Amateur wrestling

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Amateur wrestling
Wrestling badgers den.jpg
Two competitors in an Amateur Wrestling match
Focus Grappling
ParenthoodAncient Greek style of wrestling

Amateur wrestling is the most widespread form of sport wrestling.[ citation needed ] There are two international wrestling styles performed in the Olympic Games: freestyle and Greco-Roman. Both styles are under the supervision of United World Wrestling (UWW; formerly known as FILA, from the French acronym for International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles). A similar style, commonly called collegiate (also known as scholastic or folkstyle), is practiced in colleges and universities, secondary schools, middle schools, and among younger age groups in the United States. Where the style is not specified, this article refers to the international styles of competition on a mat. In February 2013, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) voted to remove the sport from the 2020 Summer Olympics onwards. On 8 September 2013, the IOC announced that wrestling would return to the Summer Olympics in 2020. [1] The rapid rise in the popularity of the combat sport mixed martial arts (MMA) has increased interest in amateur wrestling due to its effectiveness in the sport and it is considered a core discipline. [2]

Contents

Scoring

Greco-Roman and freestyle differ in what holds are permitted; in Greco-Roman, the wrestlers are permitted to hold and attack only above the waist. In both Greco-Roman and freestyle, points can be scored in the following ways:

Scores only awarded in collegiate wrestling

As in the international styles, collegiate wrestling awards points for takedowns and reversals. Penalty points are awarded in collegiate wrestling according to the current rules, which penalize moves that would impair the life or limb of the opponent. However, the manner in which infractions are penalized and points awarded to the offended wrestler differ in some aspects from the international styles. Collegiate wrestling also awards points for:

Period format

Women's wrestling Wrestling dsc03566.jpg
Women's wrestling

In the international styles, the format is now two three-minute periods. A wrestler wins the match when they were able to get more points than their opponent or 10 points lead in two rounds. For example, if one competitor get 10–0 lead in first the period, they will win by superiority of points. Only a fall, injury default, or disqualification terminates the match; all other modes of victory result only in period termination. [4]

This format replaced the old format of three two-minute periods played best two out of three. One side effect of the old format was that it was possible for the losing wrestler to outscore the winner. For example, periods may be scored 3–2, 0–4, 1–0, leading to a total score of 4–6 but a win for the wrestler scoring fewer points.

In collegiate wrestling, the period structure is different. A college match consists of one three-minute period, followed by two two-minute periods, with an overtime round if necessary. [5] A high school match typically consists of three two-minute periods, with an overtime round if necessary. [6] Under the standard rules for collegiate wrestling, draws are not possible; this rule is sometimes modified for young wrestlers.

Victory conditions in the international styles

Two U.S. Air Force members wrestling in a Greco-Roman match. WrestlingUSAF Flag.jpg
Two U.S. Air Force members wrestling in a Greco-Roman match.

A match can be won in the following ways:

Victory conditions in collegiate wrestling

An example of medals that are usually rewarded to the winner of a tournament. Moe Epsilon's medals.jpg
An example of medals that are usually rewarded to the winner of a tournament.

While having similar victory conditions with Greco-Roman and freestyle, such as wins by fall, decision, injury, and disqualification, victory conditions in collegiate wrestling differ on some points from the international styles:

Dual meet scoring is very similar on the high school level. [18]

Illegal moves

Andrell Durden (top) and Edward Harris grapple for position during the All-Marine Wrestle Offs. 010316-covington-wrestlers.png
Andrell Durden (top) and Edward Harris grapple for position during the All-Marine Wrestle Offs.

Amateur wrestling is a positionally-based form of grappling, and thus generally prohibits the following:

Equipment

Two college wrestlers in the United States with headgear competing in collegiate (scholastic or folkstyle) wrestling. Funky Standing Position.jpg
Two college wrestlers in the United States with headgear competing in collegiate (scholastic or folkstyle) wrestling.

While there is not much equipment that a wrestler wears, it is still highly specialized. A wrestling singlet is a one-piece, tight-fitting, colored, lycra uniform. The uniform is tight-fitting so as not to get grasped accidentally by the opponent and allows the referee to see each wrestler's body clearly when awarding points or a pin. Women wrestlers wear a higher cut singlet usually with a sports-bra underneath.

Wrestling shoes are light, flexible, thin-soled, ankle-high sneakers that allow maximum speed and traction on the mat without giving up ankle support. The current rules call for laces (if any) to be covered so that they do not come untied during competition.

In American high school and college wrestling headgear is mandatory to protect the ears from cauliflower ear and other injuries. Headgear is made from molded plastic polymer or vinyl coated energy absorbing foam over a rigid hard liner and strapped to the head tightly. In the international styles headgear is optional. [19]

Wrestling is conducted on a padded mat that must have excellent shock absorption, tear resistance, and compression qualities. Most mats are made of PVC rubber nitrile foam. Recent advances in technology have brought about new mats made using closed cell, cross-linked polyethylene foam covered in vinyl backed with non-woven polyester.

