Vice President of Peru

Last updated
First and Second Vice President of
the Republic of Peru
Gran Sello de la Republica del Peru.svg
Great Seal of the State
Flag of Peru (war).svg
Flag of Peru
Dina Boluarte Zegarra (cropped).png
Dina Boluarte

since 28 July 2021 (First)
and 7 May 2020 (Second)
Residence Government Palace
Appointer Direct popular election
Term length Five years, not renewable immediately
Inaugural holder Diego de Aliaga (1823)
Formation1823 [1]
SuccessionFirst Vice President
Second Vice President
President of Congress

The Republic of Peru has two vice presidents who are elected along with the President in democratic elections. [2] Their only mission is to replace the President in case of death, permanent or temporary incapacity, resignation, being abroad without the permission of Congress, failure to return from abroad at fixed time, and/or dismissal or removal from office as allowed by the Constitution. [3]

The Vice Presidents are first in the Presidential line of succession. [4]

Historically, the position was one of a sole Vice President, which was in place between 1829–1831 and 1858–1862. The dual positions of First and Second Vice Presidents have been in place since 1862.

The most recent holder is Mercedes Aráoz, who was elected as the Second Vice President in 2016 along with the election of Pedro Kuzcynski as President and Martín Vizcarra as First Vice President. [5] [6] When Vizcarra succeeded Kuzcynski, after the latter's being driven from office by scandal in 2018, Aráoz became the sole Peruvian Vice President. [5] On 30 September 2019, the Peruvian Congress, caught up in a constitutional political crisis, named Aráoz acting President after having declared Vizacarra temporarily unfit for office. [5] [6] [7] Given that the Congress had itself been dissolved earlier that day by President Vizcarra, and given that Aráoz supported the latter's call for new congressional elections, she irrevocably resigned as Second Vice President on 1 October 2019, thus leaving vacancies in both vice-presidential offices and, moreover, leaving Vizcarra as the sole claimant for President, supported in that position by the Peruvian Armed Forces and the National Police of Peru. [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] However, her resignation is not official, since in Peru, the resignation of the vice president has to be accepted by the Congress and that institution is not celebrating meetings given its dissolution. [10] Her resignation was finally accepted on 7 May 2020 by the new Peruvian Congress sworn in on 16 March 2020. [11]

In contemporary history, only one vice president has assumed the presidency of Peru via constitutional succession.[ citation needed ] The 66th Vice President Vizcarra assumed the office of the presidency in 2018 after the graft scandal that led to the ousting of President Kuczynski. [6]


The position of Vice President of Peru appeared for the first time in the Constitution of 1823: [1]

"ARTICLE 76: There will be a Vice President in whom the same qualities concur. He/she will administer and withhold Executive Power in event of the death, resignation, or impeachment of the President, or when the president is unable to control the armed forces." Constitution of 1823

First Vice President

The Constitution of 1828 and the Life Constitution of 1826 also proposed only one vice president, who had to be appointed by the president. In the Constitution of 1834, the office was disbanded until the Magna Carta of 1856, which reinstated the sole vice-presidency.

Second Vice President

The Constitution of 1860 established two vice-presidents, elected jointly with the President.

Article 89: "There will be two Vice Presidents of the Republic, named first and second, who will be elected at the same time, with the same qualities and for the same period as the President. Constitution of 1860

In the Constitution of 1867, the power of vice-presidents was eminently curtailed. However, this constitution held in place for a short period until a successful revolution of that same year restored the Constitution of 1860.

Similarly, the Constitution of 1920 abolished the positions of vice-presidents. The Constitution of 1933 failed to change this, but the office was eventually restored by the second presidency of Óscar R. Benavides, by law on April 1, 1936. In 1939, via plebiscitary consultation, a constitutional amendment was made restoring the office of vice president and second vice president.

The 1993 Constitution and the current constitution in force — put forth by President Alberto Fujimori — recognizes the double vice-presidency in the Executive Branch.

