Vice President of Peru

Last updated
First and Second Vice President of
the Republic of Peru
Gran Sello de la Republica del Peru.svg
Great Seal of the State
Flag of Peru (war).svg
Flag of Peru
Dina Boluarte Zegarra (cropped).png
Incumbent
Dina Boluarte
Vacant

since 28 July 2021 (First)
and 7 May 2020 (Second)
Residence Government Palace
Appointer Direct popular election
Term length Five years, not renewable immediately
Inaugural holder Diego de Aliaga (1823)
Formation1823 [1]
SuccessionFirst Vice President
Second Vice President
President of Congress
Website gob.pe/presidencia

The Republic of Peru has two vice presidents who are elected along with the President in democratic elections. [2] Their only mission is to replace the President in case of death, permanent or temporary incapacity, resignation, being abroad without the permission of Congress, failure to return from abroad at fixed time, and/or dismissal or removal from office as allowed by the Constitution. [3]

The Vice Presidents are first in the Presidential line of succession. [4]

Historically, the position was one of a sole Vice President, which was in place between 1829–1831 and 1858–1862. The dual positions of First and Second Vice Presidents have been in place since 1862.

The most recent holder is Mercedes Aráoz, who was elected as the Second Vice President in 2016 along with the election of Pedro Kuzcynski as President and Martín Vizcarra as First Vice President. [5] [6] When Vizcarra succeeded Kuzcynski, after the latter's being driven from office by scandal in 2018, Aráoz became the sole Peruvian Vice President. [5] On 30 September 2019, the Peruvian Congress, caught up in a constitutional political crisis, named Aráoz acting President after having declared Vizacarra temporarily unfit for office. [5] [6] [7] Given that the Congress had itself been dissolved earlier that day by President Vizcarra, and given that Aráoz supported the latter's call for new congressional elections, she irrevocably resigned as Second Vice President on 1 October 2019, thus leaving vacancies in both vice-presidential offices and, moreover, leaving Vizcarra as the sole claimant for President, supported in that position by the Peruvian Armed Forces and the National Police of Peru. [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] However, her resignation is not official, since in Peru, the resignation of the vice president has to be accepted by the Congress and that institution is not celebrating meetings given its dissolution. [10] Her resignation was finally accepted on 7 May 2020 by the new Peruvian Congress sworn in on 16 March 2020. [11]

In contemporary history, only one vice president has assumed the presidency of Peru via constitutional succession.[ citation needed ] The 66th Vice President Vizcarra assumed the office of the presidency in 2018 after the graft scandal that led to the ousting of President Kuczynski. [6]

History

The position of Vice President of Peru appeared for the first time in the Constitution of 1823: [1]

"ARTICLE 76: There will be a Vice President in whom the same qualities concur. He/she will administer and withhold Executive Power in event of the death, resignation, or impeachment of the President, or when the president is unable to control the armed forces." Constitution of 1823

First Vice President

The Constitution of 1828 and the Life Constitution of 1826 also proposed only one vice president, who had to be appointed by the president. In the Constitution of 1834, the office was disbanded until the Magna Carta of 1856, which reinstated the sole vice-presidency.

Second Vice President

The Constitution of 1860 established two vice-presidents, elected jointly with the President.

Article 89: "There will be two Vice Presidents of the Republic, named first and second, who will be elected at the same time, with the same qualities and for the same period as the President. Constitution of 1860

In the Constitution of 1867, the power of vice-presidents was eminently curtailed. However, this constitution held in place for a short period until a successful revolution of that same year restored the Constitution of 1860.

Similarly, the Constitution of 1920 abolished the positions of vice-presidents. The Constitution of 1933 failed to change this, but the office was eventually restored by the second presidency of Óscar R. Benavides, by law on April 1, 1936. In 1939, via plebiscitary consultation, a constitutional amendment was made restoring the office of vice president and second vice president.

The 1993 Constitution and the current constitution in force — put forth by President Alberto Fujimori — recognizes the double vice-presidency in the Executive Branch.

