Manuel Merino

Last updated

Manuel Merino
Manuel Merino de Lama (cropped).jpg
Merino in 2020
61st President of Peru
In office
10 November 2020 15 November 2020
Prime Minister Ántero Flores Aráoz
Preceded by Martín Vizcarra
Succeeded by Francisco Sagasti [1]
President of Congress
In office
16 March 2020 15 November 2020
Vice President1st Vice President
Luis Valdez Farías
2nd Vice President
Guillermo Aliaga
3rd Vice President
María Teresa Cabrera
Preceded by Pedro Olaechea
Succeeded by Rocío Silva Santisteban (acting)
First Vice President of Congress
In office
26 July 2011 26 July 2012
President Daniel Abugattás
Preceded by Alejandro Aguinaga
Succeeded byMarco Falconí
Member of Congress
In office
16 March 2020 26 July 2021
Constituency Tumbes
In office
25 July 2011 26 July 2016
Constituency Tumbes
In office
26 July 2001 26 July 2006
Constituency Tumbes
Personal details
Manuel Arturo Merino de Lama

(1961-08-20) 20 August 1961 (age 60)
Tumbes, Peru
Political party Popular Action
(m. 1985)
Alma mater National University of Tumbes
  • Politician
  • agronomist

Manuel Arturo Merino de Lama (born 20 August 1961) [2] is a Peruvian politician who briefly served as the president of Peru for five days between 10 and 15 November 2020. [3] [4] He also serves as a Member of Congress (AP) representing the Tumbes constituency for the 2020–2021 term. [5] He previously served in Congress in the 2001–2006 term and 2011–2016 term. He also served as the President of Congress from 16 March 2020 to 15 November 2020.


On 9 November 2020, the Congress impeached and removed President Martín Vizcarra from office on the grounds of "moral incapacity", a vague term dating back to the 19th century. [6] The move was seen as a coup by many Peruvians, [7] political analysts [6] and media outlets in the country, [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] with Vizcarra's removal resulting with the beginning of the 2020 Peruvian protests. The following day, as the President of the Peruvian Congress, Merino became the new president of Peru following the line of succession established in the nation's constitution, [13] forming a far-right government. [14] [15] [16] [17] Five days after taking office, he resigned from the presidency as a result of two deaths in the protests. [18] He was succeeded by Francisco Sagasti.

Early life and education

Manuel Arturo Merino de Lama was born on 20 August 1961 in the northern city of Tumbes. He is the son of Pedro Merino Hidalgo and Elba de Lama Barreto. In 1985, he married Mary Jacqueline Peña Carruitero, an early childhood teacher. The couple have three children, Elba Jacqueline, Sandra Lisbeth and María Teresa. [2] [19]

Merino completed his elementary education at the Santa María de la Frontera School in 1973, and he finished his secondary education at the "Inmaculada Concepción" Educational Center in 1978, both in the city of Tumbes.

In 1979, he enrolled at the National University of Piura (later the National University of Tumbes) to study agronomics. He subsequently dropped out and did not complete his undergraduate studies. [20] That same year, Merino registered with the center-right political party Popular Action. [21] [7] From Tumbes, he integrated into the Youth Command, later becoming an active member of the party.

Business career

In 1983, Merino was initially an agricultural producer and merchant, at the same time he dedicating himself to raising cattle, serving as a member of the Tumbes Livestock Fund (FONGAN), president of Marketing of the Association of Banana Producers, president of the Association of Traders of Bananas and Fruits in General, member of the Tumbes Agriculture Defense Committee, representative of the Agrarian Producers of Tumbes, president of the Electoral Committee of the Irrigation Commission of the Left Bank of the Tumbes River, and president of the Permanent Commission of the Agrarian Debt of Tumbes. [22]

In December 2000, Merino coordinated directly with the different agrarian organizations of the department, to obtain the cancellation of the debts contracted with the State and the refinancing of the same with the private financial entities. [23]

Political career

Early political career

In 1979, he enrolled at the National University of Piura (later the National University of Tumbes) to study agronomics. He subsequently dropped out and did not complete his undergraduate studies. [20] That same year, Merino registered with the center-right political party Popular Action. [21] [7] From Tumbes, he integrated into the Youth Command, later becoming an active member of the party.

