life at the grave of Sunan Ngampel-Denta near Surabaya. Later, Pangeran Pekik lived in the court of Mataram, married Agung's sister, and, according to Dutch historian H. J. de Graaf, "did much to civilize the Court" of Mataram. The Duke of Pajang, a former subject of Mataram who had rebelled and fled to Surabaya, was executed by drowning.
The conquest eliminated Mataram's strongest rival to the east and allowed Sultan Agung to establish his sovereignty over most of the Javanese-speaking population of Java, as well as Madura.Of the Javanese-speaking regions, only Blambangan remained independent in the East. There were also Banten Sultanate and Dutch-controlled Batavia (today's Jakarta) in the West. Surabaya and other conquered regions on the northeastern coast of Java would remain in Mataram's hands until they were ceded to the Dutch East India Company in the aftermath of the 1741–1743 Java War. This meant that they were within the Mataram sphere of influence during the Mataram-driven formative period of the Javanese culture, during which present-day features such as Javanese etiquette, art, language, and social hierarchy were taking shape.
This conquest marked the maximum extent of Mataram's power.Having consolidated his power in central and eastern Java, Agung then turned westward to deal with the Dutch. His army attacked Batavia in 1628, and again in 1629, but these campaigns ended in a devastating defeat. After this failure, Mataram expansion stopped, and it would no longer be a threat to either Banten or the Dutch.
In addition, the campaign resulted in some destruction, especially along the Javanese northern coast. –the number is unknown, but estimated to be large. Surabaya, no longer a port of importance, had lost its dominance over eastern Java. The destruction of the coastal towns contributed to the decline of Javanese trade and the rise of the Sultanate of Makassar in Sulawesi as a major centre of the spice trade in Nusantara.The fighting, sickness, and starvation, and the disruption of agriculture, caused the deaths of many
Madura is an Indonesian island off the northeastern coast of Java. The island comprises an area of approximately 4,078.67 km2. Administratively, Madura is part of the province of East Java. It is separated from Java by the narrow Strait of Madura. The administered area has a density of 778 people per km2 while main island somewhat higher in 2020.
The Sultanate of Mataram was the last major independent Javanese kingdom on the island of Java before it was colonised by the Dutch. It was the dominant political force radiating from the interior of Central Java from the late 16th century until the beginning of the 18th century.
Sultan Hanyakrakusuma is known as Sultan Agung was the third Sultan of Mataram in Central Java ruling from 1613 to 1645. A skilled soldier he conquered neighbouring states and expanded and consolidated his kingdom to its greatest territorial and military power.
Amangkurat I was the sultan of Mataram from 1646 to 1677. He was the son of Sultan Agung Hanyokrokusumo. He experienced many rebellions during his reign. He died in exile in 1677, and buried in Tegalwangi, hence his posthumous title, Sunan Tegalwangi or Sunan Tegalarum. He was also nicknamed as Sunan Getek, because he was wounded when suppressing the rebellion of Raden Mas Alit, his own brother.
Sunan Kalijaga (1460-1513), born as Raden Mas Said son of a Duke of Tuban in East Java, Indonesia, was one of the "nine saints" of Javanese Islam. the "Kalijaga" title was derived from an orchard known as "Kalijaga" in Cirebon. Other accounts suggest the name derives from his hobby of submerging himself in Kali. Others note that the name Kalijaga derived its nature from the Arabic notion of qadli dzaqa which means "holy leader" in the sultanate.
The Demak Sultanate was a Javanese Muslim state located on Java's north coast in Indonesia, at the site of the present day city of Demak. A port fief to the Hindu-Buddhist Majapahit kingdom thought to have been founded in the last quarter of the 15th century, it was influenced by Islam brought by Muslim traders from China, Gujarat, Arabia and also from Islamic kingdoms in the region, such as Samudra Pasai, Malacca and Bani (Muslim) Champa. The sultanate was the first Muslim state in Java, and once dominated most of the northern coast of Java and southern Sumatra.
The Siege of Batavia was a military campaign led by Sultan Agung of Mataram to capture the Dutch port-settlement of Batavia in Java. The first attempt was launched in 1628, and the second in 1629; both were unsuccessful. Jan Pieterszoon Coen, the Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies, managed to repel the sieges and beat off all of Sultan Agung's attacks.
Pakubuwono I, uncle of Amangkurat III of Mataram was a combatant for the succession of the Mataram dynasty, in the First Javanese War of Succession.
