|First and Second Vice President of |
the Republic of Peru
|Appointer||Direct popular election|
|Term length||Five years, not renewable immediately|
|Inaugural holder||Diego de Aliaga (1823)|
|Succession||First Vice President|
Second Vice President
President of Congress
The Republic of Peru has two vice presidents who are elected along with the President in democratic elections.Their only mission is to replace the President in case of death, permanent or temporary incapacity, resignation, being abroad without the permission of Congress, failure to return from abroad at fixed time, and/or dismissal or removal from office as allowed by the Constitution.
The Vice Presidents are first in the Presidential line of succession.
Historically, the position was one of a sole Vice President, which was in place between 1829–1831 and 1858–1862. The dual positions of First and Second Vice Presidents have been in place since 1862.
The most recent holder is Mercedes Aráoz, who was elected as the Second Vice President in 2016 along with the election of Pedro Kuzcynski as President and Martín Vizcarra as First Vice President.When Vizcarra succeeded Kuzcynski, after the latter's being driven from office by scandal in 2018, Aráoz became the sole Peruvian Vice President. On 30 September 2019, the Peruvian Congress, caught up in a constitutional political crisis, named Aráoz acting President after having declared Vizacarra temporarily unfit for office. Given that the Congress had itself been dissolved earlier that day by President Vizcarra, and given that Aráoz supported the latter's call for new congressional elections, she irrevocably resigned as Second Vice President on 1 October 2019, thus leaving vacancies in both vice-presidential offices and, moreover, leaving Vizcarra as the sole claimant for President, supported in that position by the Peruvian Armed Forces and the National Police of Peru. However, her resignation is not official, since in Peru, the resignation of the vice president has to be accepted by the Congress and that institution is not celebrating meetings given its dissolution. Her resignation was finally accepted on 7 May 2020 by the new Peruvian Congress sworn in on 16 March 2020.
In contemporary history, only one vice president has assumed the presidency of Peru via constitutional succession.[ citation needed ] The 66th Vice President Vizcarra assumed the office of the presidency in 2018 after the graft scandal that led to the ousting of President Kuczynski.
The position of Vice President of Peru appeared for the first time in the Constitution of 1823:
"ARTICLE 76: There will be a Vice President in whom the same qualities concur. He/she will administer and withhold Executive Power in event of the death, resignation, or impeachment of the President, or when the president is unable to control the armed forces." Constitution of 1823
The Constitution of 1828 and the Life Constitution of 1826 also proposed only one vice president, who had to be appointed by the president. In the Constitution of 1834, the office was disbanded until the Magna Carta of 1856, which reinstated the sole vice-presidency.
The Constitution of 1860 established two vice-presidents, elected jointly with the President.
Article 89: "There will be two Vice Presidents of the Republic, named first and second, who will be elected at the same time, with the same qualities and for the same period as the President. Constitution of 1860
In the Constitution of 1867, the power of vice-presidents was eminently curtailed. However, this constitution held in place for a short period until a successful revolution of that same year restored the Constitution of 1860.
Similarly, the Constitution of 1920 abolished the positions of vice-presidents. The Constitution of 1933 failed to change this, but the office was eventually restored by the second presidency of Óscar R. Benavides, by law on April 1, 1936. In 1939, via plebiscitary consultation, a constitutional amendment was made restoring the office of vice president and second vice president.
The 1993 Constitution and the current constitution in force — put forth by President Alberto Fujimori — recognizes the double vice-presidency in the Executive Branch.