Congress of the Republic of Peru

In 2000, he presided over the National Unity Front made up of political parties and movements. He was subsequently chosen by the Popular Action party to run for a seat in Congress in the 2001 general election. [24] [25] Merino was elected to Congress with the highest vote count in Tumbes for the 2001–2006 term. [26] At the 2006 general election, Merino failed to attain reelection, as the Center Front coalition only obtained five seats nationally, mostly from Lima. [27]

In the following years, Merino took an active role in the National Executive Committee of Popular Action, which propelled him to once again run for the Congress in the 2011 general election. As part of the Possible Peru Electoral Alliance, which united Popular Action, We Are Peru, and Possible Peru, he was successfully elected for the Tumbes constituency for the 2011–2016 term. [28]

From 2011 to 2012, Merino served as First Vice President of the Congress, during Daniel Abugattás congressional presidency. Likewise, from 2012 to 2013, he chaired the Housing Committee. He was also an alternate spokesperson for the Popular Action-Broad Front parliamentary caucus, and Vice President of the Amazon Congressional Caucus, from 2011 to 2013. [29] In the 2016 general election, Merino again failed to attain reelection, as the Popular Action only obtained five seats nationally, mostly from Lima.

In March 2020, an investigation into potential nepotism was initiated against Merino. [6] [30] While a member of congress between 2011 and 2016, his mother and two brothers were contracted by the Peruvian government and paid $55,000 for services, which is not permitted due to his membership in congress. [6] His brother was granted another government contract one month before Merino took office in March 2020. [30] Merino denied any allegations of nepotism. [6] [30]

President of Congress

In the 2020 election, Merino was elected to Congress for a third time, once again representing Tumbes to complete the 2016-2021 parliamentary term in the aftermath of the 2019 Peruvian constitutional crisis. [31] Due to being the most experienced congressman of the first parliamentary majority caucus (AP), he was elected President of Congress on 16 March 2020, with 93 votes in favor against Rocío Silva Santisteban (FA), who only obtained 14 votes. [32] [33] [34]

First impeachment process against Martín Vizcarra

On 11 September 2020, Congress initiated impeachment proceedings against President Martín Vizcarra, for alleged "permanent moral incapacity". [35] The determining factor for the motion to be approved was that it reach the number of necessary votes (26), which was achieved hours later. [36]

Merino faced criticism regarding how he hastily pushed for impeachment proceedings against Vizcarra. [37] If Vizcarra were to be removed from office, Merino would assume the presidential office given his position in congress and due to the absence of vice presidents for Vizcarra. [37] [A] Renowned reporter Gustavo Gorriti reported on 12 September that Merino had contacted the Commanding General of the Peruvian Navy, Fernando Cerdán, notifying him that he was going to attempt to impeach Vizcarra and was seeking to assume the presidency. [38] Minister of Defense Jorge Chávez confirmed that Merino had tried to establish support with the military. [38] Subsequent reports were later released that Merino had contacted officials throughout the government while preparing to create a transitional cabinet [37] [39] and that Merino had tried to communicate with the Chief of the Joint Command of the Peruvian Armed Forces, César Astudillo Salcedo, and Navy Commander, Fernando Cerdán, in order to "give them peace of mind". [40] Following the release of these reports, support for impeaching Vizcarra decreased among members of congress. [37]

President Vizcarra was summoned – upon approval of the motion – to exercise his right of defense. On 18 September, after a long session, Congress held the impeachment vote after hearing the president and his legal counsel, which was rejected with 78 votes against, 32 in favor and 15 abstentions. [41] [42] [43]

Second impeachment process against Martín Vizcarra

On 20 October 2020, the Union for Peru parliamentary caucus – citing as strong evidence against Vizcarra the media revelations on his tenure as Governor of Moquegua – issued a second impeachment motion, which was supported by Broad Front, Podemos Perú, two congressmen from Popular Action and an independent. In order to gain more evidence against the President, Merino and the congressional leadership agreed on delaying the debate on the motion until 2 November. The motion was subsequently approved, and Vizcarra was summoned once again to exercise his defense with the assistance of his legal counsel. [44]

On 9 November 2020, following Vizcarra's appearance before Congress, Merino initiated the final debate in order to proceed to voting on the impeachment at night. [45] The impeachment vote reached a total of 105 votes in favor, 19 against, and 2 abstentions, thus effectively removing Vizcarra from office. [46]

