Freestyle wrestling

Last updated
Freestyle wrestling
FreestyleWrestling2.jpg
Two men in the U.S. military, one from the Air Force and the other from the Marine Corps, compete in freestyle wrestling.
Focus Wrestling
Parenthood Catch wrestling and various other international wrestling styles
Olympic sportYes, since 1904

Freestyle wrestling is a style of wrestling that is practiced throughout the world. Along with Greco-Roman, it is one of the two styles of wrestling contested in the Olympic Games. American high school and men's college wrestling is conducted under different rules and is termed scholastic and collegiate wrestling. American collegiate women's wrestling is conducted under freestyle rules. [1]

Contents

Freestyle wrestling, like collegiate wrestling, has its greatest origins in catch-as-catch-can wrestling. In both styles the ultimate goal is to throw and pin the opponent to the mat, which results in an immediate win. Unlike Greco-Roman, freestyle and collegiate wrestling allow the use of the wrestler's or the opponent's legs in offense and defense. Freestyle wrestling brings together traditional wrestling, judo, and sambo techniques.

According to wrestling's world governing body, United World Wrestling (UWW), freestyle wrestling is one of the six main forms of amateur competitive wrestling practiced internationally today. The other five forms are Greco-Roman wrestling, grappling/submission wrestling, beach wrestling, pankration athlima, alysh/belt wrestling and traditional/folk wrestling. [2] The Executive Board of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) recommended dropping wrestling as a sport from the 2020 Olympic Games, but the decision was later reversed by the IOC.

History

Freestyle wrestling has been in the Olympic Games since the 1904 Olympics in Saint Louis, Missouri. FreestyleWrestling3.jpg
Freestyle wrestling has been in the Olympic Games since the 1904 Olympics in Saint Louis, Missouri.

Modern freestyle wrestling, according to UWW (formerly FILA), is said to have originated in Great Britain and the United States by the name of "catch-as-catch-can" wrestling. [3] "Catch-as-catch-can" wrestling had a particular following in Great Britain and the variant developed in Lancashire had a particular effect on freestyle wrestling. [4] "Catch-as-catch-can" wrestling gained great popularity in fairs and festivals during the 19th century. In catch-as-catch-can wrestling, both contestants started out standing and then a wrestler sought to hold his opponent's shoulder to the ground (known as a fall). If no fall was scored, both wrestlers continued grappling on the ground, and almost all holds and techniques were allowable. A Scottish variant of Lancashire wrestling also became popular, which began with both wrestlers standing chest to chest, grasping each other with locked arms around the body and, if no fall was made, with the match continuing on the ground. [4] In addition, there was the Irish collar-and-elbow style, where wrestlers started out on their feet with both wrestlers grasping each other by the collar with one hand and by the elbow with the other. If neither wrestler then achieved a fall, the contestants would continue both standing and on the ground until a fall was made. Irish immigrants later brought this style of wrestling to the United States, where it soon became widespread, especially because of the success of the wrestling champion of the Army of the Potomac, George William Flagg from Vermont. [4] Catch-as-catch can was the style performed by at least a half dozen U.S. presidents, including George Washington, Zachary Taylor, Abraham Lincoln, Andrew Johnson, Ulysses S. Grant, and Theodore Roosevelt. [3]

Because of the widespread interest in and esteem of professional Greco-Roman wrestling and its popularity in many international meets in nineteenth century Europe, freestyle wrestling (and wrestling as an amateur sport in general) had a tough time gaining ground on the continent. The 1896 Olympic Games had only one wrestling bout, a heavyweight Greco-Roman match. [4] Freestyle wrestling first emerged as an Olympic sport in the St. Louis Olympics of 1904. All 40 wrestlers who participated in the 1904 Olympics were American. The 1904 Olympics sanctioned the rules commonly used for catch-as-catch-can, but imposed some restrictions on dangerous holds. Wrestling by seven weight classes—47.6 kg (104.9 lb), 52.2 kg (115.1 lb), 56.7 kg (125.0 lb), 61.2 kg (134.9 lb), 65.3 kg (143.9 lb), 71.7 kg (156.7 lb), and greater than 71.7 kg (158 lb)—was an important innovation in the Summer Olympics. [3]