World participation

The countries with the leading wrestlers in the Olympic Games and World Championships are Iran, the United States, Russia (and some of the former Soviet Union republics, especially Armenia, Georgia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, and Kazakhstan), Bulgaria, Turkey, Hungary, Cuba, India, Iran, Canada, Japan, South and North Korea, Germany, and historically Sweden and Finland.

Women

Up until the early 1990's, women who participated in the sport had no other choice but to join the men's teams. At the high school level, this may still be required depending on the number of wrestlers. Brookline High School in Brookline, Massachusetts was the first public school to create a varsity girls wrestling team. The history of girls successfully competing against boys is well documented. [20]

University of Minnesota-Morris was the first university to create a varsity women's wrestling team. UMM's head coach, Doug Reese, followed in the footsteps of other schools like Missouri Valley College that pioneered programs for female wrestlers. University of the Cumberlands, Menlo College, Pacific University and Neosho County CC. Cal-State Bakersfield, are other schools who had a number of women competitors that only competed against each other or occasionally against Canadian college teams. With so much growth in female participation, the International Olympic Committee announced that women's freestyle wrestling would be added to the Olympic games that were to take place in the 2004 Summer Olympic Games in Athens, Greece with a total of four different weight classes. [21] In 2004, Missouri Valley College held the first Women's National Wrestling Championships which honored four individual champions. Later, the event would be hosted by the University of the Cumberlands in 2006.

As the sport continued to grow, coaches within women's wrestling formed the Women's Collegiate Wrestling Association (WCWA). This group created rules regarding eligibility, bylaws, and elected leaders for this association. Each year the number of intercollegiate programs continued to prosper with the WCWA now recognizing a total of 28 teams. Within these teams there are several who have National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) affiliation and most of them are allowed to compete in the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA).

There is also a national dual meet championship for women's intercollegiate teams that have been sponsored by the National Wrestling Coaches Association for the past 6 years; the world's top 16 teams compete in this event. [22]

See also

Related Research Articles

In many styles of wrestling, opponents are matched based on weight class.

Collegiate wrestling wrestling style used in US college mens competition

Collegiate wrestling is the form of wrestling practiced by men at the college and university level in the United States. This style, with some slight modifications, is also practiced at high school and middle school levels, and also among younger participants, where it is known as scholastic wrestling. These names help distinguish collegiate wrestling from other styles of wrestling that are practiced around the world such as those in the Olympic Games: freestyle wrestling and Greco-Roman wrestling.

Wrestling Form of combat sport involving grappling type techniques

Wrestling is a combat sport involving grappling-type techniques such as clinch fighting, throws and takedowns, joint locks, pins and other grappling holds. The sport can either be theatrical for entertainment, or genuinely competitive and it is of different types like Folkstyle, Freestyle, Greco-Roman, Judo, Sambo and others. A wrestling bout is a physical competition, between two competitors or sparring partners, who attempt to gain and maintain a superior position. There are a wide range of styles with varying rules with both traditional historic and modern styles. Wrestling techniques have been incorporated into other martial arts as well as military hand-to-hand combat systems.

Greco-Roman wrestling style of amateur wrestling

Greco-Roman (US), Graeco-Roman (UK), classic wrestling (Europe) or French wrestling is a style of wrestling that is practiced worldwide. It was contested at the first modern Olympic Games in 1896 and has been included in every edition of the summer Olympics held since 1904. This style of wrestling forbids holds below the waist; this is the major difference from freestyle wrestling, the other form of wrestling at the Olympics. This restriction results in an emphasis on throws because a wrestler cannot use trips to take an opponent to the ground, or avoid throws by hooking or grabbing the opponent's leg.

Freestyle wrestling style of amateur wrestling

Freestyle wrestling is a style of wrestling that is practiced throughout the world. Along with Greco-Roman, it is one of the two styles of wrestling contested in the Olympic Games. American high school and men's college wrestling is conducted under different rules and is termed scholastic and collegiate wrestling. American collegiate women's wrestling is conducted under freestyle rules.

In amateur wrestling, a technical fall, or technical superiority, is a victory condition satisfied by outscoring one's opponent by a specified number of points. It is wrestling's version of the mercy rule. It is informally abbreviated to "tech" as both a noun and verb.

Real Pro Wrestling former professional wrestling sports league

Real Pro Wrestling was a professional sports league of wrestling, similar to the amateur wrestling found in the Olympic Games and at the college and high school level. The term "real" was meant to emphasize that it was professional and it was wrestling, but that it was not professional wrestling in the traditional sense; modern professional wrestling features predetermined outcomes and operates under a very different set of rules from amateur wrestling.