Due to the accepted resignation of Mercedes Aráoz as Second Vice President six months before, the constitutional succession allowed Merino to ascend to the presidency of Peru in his position of President of Congress. [47] The decision was widely dismissed by the media and the population, sparking the beginning of widespread protests throughout Peru in sign of disapproval. [48] Vizcarra ultimately accepted his removal from office, and departed from the Government Palace on the same night. [49]

President of Peru

Merino was inaugurated at 10:42 a.m. (Peru Time) on 10 November 2020, in the midst of protests across the country against his ascension to the presidency. [50] [51] [52] [53] [54] The following day, under the pressure of forming a new government, he named Ántero Flores Aráoz, a conservative politician and former Minister of Defense under former President Alan García, as Prime Minister. [55] [56] [57]

The Secretary General of the Organization of American States, Luis Almagro, expressed his concern about the issue and "reiterates that it is the responsibility of the Constitutional Court of Peru to rule on the legality and legitimacy of the institutional decisions adopted." [58]

His assumption of the presidency, due to the vacancy against Martín Vizcarra, was questioned by various sectors of the population. [59]

On November 13, Merino was invited to participate in the annual meeting of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Forum. [60]

During his first public pronouncements, Merino expressed support for the scheduled elections in April 2021, called for health and economic recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic in Peru, and promoted law and order within the country. [7] Protests continued, however, with heavy police response to demonstrations on 14 November resulting with the deaths of protesters and the subsequent resignation of the majority of Merino's ministers. [61]


On 15 November 2020, Merino stepped down as interim president, citing that he acted within the law when he was sworn into office the previous Tuesday and that he would "do everything in my power to guarantee a constitutional succession." [62] [18]

The Constitutional Court of Peru scheduled for Wednesday, November 18, the public hearing on the competence claim filed by the Executive Power on September 14 for the first presidential vacancy process, in which the votes to remove Martín Vizcarra were not obtained. [63] [64]

The succeeding government of Francisco Sagasti announced following Merino's resignation that the attorney general would investigate if he was responsible for possible human rights violations. [65]

On November 20, 2020, the Constitutional Court published its ruling in which it declared the jurisdictional claim inadmissible because it considered that there was a subtraction of the matter and therefore did not make any pronouncement on the merits, which generated academic questions. [66] [67] Later, after Manuel Marino affirmed in a tweet that this decision of the Constitutional Court ratified the constitutionality of his promotion to the Presidency, [68] the magistrate of the Constitutional Court, Eloy Espinosa-Saldaña, stated that this is not correct because the Constitutional Court did not have any pronouncement and that cannot be understood as ratification as Merino affirmed. [69] [70] However, magistrates such as Ernesto Blume, José Luis Sardón and Augusto Ferrero Costa considered in various interviews that Martín Vizcarra's vacancy was in line with the Political Constitution of Peru. [71] [72] [73]

Public opinion

In September 2020, Ipsos polls found that 72% of Peruvians in urban areas disapproved of Merino while 79% believed that Vizcarra should finish his term. [7]


Related Research Articles

Ántero Flores Aráoz

Ántero Flores-Aráoz Esparza is a Peruvian lawyer and politician who briefly served as the Prime Minister of Peru in November 2020. Once a prominent member and leader of the Christian People's Party, he left and founded the Order Party in order to run for the presidency at the 2016 general election, in which he placed tenth and last with 0.4% of the popular vote.

Vice President of Peru

The Republic of Peru has two vice presidents who are elected along with the President in democratic elections. Their only mission is to replace the President in case of death, permanent or temporary incapacity, resignation, being abroad without the permission of Congress, failure to return from abroad at fixed time, and/or dismissal or removal from office as allowed by the Constitution.

Luis Galarreta

Luis Fernando Galarreta Velarde is a Peruvian Fujimorist politician and a former Congressman representing Lima between 2006 and 2020. He was President of the Congress for the 2017–2018 annual term. Galarreta was part of the presidential ticket of Keiko Fujimori in the 2021 elections that lost the elections to the Pedro Castillo ticket however, he was elected to the Andean Parliament,

Yonhy Lescano

Yonhy Lescano Ancieta is a Peruvian lawyer and politician belonging to the Popular Action party. He was a Congressman between 2001 until the dissolution of the Congress by Martín Vizcarra in 2019. From 2009 to 2011, he served as the Popular Action party's national secretary-general. He was the Popular Action’s presidential nominee in the 2021 general election and placed fifth in an atomized race of 18 nominees.