Since 1921, the body now known as United World Wrestling (UWW), which has its headquarters near Lausanne, Switzerland, has set the "Rules of the Game", with regulations for scoring and procedures that govern tournaments such as the World Games and the competition at the Summer Olympics. These were later adopted by the Amateur Athletic Union (AAU) for its freestyle matches. Freestyle wrestling gained great popularity in the United States after the Civil War. By the 1880s, tournaments drew hundreds of wrestlers. The rise of cities, increased industrialization, and the closing of the frontier provided the affable environment for amateur wrestling, along with boxing, to increase in esteem and popularity. Amateur wrestling teams soon emerged, such as the wrestling team of the New York Athletic Club, which had its first tournament in 1878. Professional wrestling also developed, and by the 1870s, professional championship matches offered allowances of up to $1,000. [4]

Nineteenth century wrestling matches were particularly long, and especially Greco-Roman bouts (where holds below the waist and the use of the legs are not allowed) could last as many as eight to nine hours, and even then, it was only decided by a draw. [5] In the 20th century, time limits were set for matches. [6] For more than forty years into the twentieth century, freestyle and its American counterpart, collegiate wrestling, did not have a scoring system that decided matches in the absence of a fall. The introduction of a point system by Oklahoma State University wrestling coach Art Griffith gained acceptance in 1941 and influenced the international styles as well. By the 1960s international wrestling matches in Greco-Roman and freestyle were scored by a panel of three judges in secret, who made the final decision by raising colored paddles at the match's end. Dr. Albert de Ferrari from San Francisco who became vice president of FILA (now UWW), lobbied for a visible scoring system and a rule for "controlled fall", which would recognize a fall only when the offensive wrestler had done something to cause it. These were soon adopted internationally in Greco-Roman and freestyle. [7] By 1996, before a major overhaul of FILA rules, an international freestyle match consisted of two three-minute periods, with a one-minute rest between periods. [6] Today, wrestlers from post-Soviet states, Iran, the United States, Bulgaria, Cuba, Turkey, and Japan have had the strongest showings. Alexander Medved of Belarus won 10 world championships and three Olympic gold medals from 1964 to 1972. [8] Many collegiate wrestlers have moved on to freestyle competition, particularly internationally with great success. [9]

In the spring of 2013, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) voted wrestling out of the core sports for the summer Olympics beginning in 2020 [10] As a result of this news the wrestling community started a massive campaign in order to reinstate the sport. A largely online group called 2020 vision lead the movement. They had several campaigns as well as Facebook and Twitter pages that spread awareness and gathered support for the cause of wrestling's return to the Olympics. They had a mission of gaining 2,000,020 signatures (online and offline) in support of wrestling's return to the Olympic Games. [11] In September 2013 the IOC voted to allow wrestling back into the Olympics for 2020 and 2024 as a probationary sport. In order to achieve this, UWW made several changes to the rules as well as changes to the weight classes. [12] There are also discussions about uniform changes as well as changes to the competition mat.

Weight classes

This freestyle wrestler locks the limbs of his opponent in order to take him down to the mat. FreestyleWrestling6.jpg
This freestyle wrestler locks the limbs of his opponent in order to take him down to the mat.