The eastern salient of Java is a region that makes up the easternmost part of the island of Java, Indonesia. It is not a formal or administrative subdivision, but rather a designation often used to refer to its distinct history, culture, and geographical feature. It is generally considered to begin in the Tengger mountain range and extend eastwards to the east coast of Java. It is entirely contained by the Indonesian province of East Java.
The Duchy of Surabaya was a Javanese principality centered in Surabaya, on the northeastern coast of Java, that existed as an independent polity from c. 1546 to 1625. It became independent following the disintegration of the Demak Sultanate, and by the beginning of the 17th century had become the leading power in east Java and the most important port on Java's northeastern coast. Subsequently, it entered into decades of conflict with the Mataram Sultanate that ended in the victory of Mataram and the fall of Surabaya in 1625.
Trunajaya rebellion or Trunajaya War was the ultimately unsuccessful rebellion waged by the Madurese prince Trunajaya and fighters from Makassar against the Mataram Sultanate and its Dutch East India Company (VOC) supporters in Java during the 1670s.
The Fall of Plered was the capture of the capital of the Mataram Sultanate by the rebel forces loyal to Trunajaya in late June 1677. The attack on Plered followed a series of rebel victory, notably in the Battle of Gegodog and the fall of most of Mataram's northern coast. The aged and sick King Amangkurat I and his sons offered an ineffective defense, and the rebel overran the capital on or around 28 June. The capital was plundered and its wealth taken to the rebel capital in Kediri. The loss of the capital led to the collapse of the Mataram government and the flight of the royal family. The king fled with his son the crown prince and a small retinue to Tegal and died there, passing the kingship to the crown prince, now titled Amangkurat II, without any army or treasury.
The Battle of Gegodog took place in 13 October 1676 during the Trunajaya rebellion, and resulted in the victory of the rebel forces over the Mataram army led by the Crown Prince Pangeran Adipati Anom. Gegodog is located in the northeastern coast of Java, east of Tuban.
After his victory at the Battle of Gegodog in northeast Java, the Madurese rebel leader Trunajaya proceeded westwards to conquer Mataram Sultanate's remaining towns on the north coast of Java. By January 1677, nearly all coastal towns from Surabaya to Cirebon were taken.
Pangeran Pekik was a Javanese prince, and son of the last Duke of Surabaya, Jayalengkara. After the Mataram conquest of Surabaya he was forced to live in Mataram court. He was executed in 1659 under the orders of Mataram's King Amangkurat I, who suspected him of conspiracy.
Raden Kajoran, also Panembahan Rama was a Javanese Muslim nobleman and a major leader of the Trunajaya rebellion against the Mataram Sultanate. He led the rebel forces which overran and sacked Plered, Mataram's capital in June 1677. In September 1679, his forces were defeated by the combined Dutch, Javanese, and Bugis forces under Sindu Reja and Jan Albert Sloot in a battle in Mlambang, near Pajang. Kajoran surrendered but was executed under Sloot's orders.
I Maninrori Kare Tojeng, also known as Karaeng Galesong, was a Makassarese nobleman and warrior, and a major leader of the Trunajaya rebellion in Java against the Mataram Sultanate. He participated in the successful invasion of East Java and the subsequent rebel victory at Battle of Gegodog (1676). He later broke out with Trunajaya, and built a stronghold in Kakaper, East Java. Dutch East India Company (VOC) and Bugis forces took Kakaper in October 1679, but Galesong escaped and rejoined Trunajaya. He died on 21 November 1679, either by illness or murdered by Trunajaya, before the rebellion ended.
The 1678 Kediri campaign took place from August to December 1678 in Kediri during the Trunajaya rebellion. The forces of the Mataram Sultanate, led by Amangkurat II, and the Dutch East India Company (VOC), led by Anthonio Hurdt, marched inland into eastern Java against Trunajaya's forces. After a series of marches beset by logistical difficulties and harassment by Trunajaya's forces, the Mataram–VOC army crossed the Brantas River on the night of 16–17 November. They then marched on Trunajaya's capital and stronghold at Kediri and took it by direct assault on 25 November. Kediri was plundered by the Dutch and Javanese victors, and the Mataram treasury—captured by Trunajaya after his victory at Plered—was completely lost in the looting. Trunajaya himself fled Kediri and continued his greatly weakened rebellion until his capture at the end of 1679.
Sutawijaya, better known as Panembahan Senopati, formally styled Senopati ing Alaga Sayiddin Kalifatullah Tanah Jawi, was the founder of the Mataram Sultanate. His biography is discovered from traditional accounts, such as Javanese chronicles in the future era.