Mercedes Aráoz Peruvian economist, academic, and politician

Mercedes Rosalba Aráoz Fernández is a Peruvian economist, professor, and politician who served as Second Vice President of Peru from 2016 to 2020. At the beginning of her political career, she served as Minister of Foreign Trade and Tourism from 2006 to July 2009, after which she was appointed briefly as Minister of Production, and finally as Minister of Economy and Finance, all portfolios under the second presidency of Alan García.

Pedro Cateriano

Pedro Álvaro Cateriano Bellido is a Peruvian lawyer and politician who served as Prime Minister of Peru from July to August 2020, under Martín Vizcarra's administration. He previously served as Ollanta Humala's Minister of Defense from July 2012 to April 2015, and Prime Minister from April 2015 to July 2016.

Daniel Salaverry

Daniel Enrique Salaverry Villa is a Peruvian architect, businessman and politician. Between 2016 and 2019, he served in Congress representing the Department of La Libertad. Elected to Congress under the Fujimorist Popular Force party, he was the party's spokesperson for a year, and was President of the Congress from 2018 to 2019. He ran as a candidate for the presidency of Peru for the We Are Peru party in the 2021 general elections.

Martín Vizcarra Former Peruvian president

Martín Alberto Vizcarra Cornejo is a Peruvian engineer and politician who served as President of Peru from 2018 to 2020. Vizcarra previously served as Governor of the Department of Moquegua (2011–2014), First Vice President of Peru (2016–2018), Minister of Transport and Communications of Peru (2016–2017), and Ambassador of Peru to Canada (2017–2018), with the latter three during the presidency of Pedro Pablo Kuczynski. The Peruvian Congress voted to impeach Martin Vizcarra in November 2020, removing him from the presidency.

Purple Party Political party in Peru

The Purple Party is a centrist, liberal and progressive Peruvian political party. The color purple was chosen to represent the blending of red and blue, the colors of left and right-wing parties in Peru, symbolizing the centrist ideology of the party.

Salvador del Solar

Salvador Alejandro Jorge del Solar Labarthe is a Peruvian actor, director and politician. He served as Prime Minister of Peru from March to September 2019, in President Martín Vizcarra's administration.

2017–present Peruvian political crisis Political conflict in Peru

The 2017–present Peruvian political crisis is an ongoing period of political instability in the Republic of Peru during the government of Pedro Pablo Kuczynski (PPK), between 15 September 2017 and 23 March 2018, between 23 March 2018 and 9 November 2020 under the government of Martín Vizcarra, between 9 November 2020 to 16 November under the government of Manuel Merino, and since 16 November under Francisco Sagasti.

Vicente Zeballos

Vicente Antonio Zeballos Salinas is a Peruvian politician who served as Prime Minister of Peru from September 2019 to July 2020, under President Martín Vizcarra's administration. Prior, he served as Minister of Justice and Human Rights. He is considered a strong representative from the southern part of the country.

Guillermo Aliaga Peruvian politician

Guillermo Antonio Alejandro Aliaga Pajares is a Peruvian politician. He is a Congressman representing Lima for the 2020–2021 complementary term, and belongs to the We Are Peru party.He was Second Vice President of Congress from March 16, 2020 to November 15, 2020, when he resigned in midst of the 2020 protests.

Walter Martos Peruvian politician and retired military general

Walter Roger Martos Ruiz is a Peruvian retired military general and politician who briefly served as Prime Minister of Peru from August to November 2020, under President Martín Vizcarra's administration. He previously served as Minister of Defense from October 2019 to August 2020.

First impeachment process against Martín Vizcarra

The impeachment process against Martín Vizcarra began in the Congress of Peru on 11 September 2020 when congress initiated proceedings against Vizcarra on grounds of "moral incapacity", accusing him of influence peddling after audio recordings were released by an opposition legislator alleging that Vizcarra's political decisions were swayed by an obscure singer.