List of vice presidents of Peru

PortraitPos.Vice PresidentPolitical partyInauguratedLeft officePresidentNotes
- Diego de Aliaga November 1823February 1824 José Bernardo de Tagle [1]
Msalazaryb.png - Manuel Salazar y Baquíjano August 1827June 1829 José de la Mar [1]
Agutierrezf.png - Antonio Gutiérrez de la Fuente 1 September 182916 April 1831 Agustín Gamarra [1]
Juan Manuel del Mar.JPG - Juan Manuel del Mar 24 October 185816 June 1862 Ramón Castilla [1]
President Pezet.jpg First Juan Antonio Pezet Military24 October 18625 August 1863 Miguel de San Román [1]
Pedro Diez Canseco.jpg Second Pedro Diez Canseco [1]
Mariano Herencia Zevallos.jpg First Mariano Herencia Zevallos Military2 August 186827 July 1872 José Balta [1]
Francisco Diez Canseco.jpg Second Francisco Diez Canseco [1]
Manuel Costas Arce.jpg First Manuel Costas Arce Civilista Party 2 August 18722 August 1876 Manuel Pardo y Lavalle [1]
Second Francisco Garmendia Puértolas [1]
Luis La Puerta.jpg First Luis La Puerta 2 August 187618 December 1879 Mariano Ignacio Prado [1]
Second José Francisco Canevaro [1]
LizardoMontero.jpg First Lizardo Montero Flores 12 March 18816 November 1881 Francisco García Calderón [1]
Andres Avelino Caceres.jpg Second Andrés Avelino Cáceres [1]
Remigio Morales Bermudez 3.jpg First Remigio Morales Bermúdez Constitutional Party 3 June 188610 August 1890 Andrés Cáceres [1]
Aurelio Denegri.jpg Second Aurelio Denegri [1]
Pedro Alejandrino del Solar.jpg First Pedro Alejandrino del Solar Constitutional Party 10 August 18901 April 1894 Remigio Morales Bermúdez [1]
Justiniano Borgono 3.jpg Second Justiniano Borgoño [1]
Cesar Canevaro.jpg First César Canevaro Constitutional Party 10 August 189420 March 1895 Andrés Cáceres [1]
Cesareo Chacaltana.JPG Second Cesáreo Chacaltana Reyes [1]
Guillermo Billinghurst 3.jpg First Guillermo Billinghurst Democratic Party 8 September 18958 September 1899 Nicolás de Piérola [1]
Second Augusto Seminario Váscones [1]
IsaacAlzamora.jpg First Isaac Alzamora Alianza Civil-Demócrata8 September 18998 September 1903 Eduardo López de Romaña [1]
Second Federico Bresani [1]
Lino Alarco.jpg First Lino Alarco Brediñana Civilista Party -- Manuel Candamo Died 13 June 1903 before taking office [1]
SerapioCalderon.jpg Second Serapio Calderón 8 September 19037 May 1904 [1]
Jose Salvador Cavero.jpg First José Salvador Cavero Ovalle Civilista Party 24 September 190424 September 1908 José Pardo y Barreda [1]
SerapioCalderon.jpg Second Serapio Calderón 1907 [1]
Eugenio Larrabure y Unanue.tif First Eugenio Larrabure y Unanue Civilista Party 24 September 190824 September 1912 Augusto Leguía [1]
Belisario Sosa.jpg Second Belisario Sosa Constitutional Party [1]
Roberto Leguia.jpg First Roberto Leguía Civilista Party 24 September 19124 February 1914 Guillermo Billinghurst [1]
Miguel Echenique.JPG Second Miguel Echenique [1]
Ricardo Bentin.jpg First Ricardo Bentín Sánchez Alianza Civil-Constitucional-Liberal18 August 19154 July 1919 José Pardo y Barreda [1]
Meliton Carvajal.jpg Second Melitón Carvajal [1]
Cesar Canevaro.jpg First César Canevaro 12 October 191931 October 1922 Augusto Leguía [1]
Second Agustín de la Torre González 12 October 1924 [1]
Ernesto Montagne Markholz.jpg First Ernesto Montagne Markholz Peruvian Army 13 April 19368 December 1939 Óscar R. Benavides [1]
Antonio Rodriguez Ramirez.jpg Second Antonio Rodríguez Ramírez [1]
Rafael Larco Herrera.JPG First Rafael Larco Herrera Conservative 8 December 193928 July 1945 Manuel Prado Ugarteche [1]
Carlos Diego Gibson Moller 2.jpg Second Carlos D. Gibson [1]
Jose Galvez 2.jpg First José Gálvez Barrenechea National Democratic Front 28 July 194529 October 1948 José Bustamante y Rivero [1]
Second Eduardo Ganoza y Ganoza [1]
Zenon Noriega.jpg - Zenón Noriega Agüero Peruvian Army 29 October 19481 June 1950 Manuel A. Odría De facto
Hector Boza.jpg First Héctor Boza Odriíst National Union 28 July 195028 July 1956 [1]
Second Federico Bolognesi [1]
Luis Gallo Porras.jpg First Luis Gallo Porras Peruvian Democratic Movement 28 July 195618 July 1962 Manuel Prado Ugarteche [1]
Second Carlos Moreyra y Paz Soldán [1]
N. Lindley Lopez.jpg First Nicolás Lindley López Peruvian Army 18 July 19623 March 1963 Ricardo Pérez Godoy De facto
Second Pedro Vargas Prada De facto
Vp-peru-0035a.jpg First Edgardo Seoane Corrales Popular Action 28 July 19633 October 1968 Fernando Belaúnde Terry [1]
Second Mario Polar Ugarteche Christian Democracy [1]
Edgardo Mercado Jarrin.jpg - Luis Edgardo Mercado Jarrín Peruvian Army 3 October 196830 August 1975 Juan Velasco Alvarado De facto
- Pedro Richter Prada 30 August 197528 July 1980 Francisco Morales Bermúdez De facto
First Fernando Schwalb Popular Action 28 July 198028 July 1985 Fernando Belaúnde Terry [12] [1]
Jaoap12 (cropped).jpg Second Javier Alva Orlandini [12] [1]
LuisASanchez.jpg First Luis Alberto Sánchez Peruvian Aprista Party 28 July 198528 July 1990 Alan García Pérez [12] [1]
Luis Alva Castro 070809-N-8704K-125 0X1WO.jpg Second Luis Alva Castro [12] [1]
Maximo San Roman.png First Máximo San Román Change 90 28 July 19905 April 1992 Alberto Fujimori [12] [1]
Second Carlos García y García [12] [1]
MINISTERIO DE DEFENSA Y SOCIEDAD NACIONAL DE INDUSTRIAS FIRMARON CONVENIO A FAVOR DE POBLACIONES VULNERABLES.jpg First Ricardo Márquez Flores Change 90-New Majority 28 July 199528 July 2000 [12]
Second César Paredes Canto [12]
First Francisco Tudela Peru 2000 28 July 200022 November 2000Resigned. [12]
MINISTERIO DE DEFENSA Y SOCIEDAD NACIONAL DE INDUSTRIAS FIRMARON CONVENIO A FAVOR DE POBLACIONES VULNERABLES.jpg Second Ricardo Márquez Flores
Raul Diez Canseco Terry.jpg First Raúl Diez Canseco Popular Action 28 July 200114 December 2004 Alejandro Toledo Manrique Resigned [12]
David Waisman.jpg Second David Waisman Possible Peru 28 July 2006 [12]
Sesion del Pleno 05052011 - Luis Giampietri (cropped).jpg First Luis Giampietri Peruvian Aprista Party 28 July 200628 July 2011 Alan García Pérez [12]
Lourdes Mendoza del Solar 2010.jpg Second Lourdes Mendoza [12]
Marisol Espinoza 2.jpg First Marisol Espinoza Peruvian Nationalist Party (until 2015)