List of vice presidents of Peru

PortraitPos.Vice PresidentPolitical partyInauguratedLeft officePresidentNotes
- Diego de Aliaga November 1823February 1824 José Bernardo de Tagle [1]
Msalazaryb.png - Manuel Salazar y Baquíjano August 1827June 1829 José de la Mar [1]
Agutierrezf.png - Antonio Gutiérrez de la Fuente 1 September 182916 April 1831 Agustín Gamarra [1]
Juan Manuel del Mar.JPG - Juan Manuel del Mar 24 October 185816 June 1862 Ramón Castilla [1]
President Pezet.jpg First Juan Antonio Pezet Military24 October 18625 August 1863 Miguel de San Román [1]
Pedro Diez Canseco.jpg Second Pedro Diez Canseco [1]
Mariano Herencia Zevallos.jpg First Mariano Herencia Zevallos Military2 August 186827 July 1872 José Balta [1]
Francisco Diez Canseco.jpg Second Francisco Diez Canseco [1]
Manuel Costas Arce.jpg First Manuel Costas Arce Civilista Party 2 August 18722 August 1876 Manuel Pardo y Lavalle [1]
Second Francisco Garmendia Puértolas [1]
Luis La Puerta.jpg First Luis La Puerta 2 August 187618 December 1879 Mariano Ignacio Prado [1]
Second José Francisco Canevaro [1]
LizardoMontero.jpg First Lizardo Montero Flores 12 March 18816 November 1881 Francisco García Calderón [1]
Andres Avelino Caceres.jpg Second Andrés Avelino Cáceres [1]
Remigio Morales Bermudez 3.jpg First Remigio Morales Bermúdez Constitutional Party 3 June 188610 August 1890 Andrés Cáceres [1]
Aurelio Denegri.jpg Second Aurelio Denegri [1]
Pedro Alejandrino del Solar.jpg First Pedro Alejandrino del Solar Constitutional Party 10 August 18901 April 1894 Remigio Morales Bermúdez [1]
Justiniano Borgono 3.jpg Second Justiniano Borgoño [1]
Cesar Canevaro.jpg First César Canevaro Constitutional Party 10 August 189420 March 1895 Andrés Cáceres [1]
Cesareo Chacaltana.JPG Second Cesáreo Chacaltana Reyes [1]
Guillermo Billinghurst 3.jpg First Guillermo Billinghurst Democratic Party 8 September 18958 September 1899 Nicolás de Piérola [1]
Second Augusto Seminario Váscones [1]
IsaacAlzamora.jpg First Isaac Alzamora Alianza Civil-Demócrata8 September 18998 September 1903 Eduardo López de Romaña [1]
Second Federico Bresani [1]
Lino Alarco.jpg First Lino Alarco Brediñana Civilista Party -- Manuel Candamo Died 13 June 1903 before taking office [1]
SerapioCalderon.jpg Second Serapio Calderón 8 September 19037 May 1904 [1]
Jose Salvador Cavero.jpg First José Salvador Cavero Ovalle Civilista Party 24 September 190424 September 1908 José Pardo y Barreda [1]
SerapioCalderon.jpg Second Serapio Calderón 1907 [1]
Eugenio Larrabure y Unanue.tif First Eugenio Larrabure y Unanue Civilista Party 24 September 190824 September 1912 Augusto Leguía [1]
Belisario Sosa.jpg Second Belisario Sosa Constitutional Party [1]
Roberto Leguia.jpg First Roberto Leguía Civilista Party 24 September 19124 February 1914 Guillermo Billinghurst [1]
Miguel Echenique.JPG Second Miguel Echenique [1]