Removal of Martín Vizcarra 2020 impeachment of Perus 85th president

The removal of Martín Vizcarra, President of Peru, was initiated by the Congress of Peru on 8 October 2020 under the grounds of "permanent moral incapacity". On 20 October 2020, political factions Union for Peru, Podemos Peru, and Frente Amplio co-signed a series of articles of impeachment against President Vizcarra for alleged cases of corruption during his term as the governor of Moquegua. Vizcarra was removed from office on 9 November 2020 in a 105–16 vote.

2020 Peruvian protests Demonstrations against the removal of President Vizcarra

The 2020 Peruvian protests were a series of demonstrations sparked after the removal of President Martín Vizcarra, beginning on 9 November 2020.

Mary Jacqueline Peña Carruitero is a Peruvian educator who served as First Lady of Peru from 10 November 2020 to 15 November of the same year.

Francisco Sagasti Peruvian engineer, businessman, and current president

Francisco Rafael Sagasti HochhauslerOSP is a Peruvian engineer, academic, and author, who served as the President of Peru between 17 November 2020 and 28 July 2021.

Mesías Guevara Peruvian politician

Mesías Antonio Guevara Amasifuén is a Peruvian politician and engineer, currently serving as the Governor of Cajamarca since 2019. A member of the Popular Action party, he currently serves as the party's president since 2014.He was previously a Congressman, representing Cajamarca between 2011 and 2016.