Scholastic wrestling

Scholastic wrestling, sometimes known in the United States as folkstyle wrestling, is a style of amateur wrestling practiced at the high school and middle school levels in the United States. This wrestling style is essentially collegiate wrestling with some slight modifications. It is practiced in 49 of the 50 states in the United States. When practiced by wrestling clubs of younger participants, scholastic wrestling is better known as "folkstyle".

Wrestling singlet One-piece uniform worn by wrestlers

A wrestling singlet is a one-piece, tight-fitting, colored uniform, usually made of spandex/lycra, or nylon, used in amateur wrestling. The uniform is tight-fitting so as not to get grasped accidentally by one's opponent, and allows the referee to see each wrestler's body clearly when awarding points or a pin. Unlike judo, it is illegal to grasp an opponent's clothing in all styles of amateur wrestling.

Cole Konrad is an American retired mixed martial arts fighter. He is currently a student at the University of Minnesota and former wrestler for the Golden Gophers. Konrad won a gold medal at the 2005 Pan-American Championships. He won the NCAA wrestling championships in 2006 and 2007 at 285 pounds and finished third at the 2006 World University Championships at 120 kilograms. He was the first Bellator Heavyweight World Champion.

United World Wrestling international sport governing body

United World Wrestling (UWW) is the international governing body for the sport of amateur wrestling; its duties include overseeing wrestling at the Olympics. It presides over international competitions for various forms of wrestling, including Greco-Roman wrestling, freestyle wrestling for men and women, as well as others. The flagship event of UWW is the Wrestling World Championships. It was formerly known as the FILA, having assumed its current name in September 2014.

Wrestling competitions at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, China, were held at the China Agricultural University Gymnasium from 12–21 August 2008. It was split into two disciplines, Freestyle and Greco-Roman which are further divided into different weight categories. Men competed in both disciplines whereas women only took part in the freestyle events with 18 gold medals being awarded. This was the second Olympics with women's wrestling as an event.

Wrestling headgear Head accessory worn by wrestlers for protection during matches

Wrestling headgear is protection that a person wears over the ears and chin during wrestling matches.

USA Wrestling organization

USA Wrestling is the organization that currently governs freestyle wrestling and Greco-Roman wrestling in the United States. USA Wrestling is also the official representative to the United States Olympic & Paralympic Committee (USOPC) and to United World Wrestling (UWW) and is considered the national governing body of the sport at the amateur level. Their mission statement is, "USA Wrestling, guided by the Olympic Spirit, provides quality opportunities for its members to achieve their full human and athletic potential."

History of collegiate wrestling

The history of collegiate wrestling can be traced to the many indigenous styles of folk wrestling found in Europe, particularly in Great Britain. Those folk wrestling styles soon gained popularity in what would become the United States, and by the end of the Civil War those styles, especially freestyle wrestling, emerged in gymnasiums and athletic clubs throughout the country. From then on, tournaments were sponsored and a professional circuit of wrestlers helped promote wrestling in the United States and throughout the world.

Pin (amateur wrestling) victory condition in amateur wrestling

A pin, or fall, is a victory condition in various forms of wrestling that is met by holding an opponent's shoulders or scapulae on the wrestling mat for a prescribed period of time. This article deals with the pin as it is defined in amateur wrestling.

History of wrestling

Wrestling and grappling sports have a long and complicated history, stretching into prehistoric times. Many traditional forms survive, grouped under the term folk wrestling. More formal systems have been codified in various forms of martial arts worldwide, where grappling techniques form a significant subset of unarmed fighting.

LeRoy Gardner III was an American amateur wrestler.

Kyle Snyder (wrestler) American freestyle wrestler

Kyle Frederick Snyder is an American freestyle wrestler. He has the distinctions of being the youngest Olympic gold medalist and the youngest World Champion in American wrestling history. Snyder is also the youngest wrestler ever to win the World, NCAA, and Olympic championships in the same year — a Triple Crown of American wrestling that had not been accomplished in a generation until he completed his sweep at the 2016 Rio Olympics.

Kyle Crutchmer is an American professional mixed martial artist and graduated collegiate wrestler. He currently competes in the welterweight division of Bellator MMA. As a folkstyle wrestler, he was a two-time NCAA All-American and two-time Big 12 champion.

References

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  2. "Can mixed martial arts save wrestling? - USATODAY.com".
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  18. National Federation of State High School Associations (2008-08-01). 2008–09 NFHS Wrestling Rules Book. NFHS. p. 48.
  19. International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles (2006-12-01). "International Wrestling Rules: Greco-Roman Wrestling, Freestyle Wrestling, Women's Wrestling" (PDF). p. 10. FILA . Retrieved 2008-10-28.
  20. "GIRL PINS BOY: Rosie pins David Rientjes (Belmont Wrestling)".
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Notes