Currently, international men's freestyle wrestling is divided into six main age categories: schoolboys, cadets, novice, juvenile, juniors, and seniors. [13] Schoolboys( boys ages 14–15; or age 13 with a medical certificate and parental authorization) wrestle in 10 weight classes ranging from 29 to 85 kg (64–187  lb ). [14] Cadets (young boys ages 16–17; or age 15 with a medical certificate and parental authorization) wrestle in 10 weight classes ranging from 39 to 100 kg (86 to 220 lb). [14] Juniors (young boys ages 18 to 20; or age 17 with a medical certificate and parental authorization) wrestle in eight weight classes ranging from 46 to 120 kg (101–265 lb). [14] Seniors (men ages 20 and up) wrestle in seven weight classes ranging from 50 to 120 kg (110 to 260 lb). [14] For men, there is also a special category for some freestyle competitions, "Veterans", for men ages 35 and older, presumably featuring the same weight classes as seniors. [13] Also, all of the men's age categories and weight classes can be applied to Greco-Roman wrestling. [15]

Women currently compete in freestyle wrestling in one of four age categories on an international level: schoolgirls, cadets, juniors, and seniors. [16] Schoolgirls (young women ages 14–15; or age 13 with a medical certificate and parental authorization) wrestle in 10 weight classes ranging from 28 to 62 kg (62–137 lb). [16] Cadets (young women ages 16–17; or age 15 with a medical certificate and parental authorization) wrestle in 10 weight classes ranging from 36 to 70 kg (79–154 lb). [16] Juniors (young women ages 18 to 20; or age 17 with a medical certificate and parental authorization) wrestle in eight weight classes ranging from 40 to 72 kg (88–159 lb). [16] Seniors (women ages 20 and up) wrestle in seven weight classes ranging from 44 to 72 kg (97–159 lb). [16] Wrestlers after weigh-in may only wrestle in their own weight class. Wrestlers in the senior age category may wrestle up a weight class except for the heavyweight division (which starts at a weight more than 96 kg (212 lb) for the men and more than 67 kg (148 lb) for the women). [17] Different nations may have different weight classes and different age categories for their levels of freestyle competition.

Structure of the tournament

A typical international wrestling tournament takes place by direct elimination with an ideal number of wrestlers (4, 8, 16, 32, 64, etc.) in each weight class and age category competing for placement. The competition in each weight class takes place in one day. [18] The day before the wrestling in a scheduled weight class and age category takes place, all the applicable wrestlers are examined by a physician and weighed-in. Each wrestler after being weighed on the scale then draws a token randomly that gives a certain number. [19]

If an ideal number is not reached to begin elimination rounds, a qualification round will take place to eliminate the excess number of wrestlers. For example, 22 wrestlers may weigh-in over the ideal number of 16 wrestlers. The six wrestlers who drew the highest numbers after 16 and the six wrestlers who drew the six numbers immediately before 17 would then wrestle in six matches in the qualification round. The winners of those matches would then go on to the elimination round. [20]

In the elimination round or "blood round", the ideal number of wrestlers then pair off and compete in matches until two victors emerge who will compete in the finals for first and second place. All of the wrestlers who lost to the two finalists then have the chance to wrestle in a repechage round. The repechage round begins with the wrestlers who lost to the two finalists at the lowest level of competition in the elimination round. The matches are paired off by the wrestlers who lost to one finalist and the wrestlers who lost to the other. The two wrestlers who win after every level of competition are the victors of the repechage round. [21]

In the finals, the two victors of the elimination round compete for first and second place. [22]

In all rounds of the tournament, the wrestlers compete in matches paired off in the order of the numbers they drew after the weigh-in. [23]

After the finals match, the awards ceremony will take place. The first place and second place wrestlers will receive a gold and silver medal, respectively. (At the FILA World Championships, the first place wrestler will receive the World Championship Belt.) The two repechage round winners will each be awarded third place with a bronze medal. The two wrestlers who lost in the finals for the third place are awarded fifth place. From seventh place down, the wrestlers are ranked according to the classification points earned for their victories or losses. If there is a tie among wrestlers for classification points, the ranking is determined in this order from the highest to the lowest:

Wrestlers who remained tied after that will be awarded placements "ex aequo." Wrestlers classified from the fifth to the 10th place will receive a special diploma. The wrestling tournaments in the Olympic Games and the Senior and Junior World Championships are designed to take place over three days on three mats. [24]