Ricardo Bentin.jpg First Ricardo Bentín Sánchez Alianza Civil-Constitucional-Liberal18 August 19154 July 1919 José Pardo y Barreda [1]
Meliton Carvajal.jpg Second Melitón Carvajal [1]
Cesar Canevaro.jpg First César Canevaro 12 October 191931 October 1922 Augusto Leguía [1]
Second Agustín de la Torre González 12 October 1924 [1]
Ernesto Montagne Markholz.jpg First Ernesto Montagne Markholz Peruvian Army 13 April 19368 December 1939 Óscar R. Benavides [1]
Antonio Rodriguez Ramirez.jpg Second Antonio Rodríguez Ramírez [1]
Rafael Larco Herrera.JPG First Rafael Larco Herrera Conservative 8 December 193928 July 1945 Manuel Prado Ugarteche [1]
Carlos Diego Gibson Moller 2.jpg Second Carlos D. Gibson [1]
Jose Galvez 2.jpg First José Gálvez Barrenechea National Democratic Front 28 July 194529 October 1948 José Bustamante y Rivero [1]
Second Eduardo Ganoza y Ganoza [1]
Zenon Noriega.jpg - Zenón Noriega Agüero Peruvian Army 29 October 19481 June 1950 Manuel A. Odría De facto
Hector Boza.jpg First Héctor Boza Odriíst National Union 28 July 195028 July 1956 [1]
Second Federico Bolognesi [1]
Luis Gallo Porras.jpg First Luis Gallo Porras Peruvian Democratic Movement 28 July 195618 July 1962 Manuel Prado Ugarteche [1]
Second Carlos Moreyra y Paz Soldán [1]
N. Lindley Lopez.jpg First Nicolás Lindley López Peruvian Army 18 July 19623 March 1963 Ricardo Pérez Godoy De facto
Second Pedro Vargas Prada De facto
Vp-peru-0035a.jpg First Edgardo Seoane Corrales Popular Action 28 July 19633 October 1968 Fernando Belaúnde Terry [1]
Second Mario Polar Ugarteche Christian Democracy [1]
Edgardo Mercado Jarrin.jpg - Luis Edgardo Mercado Jarrín Peruvian Army 3 October 196830 August 1975 Juan Velasco Alvarado De facto
- Pedro Richter Prada 30 August 197528 July 1980 Francisco Morales Bermúdez De facto
First Fernando Schwalb Popular Action 28 July 198028 July 1985 Fernando Belaúnde Terry [12] [1]
Jaoap12 (cropped).jpg Second Javier Alva Orlandini [12] [1]
LuisASanchez.jpg First Luis Alberto Sánchez Peruvian Aprista Party 28 July 198528 July 1990 Alan García Pérez [12] [1]
Luis Alva Castro 070809-N-8704K-125 0X1WO.jpg Second Luis Alva Castro [12] [1]
Maximo San Roman.png First Máximo San Román Change 90 28 July 19905 April 1992 Alberto Fujimori [12] [1]
Second Carlos García y García [12] [1]
Second César Paredes Canto [12]
First Francisco Tudela Peru 2000 28 July 200022 November 2000Resigned. [12]
Raul Diez Canseco Terry.jpg First Raúl Diez Canseco Popular Action 28 July 200114 December 2004 Alejandro Toledo Manrique Resigned [12]
David Waisman.jpg Second David Waisman Possible Peru 28 July 2006 [12]
Sesion del Pleno 05052011 - Luis Giampietri (cropped).jpg First Luis Giampietri Peruvian Aprista Party 28 July 200628 July 2011 Alan García Pérez [12]
Lourdes Mendoza del Solar 2010.jpg Second Lourdes Mendoza [12]
Marisol Espinoza 2.jpg First Marisol Espinoza Peruvian Nationalist Party (until 2015)