  1. Dube, Ryan (16 November 2020). "Peru's Congress Chooses Lawmaker Francisco Sagasti as Next President". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 16 November 2020.
  3. PERÚ, NOTICIAS EL COMERCIO (9 November 2020). "Martín Vizcarra EN VIVO: Congreso de la República aprobó vacancia presidencial en contra del mandatario | Minuto a minuto | Noticias | Manuel Merino | Pleno del Congreso | Presidente del Perú | ONLINE | TV Perú | Congreso TV || POLITICA". El Comercio Perú.
  4. Kurmanaev, Anatoly; Taj, Mitra (10 November 2020). "Peru President Is Impeached by Congress" via; Aquino, Marco (10 November 2020). "Peru plunged into political upheaval as Congress ousts President Vizcarra" via
  5. "Merino de Lama, Manuel Arturo".
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 "They threw out the president. Now Peru's anti-corruption drive looks in doubt". Los Angeles Times . 12 November 2020. Retrieved 13 November 2020.
  7. 1 2 3 4 5 "Peru's swears in new leader as political turmoil hits nation". Star Tribune . Retrieved 13 November 2020.
  8. "Golpe de estado editorial". La República (in Spanish). 10 November 2020. Retrieved 13 November 2020.
  9. "Manuel Merino presentó al Gabinete de Antero Flores-Aráoz en medio de protestas NNAV |TVPE |VIDEO |VIDEOS |PAIS | VIDEOS". El Comercio (in Spanish). 12 November 2020. Retrieved 13 November 2020.
  10. "Manuel Merino: crean pedido para rechazar vacancia contra Martín Vizcarra y el golpe de Estado". Líbero (in Spanish). 11 November 2020. Retrieved 13 November 2020.
  11. "Trujillo: miles de ciudadanos marchan contra gobierno de Manuel Merino". El Popular (in Spanish). Retrieved 13 November 2020.
  12. "Inconformes consideran toma de protesta de Manuel Merino como golpe de Estado". Noticieros Televisa (in Spanish). 10 November 2020. Retrieved 13 November 2020.
  13. "Congreso peruano aprueba moción de vacancia y destituye al Presidente Martín Vizcarra". El Mercurio (in Spanish). 9 November 2020. Retrieved 9 November 2020.
  14. Tegel, Simeon. "Protests turn to celebrations as Peru's interim president offers resignation". The Washington Post . ISSN   0190-8286 . Retrieved 6 December 2020. Like his cabinet, made up largely of aging far-right politicians, Merino had appeared incapable of comprehending the fury of the protesters
  15. "Cómo derrocar un Presidente". IDL-Reporteros . 12 November 2020. Retrieved 13 November 2020. Spanish: Aposentado en Palacio, respaldado por una organización de ultraderecha con una larga lista de almirantes, ... Merino ha pasado su primera noche como ‘presidente’ English: Resting in the Palace, backed by a far-right organization with a long list of admirals, ... Merino has spent his first night as 'president'
  16. Noriega, Carlos (12 November 2020). "Perú: la ultraderecha copó el gobierno | Bajo la presidencia de Manuel Merino tras el derrocamiento de Martín Vizcarra". Página/12 . Retrieved 13 November 2020. Spanish: El gabinete ministerial del nuevo presidente Manuel Merino ... es encabezado por un miembro de la descreditada vieja guardia política, vinculado a la extrema derecha. English: The ultra-conservative right wing has taken over the Peruvian government . The ministerial cabinet of the new president Manuel Merino ... is headed by a member of the discredited political old guard, linked to the extreme right.
  17. ""No sé qué les fastidia", dice el primer ministro de Perú ante las masivas protestas". EFE (in Spanish). 12 November 2020. Retrieved 13 November 2020. Spanish: ... un Ejecutivo de "ancha base" pero que finalmente es de corte conservador, con miembros de derecha y ultraderecha. English: ... an Executive with a "broad base" but that is ultimately conservative, with members of the right and far right.
  18. 1 2 "EN VIVO | Junta de Portavoces se reúne para evaluar renuncia de Manuel Merino tras las muertes de dos jóvenes en la Marcha Nacional | Ántero Flores-Aráoz | Congreso de la República | Vacancia presidencial". RPP (in Spanish). 15 November 2020. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
  19. PERÚ, NOTICIAS EL COMERCIO (10 November 2020). "Manuel Merino: ¿Quién es la primera dama Mary Peña Carruitero? | Vacancia presidencial | Presidente del Perú | Congreso de la República || POLITICA". El Comercio Perú.
  20. 1 2 "Voto Informado".
  21. 1 2 "Infogob | Observatorio para la Gobernabilidad". Infogob.
  22. PERÚ, Empresa Peruana de Servicios Editoriales S. A. EDITORA. "Manuel Merino de Lama: conoce el perfil del presidente de la República".
  23. "Este es el perfil de Manuel Merino de Lama". El Tiempo. 10 November 2020.
  24. "Manuel Merino de Lama".