|Portrait||Pos.||Vice President||Political party||Inaugurated||Left office||President||Notes|
|-||Diego de Aliaga||November 1823||February 1824||José Bernardo de Tagle|
|-||Manuel Salazar y Baquíjano||August 1827||June 1829||José de la Mar|
|-||Antonio Gutiérrez de la Fuente||1 September 1829||16 April 1831||Agustín Gamarra|
|-||Juan Manuel del Mar||24 October 1858||16 June 1862||Ramón Castilla|
|First||Juan Antonio Pezet||Military||24 October 1862||5 August 1863||Miguel de San Román|
|Second||Pedro Diez Canseco|
|First||Mariano Herencia Zevallos||Military||2 August 1868||27 July 1872||José Balta|
|Second||Francisco Diez Canseco|
|First||Manuel Costas Arce||Civilista Party||2 August 1872||2 August 1876||Manuel Pardo y Lavalle|
|Second||Francisco Garmendia Puértolas|
|First||Luis La Puerta||2 August 1876||18 December 1879||Mariano Ignacio Prado|
|Second||José Francisco Canevaro|
|First||Lizardo Montero Flores||12 March 1881||6 November 1881||Francisco García Calderón|
|Second||Andrés Avelino Cáceres|
|First||Remigio Morales Bermúdez||Constitutional Party||3 June 1886||10 August 1890||Andrés Cáceres|
|First||Pedro Alejandrino del Solar||Constitutional Party||10 August 1890||1 April 1894||Remigio Morales Bermúdez|
|First||César Canevaro||Constitutional Party||10 August 1894||20 March 1895||Andrés Cáceres|
|Second||Cesáreo Chacaltana Reyes|
|First||Guillermo Billinghurst||Democratic Party||8 September 1895||8 September 1899||Nicolás de Piérola|
|Second||Augusto Seminario Váscones|
|First||Isaac Alzamora||Alianza Civil-Demócrata||8 September 1899||8 September 1903||Eduardo López de Romaña|
|First||Lino Alarco Brediñana||Civilista Party||-||-||Manuel Candamo||Died 13 June 1903 before taking office|
|Second||Serapio Calderón||8 September 1903||7 May 1904|
|First||José Salvador Cavero Ovalle||Civilista Party||24 September 1904||24 September 1908||José Pardo y Barreda|
|First||Eugenio Larrabure y Unanue||Civilista Party||24 September 1908||24 September 1912||Augusto Leguía|
|Second||Belisario Sosa||Constitutional Party|
|First||Roberto Leguía||Civilista Party||24 September 1912||4 February 1914||Guillermo Billinghurst|
|First||Ricardo Bentín Sánchez||Alianza Civil-Constitucional-Liberal||18 August 1915||4 July 1919||José Pardo y Barreda|
|First||César Canevaro||12 October 1919||31 October 1922||Augusto Leguía|
|Second||Agustín de la Torre González||12 October 1924|
|First||Ernesto Montagne Markholz||Peruvian Army||13 April 1936||8 December 1939||Óscar R. Benavides|
|Second||Antonio Rodríguez Ramírez|
|First||Rafael Larco Herrera||Conservative||8 December 1939||28 July 1945||Manuel Prado Ugarteche|
|Second||Carlos D. Gibson|
|First||José Gálvez Barrenechea||National Democratic Front||28 July 1945||29 October 1948||José Bustamante y Rivero|
|Second||Eduardo Ganoza y Ganoza|
|-||Zenón Noriega Agüero||Peruvian Army||29 October 1948||1 June 1950||Manuel A. Odría||De facto|
|First||Héctor Boza||Odriíst National Union||28 July 1950||28 July 1956|
|First||Luis Gallo Porras||Peruvian Democratic Movement||28 July 1956||18 July 1962||Manuel Prado Ugarteche|
|Second||Carlos Moreyra y Paz Soldán|
|First||Nicolás Lindley López||Peruvian Army||18 July 1962||3 March 1963||Ricardo Pérez Godoy||De facto|
|Second||Pedro Vargas Prada||De facto|
|First||Edgardo Seoane Corrales||Popular Action||28 July 1963||3 October 1968||Fernando Belaúnde Terry|
|Second||Mario Polar Ugarteche||Christian Democracy|
|-||Luis Edgardo Mercado Jarrín||Peruvian Army||3 October 1968||30 August 1975||Juan Velasco Alvarado||De facto|
|-||Pedro Richter Prada||30 August 1975||28 July 1980||Francisco Morales Bermúdez||De facto|
|First||Fernando Schwalb||Popular Action||28 July 1980||28 July 1985||Fernando Belaúnde Terry|
|Second||Javier Alva Orlandini|
|First||Luis Alberto Sánchez||Peruvian Aprista Party||28 July 1985||28 July 1990||Alan García Pérez|
|Second||Luis Alva Castro|
|First||Máximo San Román||Change 90||28 July 1990||5 April 1992||Alberto Fujimori|
|Second||Carlos García y García|
|First||Ricardo Márquez Flores||Change 90-New Majority||28 July 1995||28 July 2000|
|Second||César Paredes Canto|
|First||Francisco Tudela||Peru 2000||28 July 2000||22 November 2000||Resigned.|
|Second||Ricardo Márquez Flores|
|First||Raúl Diez Canseco||Popular Action||28 July 2001||14 December 2004||Alejandro Toledo Manrique||Resigned|
|Second||David Waisman||Possible Peru||28 July 2006|
|First||Luis Giampietri||Peruvian Aprista Party||28 July 2006||28 July 2011||Alan García Pérez|
|First||Marisol Espinoza|| Peruvian Nationalist Party (until 2015) |
Alliance for Progress (since 2015)
|28 July 2011||28 July 2016||Ollanta Humala|
|Second||Omar Chehade||Peruvian Nationalist Party||16 January 2012||Resigned|
|First||Martín Vizcarra||Peruvians for Change||28 July 2016||23 March 2018||Pedro Pablo Kuczynski|
|Second||Mercedes Aráoz||7 May 2020||Pedro Pablo Kuczynski||Resigned|
|First||Dina Boluarte||Perú Libre||28 July 2021||Incumbent||Pedro Castillo|
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