Alliance for Progress (since 2015)

28 July 201128 July 2016 Ollanta Humala [12]
Omar Chehade (cropped).jpg Second Omar Chehade Peruvian Nationalist Party 16 January 2012Resigned [12]
Martin Vizcarra em fevereiro de 2018.png First Martín Vizcarra Peruvians for Change 28 July 201623 March 2018 Pedro Pablo Kuczynski
Mercedes Araoz.jpg Second Mercedes Aráoz 7 May 2020 Pedro Pablo Kuczynski

Martín Vizcarra

Dina Boluarte Zegarra (cropped).png First Dina Boluarte Perú Libre28 July 2021Incumbent Pedro Castillo

See also

Related Research Articles

Ántero Flores Aráoz

Ántero Flores-Aráoz Esparza is a Peruvian lawyer and politician who briefly served as the Prime Minister of Peru in November 2020. Once a prominent member and leader of the Christian People's Party, he left and founded the Order Party in order to run for the presidency at the 2016 general election, in which he placed tenth and last with 0.4% of the popular vote.

Mauricio Mulder

Claude Maurice Mulder Bedoya, known as Mauricio Mulder, is a Peruvian politician, lawyer and former journalist. One of the most prominent and influential members of the Peruvian Aprista Party, he was Congressman from 2001 to 2019, representing Lima. From 2004 to 2010, he held the office of party Secretary General.

Yonhy Lescano

Yonhy Lescano Ancieta is a Peruvian lawyer and politician belonging to the Popular Action party. He was a Congressman between 2001 until the dissolution of the Congress by Martín Vizcarra in 2019. From 2009 to 2011, he served as the Popular Action party's national secretary-general. He was the Popular Action’s presidential nominee in the 2021 general election and placed fifth in an atomized race of 18 nominees.

Pilar Elena Mazzetti Soler is a Peruvian physician and health administrator who served as Minister of Health from July 2020 to February 2021, excluding her for nine days from office during the brief presidency of Manuel Merino. She previously held the position from February 2004 to July 2006, and was briefly Minister of the Interior from July 2006 to February 2007, being the first woman to reach said position in the Peruvian government.

Mercedes Aráoz Peruvian economist, academic, and politician

Mercedes Rosalba Aráoz Fernández is a Peruvian economist, professor, and politician who served as Second Vice President of Peru from 2016 to 2020. At the beginning of her political career, she served as Minister of Foreign Trade and Tourism from 2006 to July 2009, after which she was appointed briefly as Minister of Production, and finally as Minister of Economy and Finance, all portfolios under the second presidency of Alan García.

Peruvians for Change Peruvian political party

Peruvians for Change was a centre-right party in Peru.

Martín Vizcarra Former Peruvian president

Martín Alberto Vizcarra Cornejo is a Peruvian engineer and politician who served as President of Peru from 2018 to 2020. Vizcarra previously served as Governor of the Department of Moquegua (2011–2014), First Vice President of Peru (2016–2018), Minister of Transport and Communications of Peru (2016–2017), and Ambassador of Peru to Canada (2017–2018), with the latter three during the presidency of Pedro Pablo Kuczynski. The Peruvian Congress voted to impeach Martin Vizcarra in November 2020, removing him from the presidency.

Presidency of Pedro Pablo Kuczynski

The presidency of Pedro Pablo Kuczynski in Peru began with his inauguration on Peru independence day and ended with the president's resignation following a corruption scandal on 23 March 2018.

Salvador del Solar

Salvador Alejandro Jorge del Solar Labarthe is a Peruvian actor, director and politician. He served as Prime Minister of Peru from March to September 2019, in President Martín Vizcarra's administration.

2017–present Peruvian political crisis Political conflict in Peru

The 2017–present Peruvian political crisis is an ongoing period of political instability in the Republic of Peru during the government of Pedro Pablo Kuczynski (PPK), between 15 September 2017 and 23 March 2018, between 23 March 2018 and 9 November 2020 under the government of Martín Vizcarra, between 9 November 2020 to 16 November 2020 under the government of Manuel Merino, from 16 November 2020 to 28 July 2021 under Francisco Sagasti, and from 28 July 2021 under Pedro Castillo.

Vicente Zeballos

Vicente Antonio Zeballos Salinas is a Peruvian politician who served as Prime Minister of Peru from September 2019 to July 2020, under President Martín Vizcarra's administration. Prior, he served as Minister of Justice and Human Rights. He is considered a strong representative from the southern part of the country.

2019–2020 Peruvian constitutional crisis Political conflict in Peru

The 2019–2020 Peruvian constitutional crisis began when President Martín Vizcarra dissolved the Congress of Peru on 30 September 2019 considering a de facto denial of the vote of confidence. Congress responded by declaring Vizcarra's presidency suspended and appointed Vice President Mercedes Aráoz as interim president, moves that were largely seen as null and void.

Contigo (political party) Peruvian political party

Contigo is a right-wing political party in Peru.