  25. Quinto, Catalina (9 November 2020). "Manuel Merino: Un repaso a la vida política del nuevo presidente del Perú [PERFIL]". RPP.
  29. "Manuel Arturo Merino De Lama".
  30. 1 2 3 "Congreso | Familiares Manuel Merino contrataron con el Estado cuando era congresista entre el 2011 y 2016 nndc | PERU". Gestión (in Spanish). 1 June 2020. Retrieved 13 November 2020.
  31. "New President, Manuel Merino, sworn in today following ousting of Martin Vizcarra". Retrieved 12 November 2020.
  32. Palacios, Oswaldo (16 March 2020). "Manuel Merino de Lama es elegido nuevo presidente del Congreso". RPP.
  33. Perú, Redacción El Comercio (17 March 2020). "Manuel Merino de Lama es elegido presidente del Congreso para el período 2020–2021". El Comercio Perú.
  34. PERÚ, Empresa Peruana de Servicios Editoriales S. A. EDITORA. "Manuel Merino de Lama es el nuevo presidente del Congreso".
  35. GESTIÓN, NOTICIAS (11 September 2020). "Vacancia presidencial | Martín Vizcarra | Esta es la moción de vacancia presentada en el Congreso nndc | PERU". Gestión.
  36. PERÚ, NOTICIAS EL COMERCIO (11 September 2020). "Martín Vizcarra: Parlamento admitió moción de vacancia presidencial| Richard Swing || POLITICA". El Comercio Perú.
  37. 1 2 3 4 Burt, Jo-Marie (17 September 2020). "Vizcarra May Survive. But Peru's Politics Look Fragile". Americas Quarterly . Retrieved 17 September 2020.
  38. 1 2 "El Gobierno peruano califica de "golpismo" la moción de censura contra Vizcarra". ABC (in Spanish). 12 September 2020. Retrieved 17 September 2020.
  39. "Incháustegui confirma que allegados a Acción Popular lo contactaron para integrar gabinete de Merino [VIDEO]". La República (in Spanish). 15 September 2020. Retrieved 17 September 2020.
  40. Agurto, Ego (12 September 2020). "Vacancia presidencial | Manuel Merino reconoce que llamó a oficial de las Fuerzas Armadas y dice que fue un "llamado a la calma"". RPP.
  41. CORREO, NOTICIAS (11 September 2020). "Vacancia Martín Vizcarra | Este es el procedimiento a seguir para la vacancia presidencial | POLITICA". Correo.
  42. "Caso Swing: hacen pública moción de vacancia contra Martín Vizcarra". El Búho. 11 September 2020.
  43. Perú, Redacción El Comercio (20 September 2020). "Congreso rechaza vacancia del presidente Martín Vizcarra". El Comercio Perú.
  44. "Unión por el Perú completa las firmas y presenta nueva moción de vacancia contra Martín Vizcarra – Diario ExpresoDiario Expreso".
  45. "Martín Vizcarra: Presidente ejerce su defensa ante el Congreso por segundo proceso de vacancia en su contra". – Agenda Propia.
  46. Fowks, Jacqueline (10 November 2020). "El Congreso de Perú destituye al presidente Martín Vizcarra por supuesta recepción de sobornos". EL PAÍS.
  47. "Manuel Merino, una silenciosa carrera hasta la presidencia de Perú". France 24. 10 November 2020.
  48. "Quién es Manuel Merino, el presidente del Congreso de Perú que reemplaza al destituido Martín Vizcarra" via
  49. LR, Redacción (9 November 2020). "Martín Vizcarra dejó Palacio de Gobierno tras golpe de Estado [RESUMEN]".
  50. "Manuel Merino juró como presidente de la República tras la vacancia de Martín Vizcarra [EN VIVO]". RPP. 10 November 2020.
  51. "Manuel Merino, tercer presidente de Perú en cuatro años de crisis política". France 24. 10 November 2020.
  52. "Peru's Surprise New Leader Stokes Anger, Fear in a Traumatized Country". 10 November 2020.
  53. Aquino, Marco (11 November 2020). "Head of Peru's Congress assumes presidency, vows to respect election timetable" via
  54. Dube, Ryan (11 November 2020). "Peru's Manuel Merino Is Sworn In as President" via
  55. El Comercio, Redacción (11 November 2020). "Ántero Flores-Aráoz juró como presidente del Consejo de Ministros" via
  56. Castro, Jonathan (11 November 2020). "Antero Flores Aráoz, el político conservador que asume la PCM | PERFIL" via
  57. Gestión, Redacción (11 November 2020). "Ántero Flores-Aráoz, este es el perfil y pensamiento del nuevo primer ministro" via
  58. "OEA no reconoce a Merino como presidente y pide al TC pronunciarse sobre su legitimidad". Pica News. 11 November 2020. Retrieved 31 May 2021.
  59. "Los jóvenes protestan en Perú a la espera de que el Constitucional se pronuncie sobre la salida de Vizcarra". abc (in Spanish). 13 November 2020. Retrieved 31 May 2021.
  60. PERÚ, Empresa Peruana de Servicios Editoriales S. A. EDITORA. "Presidente Manuel Merino participará en la 27º Cumbre del Foro APEC". (in Spanish). Retrieved 16 May 2021.
  61. PERU21, NOTICIAS (15 November 2020). "CRISIS POLíTICAL : Titular del Interior y la mayoría de ministros renuncia a Gabinete de Ántero Flores-Aráoz | POLITICA". Peru21 (in Spanish). Retrieved 15 November 2020.