Alliance for Progress (since 2015)

28 July 201128 July 2016 Ollanta Humala [12]
Omar Chehade (cropped).jpg Second Omar Chehade Peruvian Nationalist Party 16 January 2012Resigned [12]
Martin Vizcarra em fevereiro de 2018.png First Martín Vizcarra Peruvians for Change 28 July 201623 March 2018 Pedro Pablo Kuczynski
Mercedes Araoz.jpg Second Mercedes Aráoz 7 May 2020 Pedro Pablo Kuczynski

Martín Vizcarra

Resigned
Dina Boluarte Zegarra (cropped).png First Dina Boluarte Perú Libre28 July 2021Incumbent Pedro Castillo
SecondVacant--

See also

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 Abog. Freddy Ronald Centurión González. "LA INSTITUCIÓN DE LA VICEPRESIDENCIA DE LA REPÚBLICA EN LA CONSTITUCIÓN PERUANA" (PDF). Retrieved 2019-10-19.
  2. Artículo 111°, Constitución Política Del Perú. (Retrieved 2019-10-06.)
  3. Artículos 113°, 114°, y 115°, Constitución Política Del Perú. (Retrieved 2019-10-06.)
  4. Artículo 115°, Constitución Política Del Perú. (Retrieved 2019-10-06.)
  5. 1 2 3 4 "Disolución del Congreso en Perú: quién es Mercedes Aráoz, que renunció tras ser nombrada 'presidenta en funciones' por el Parlamento peruano para sustituir a Vizcarra", BBC Mundo , 2 octubre 2019. (Retrieved 2019-10-06.)
  6. 1 2 3 4 Disolución del Congreso en Perú: 4 claves para entender el enfrentamiento entre Vizcarra y el Parlamento (y lo que puede pasar ahora)", BBC Mundo , 2 octubre 2019. (Retrieved 2019-10-06.)
  7. 1 2 Disolución del Congreso de Perú: las dudas sobre la legalidad de la decisión de Vizcarra de disolver la cámara y sobre la suspensión temporal del presidente", BBC Mundo , 2 octubre 2019. (Retrieved 2019-10-06.)
  8. Disolución del Congreso en Perú: renuncia Mercedes Aráoz, nombrada "presidenta en funciones" por el Parlamento en sustitución de Vizcarra", BBC Mundo , 2 octubre 2019. (Retrieved 2019-10-06.)
  9. Mercedes Aráoz Fernández [MecheAF] (2019, October 1). He decidido renunciar irrevocablemente al cargo de Vicepresidenta Constitucional de la República. Las razones las explico en la carta adjunta. Espero que mi renuncia conduzca a la convocatoria de elecciones generales en el más breve plazo por el bien del país. [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://mobile.twitter.com/MecheAF/status/1179221001936211968
  10. "Ministra de Justicia asegura que para el Gobierno Mercedes Aráoz continúa siendo la vicepresidenta". RPP Noticias. 2 November 2019. Retrieved 5 November 2019.
  11. "Congreso acepta renuncia de Mercedes Aráoz a la segunda vicepresidencia de la República NNDC | PERU". 7 May 2020.
  12. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 "Presidentes y vicepresidentes desde 1980 en Perú, crisis y realidades". 26 July 2018.