2020 Peruvian parliamentary election Peruvian election to be held on 26 January 2020

Early parliamentary elections were held in Peru on 26 January 2020. The elections were called after President Martín Vizcarra constitutionally dissolved the Congress of the Republic on 30 September 2019.

Manuel Merino Former president of Peru

Manuel Arturo Merino de Lama is a Peruvian politician who briefly served as the president of Peru for five days between 10 and 15 November 2020. He also serves as a Member of Congress (AP) representing the Tumbes constituency for the 2020–2021 term. He previously served in Congress in the 2001–2006 term and 2011–2016 term. He also served as the President of Congress from 16 March 2020 to 15 November 2020.

Walter Martos Peruvian politician and retired military general

Walter Roger Martos Ruiz is a Peruvian retired military general and politician who briefly served as Prime Minister of Peru from August to November 2020, under President Martín Vizcarra's administration. He previously served as Minister of Defense from October 2019 to August 2020.

First impeachment process against Martín Vizcarra

The impeachment process against Martín Vizcarra began in the Congress of Peru on 11 September 2020 when congress initiated proceedings against Vizcarra on grounds of "moral incapacity", accusing him of influence peddling after audio recordings were released by an opposition legislator alleging that Vizcarra's political decisions were swayed by an obscure singer.

2020 Peruvian protests Demonstrations against the removal of President Vizcarra

The 2020 Peruvian protests were a series of demonstrations sparked after the removal of President Martín Vizcarra, beginning on 9 November 2020.

Francisco Sagasti Peruvian engineer, businessman, and current president

Francisco Rafael Sagasti HochhauslerOSP is a Peruvian engineer, academic, and author, who served as the President of Peru between 17 November 2020 and 28 July 2021.


  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 Abog. Freddy Ronald Centurión González. "LA INSTITUCIÓN DE LA VICEPRESIDENCIA DE LA REPÚBLICA EN LA CONSTITUCIÓN PERUANA" (PDF). Retrieved 2019-10-19.
  2. Artículo 111°, Constitución Política Del Perú. (Retrieved 2019-10-06.)
  3. Artículos 113°, 114°, y 115°, Constitución Política Del Perú. (Retrieved 2019-10-06.)
  4. Artículo 115°, Constitución Política Del Perú. (Retrieved 2019-10-06.)
  5. 1 2 3 4 "Disolución del Congreso en Perú: quién es Mercedes Aráoz, que renunció tras ser nombrada 'presidenta en funciones' por el Parlamento peruano para sustituir a Vizcarra", BBC Mundo , 2 octubre 2019. (Retrieved 2019-10-06.)
  6. 1 2 3 4 Disolución del Congreso en Perú: 4 claves para entender el enfrentamiento entre Vizcarra y el Parlamento (y lo que puede pasar ahora)", BBC Mundo , 2 octubre 2019. (Retrieved 2019-10-06.)
  7. 1 2 Disolución del Congreso de Perú: las dudas sobre la legalidad de la decisión de Vizcarra de disolver la cámara y sobre la suspensión temporal del presidente", BBC Mundo , 2 octubre 2019. (Retrieved 2019-10-06.)
  8. Disolución del Congreso en Perú: renuncia Mercedes Aráoz, nombrada "presidenta en funciones" por el Parlamento en sustitución de Vizcarra", BBC Mundo , 2 octubre 2019. (Retrieved 2019-10-06.)
  9. Mercedes Aráoz Fernández [MecheAF] (2019, October 1). He decidido renunciar irrevocablemente al cargo de Vicepresidenta Constitucional de la República. Las razones las explico en la carta adjunta. Espero que mi renuncia conduzca a la convocatoria de elecciones generales en el más breve plazo por el bien del país. [Tweet]. Retrieved from
  10. "Ministra de Justicia asegura que para el Gobierno Mercedes Aráoz continúa siendo la vicepresidenta". RPP Noticias. 2 November 2019. Retrieved 5 November 2019.
  11. "Congreso acepta renuncia de Mercedes Aráoz a la segunda vicepresidencia de la República NNDC | PERU". 7 May 2020.
  12. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 "Presidentes y vicepresidentes desde 1980 en Perú, crisis y realidades". 26 July 2018.