  62. Stefano Pozzebon, Claudia Rebaza and Jaide Timm-Garcia. "Peru's interim president resigns after just five days". CNN. Retrieved 16 November 2020.
  63. EFE, RTVE es / (12 November 2020). "El TC de Perú revisará la destitución de Vizcarra mientras crecen las protestas". (in Spanish). Retrieved 14 May 2021.
  64. GESTIÓN, NOTICIAS (11 November 2020). "TC verá demanda competencial por vacancia presidencial el 18 de noviembre nndc | PERU". Gestión (in Spanish). Retrieved 14 May 2021.
  65. Burt, Jo-Marie (19 November 2020). "Can Francisco Sagasti Hold Peru Together?". Americas Quarterly . Retrieved 7 December 2020.
  66. CIUP, Comunicaciones (1 December 2020). ""¿Hubo un golpe de estado en el Perú?": El escenario poscrisis política". (in Spanish). Retrieved 12 May 2021.
  67. PERÚ, NOTICIAS EL COMERCIO (21 November 2020). "Sentencia del TC sobre Vacancia presidencial: sustracción de la materia no implica abdicar en rol de garante de derechos fundamentales nndc | POLITICA". El Comercio Perú (in Spanish). Retrieved 12 May 2021.
  68. PERÚ, NOTICIAS EL COMERCIO (9 December 2020). "Fact checking: Manuel Merino y su frase falsa sobre el proceso de vacancia | POLITICA". El Comercio Perú (in Spanish). Retrieved 12 May 2021.
  69. Palacios, Oswaldo (8 December 2020). "Eloy Espinosa-Saldaña responde a Manuel Merino: El TC no se ha pronunciado sobre la vacancia contra Martín Vizcarra". RPP (in Spanish). Retrieved 12 May 2021.
  70. PERÚ, NOTICIAS EL COMERCIO (9 December 2020). "Eloy Espinosa-Saldaña: El congresista Manuel Merino está equivocado nndc | POLITICA". El Comercio Perú (in Spanish). Retrieved 12 May 2021.
  71. "Ernesto Blume: El TC no le ha dado la espalda al país". (in Spanish). Retrieved 12 May 2021.
  72. "José Luis Sardón: Vacancia de Martín Vizcarra no fue un golpe de Estado | Entrevista". Diario Expreso. 23 November 2020. Retrieved 12 May 2021.
  73. LR, Redacción (20 November 2020). "Ferrero: No se puede acusar a 105 congresistas de actuar inconstitucionalmente". (in Spanish). Retrieved 12 May 2021.
  74. 1 2 3 4 "Disolución del Congreso en Perú: quién es Mercedes Aráoz, que renunció tras ser nombrada 'presidenta en funciones' por el Parlamento peruano para sustituir a Vizcarra" [Dissolution of Congress in Peru: who is Mercedes Aráoz, who resigned after being named "acting president" by the Peruvian Parliament to replace Vizcarra]. BBC Mundo (in Spanish). 2 October 2019. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  75. 1 2 3 "Disolución del Congreso en Perú: 4 claves para entender el enfrentamiento entre Vizcarra y el Parlamento (y lo que puede pasar ahora)" [Dissolution of Congress in Peru: 4 keys to understanding the confrontation between Vizcarra and Parliament (and what can happen now)]. BBC Mundo (in Spanish). 2 October 2019. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  76. 1 2 "Disolución del Congreso de Perú: las dudas sobre la legalidad de la decisión de Vizcarra de disolver la cámara y sobre la suspensión temporal del presidente" [Dissolution of the Congress of Peru: doubts about the legality of Vizcarra's decision to dissolve the chamber and about the temporary suspension of the president]. BBC Mundo (in Spanish). 2 October 2019. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  77. "Disolución del Congreso en Perú: renuncia Mercedes Aráoz, nombrada "presidenta en funciones" por el Parlamento en sustitución de Vizcarra" [Dissolution of Congress in Peru: Mercedes Aráoz, appointed "acting president" by Parliament to replace Vizcarra, resigns]. BBC Mundo (in Spanish). 2 October 2019. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  78. Aráoz Fernández, Mercedes [@MecheAF] (1 October 2019). "He decidido renunciar irrevocablemente al cargo de Vicepresidenta Constitucional de la República. Las razones las explico en la carta adjunta. Espero que mi renuncia conduzca a la convocatoria de elecciones generales en el más breve plazo por el bien del país" [I have decided to irrevocably resign from the post of Constitutional Vice President of the Republic. The reasons are explained in the attached letter. I hope that my resignation will lead to the calling of general elections in the shortest possible time for the good of the country.] (Tweet) (in Spanish) via Twitter.
  79. "Congreso acepta renuncia de Mercedes Aráoz a la segunda vicepresidencia de la República" [Congress accepts the resignation of Mercedes Aráoz to the second vice-presidency of the Republic]. Gestión (in Spanish). 7 May 2020. Retrieved 7 May 2020.
Political offices
Preceded by
Martín Vizcarra
President of Peru
Succeeded by
Francisco Sagasti