Layout of the mat

The match takes place on a thick rubber mat that is shock-absorbing to ensure safety. For the Olympic Games, all World Championships, and World Cups, the mat has to be new. The main wrestling area has a nine-meter diameter and is surrounded by a 1.5-metre (4.9 ft) border of the same thickness known as the protection area. Inside the nine meter in diameter circle is a red band of one meter (3 ft 3 in) in width that is on the outer edge of the circle and is known as the red zone. The red zone is used to help indicate passivity on the part of a wrestler; thus, it is also known as the passivity zone. Inside the red zone is the central wrestling area which is seven meters 7 metres (23 ft 0 in) in diameter. In the middle of the central surface of wrestling is the central circle, which is one meter in diameter. The central circle is surrounded by a band 10 centimeters (4 in) wide and is divided in half by a red line eight centimeters (318 in) in width. The diagonally opposite corners of the mat are marked with the wrestlers' colors, red and blue. [25]

For competition in the Olympic Games, the World Championships, and the Continental Championships, the mat is installed on a platform no greater than 1.1 metres (3 ft 7 in) in height. If the mat lies on a podium and the protection margin (covering and free space around the mat) does not reach two meters (6 ft 6 in), the sides of the podium are covered with 45° (degree) inclined panels. In all cases, the color of the protection area is different from the color of the mat. [26]

Equipment

The match

A match is a competition between two individual wrestlers of the same weight class. In freestyle wrestling, a jury (or team) of three officials (referees) is used. The referee controls the action in the center, blowing the whistle to start and stop the action, and supervises the scoring of holds and infractions. The judge sits at the side of the mat, keeps score, and occasionally gives his approval when needed by the referee for various decisions. The mat chairman sits at the scoring table, keeps time, is responsible for declaring technical superiority, and supervises the work of the referee and judge. To call a fall, two of the three officials must agree (usually, the referee and either the judge or the mat chairman). [28]

Session format

The freestyle wrestler in the blue singlet scores points over the wrestler in the red singlet to win by decision. FreestyleWrestling4.jpg
The freestyle wrestler in the blue singlet scores points over the wrestler in the red singlet to win by decision.

In Greco-Roman and freestyle, the format is two three-minute sessions. Before each match, each wrestler's name is called, and the wrestler takes his place at the corner of the mat assigned to his color. The referee then calls both of them to his side at the center of the mat, shakes hands with them, inspects their apparel, and checks for any perspiration, oily or greasy substances, and any other infractions. The two wrestlers then greet each other, shake hands, and the referee blows his whistle to start the session. [29]

A wrestler wins the match when he has outscored his opponent at the end of the two three-minute sessions. For example, if one competitor were to score four points in the first session and his opponent two, and then two in the second session, his opponent zero, the competitor would win. Only a fall, injury default, or disqualification terminates the match; all other modes of victory result only in session termination. [29]

In freestyle, if no wrestler scores in two minutes, the referee of the match will then identify the more passive wrestler, and that wrestler will be given a thirty-second window of opportunity to score, and if he doesn't, then his opponent will be awarded a point. [30]

When the session (or match) has concluded, the referee stands at the center of the mat facing the officials' table. Both wrestlers then approach each other, shake hands, and stand on either side of the referee to await the decision. The referee then proclaims the winner by raising the winner's hand. At the end of the match, each wrestler then shakes hands with the referee and returns to shake hands with his opponent's coach. [31]

Match scoring

In freestyle wrestling, as well as in Greco-Roman wrestling, points are awarded mostly on the basis of explosive action and risk. For example, when one wrestler performs a grand amplitude throw that brings his opponent into the danger position, he is awarded the greatest number of points that can be scored in one instance. Also, a wrestler who takes the risk to briefly roll on the mat (with his shoulders in contact with the mat) could give a certain number of points to his opponent. Scoring can be accomplished in the following ways:

(5 points):5 points are awarded for a takedown brought about by a throw of grand amplitude (a throw in which a wrestler brings his opponent off of the mat and controls him so that his feet go directly above his head) either from the standing or par terre position into a direct and immediate danger position. [32]
(4 points): 4 points are awarded for a takedown brought about by a throw of grand amplitude as in the 5-point throw, but does not put the opponent into a direct and immediate danger position or if the opposing wrestler maintains contact with at least one hand on the mat.
(3 points): Generally, three points are awarded for a takedown brought about by a short amplitude throw that does not bring his opponent in a direct and immediate danger position or for a takedown in which a wrestler's opponent is taken from his feet or his stomach to his back or side (a throw of short amplitude) so that he is in the danger position. [32]
(2 points [33] ):Two points are awarded for a takedown brought about by a wrestler taking his opponent from his feet to his stomach or side such that his back or shoulders are not exposed to the mat and while in this position holding him down with control. [34]
Two United States military servicemen grapple in a freestyle wrestling championship match. FreestyleWrestling5.jpg
Two United States military servicemen grapple in a freestyle wrestling championship match.

Classification points are also awarded in an international wrestling tournament, which give most points to the winner and in some cases, one point to the loser depending on the outcome of the match and how the victory was attained. For example, a victory by fall would give the winner five classification points and the loser no points, while a match won by technical superiority with the loser scoring technical points would award three points to the winner and one point to loser. [38]

The full determinations for scoring are found https://unitedworldwrestling.org/sites/default/files/2018-04/wrestling_rules.pdf in the UWW International Wrestling Rules].

Victory conditions

Compared to collegiate (scholastic or folkstyle) wrestling, the main style done in U.S. high schools, colleges, and universities, freestyle wrestling involves a greater emphasis on explosive action by both wrestlers, as opposed to one wrestler's dominance and control of the other. FreestyleWrestling.jpg
Compared to collegiate (scholastic or folkstyle) wrestling, the main style done in U.S. high schools, colleges, and universities, freestyle wrestling involves a greater emphasis on explosive action by both wrestlers, as opposed to one wrestler's dominance and control of the other.

A match can be won in the following ways:

Team scoring in tournaments

In an international wrestling tournament, teams enter one wrestler at each weight class and score points based on the individual performances. For example, if a wrestler at the 60 kg weight class finishes in first place, then his team will receive 10 points. If he were to finish in tenth place, then the team would only receive one. At the end of the tournament, each team's score is tallied, and the team with the most points wins the team competition. [45]

Team competition

A team competition or dual meet is a meeting between (typically two) teams in which individual wrestlers at a given weight class compete against each other. A team receives one point for each victory in a weight class regardless of the outcome. The team that scores the most points at the end of the matches wins the team competition. If there are two sets of competitions with one team winning the home competition and one winning the away competition, a third competition may take place to determine the winner for ranking purposes, or the ranking may take place by assessing in order: 1) the most victories by adding the points of the two matches; 2) the most points by fall, default, forfeit, or disqualification; 3) the most matches won by technical superiority; 4) the most periods won by technical superiority; 5) the most technical points won in all the competition; 6) the fewest technical points won in all the competition. This works similarly when more than two teams are involved in this predicament. [46]

Women's freestyle wrestling

At the collegiate, world, and Olympic levels, women wrestle freestyle. During competition the wrestlers will either wear a red singlet or blue singlet depending on where they are placed in the bracket. All female competitors are required to wear a women’s cut singlet with proper fitting to minimize any distracting incidents.

In addition to colleges and universities, there are programs like the Beat the Streets-Girls Wrestling Program. This organization is highly successful at targeting inner city kids and introducing them to the world of wrestling at no cost. Other notable organizations include Chick Wrestler, which was created in January 2012 to market and promote women’s wrestling at the Olympic Level.

Freestyle wrestling was added to the NCAA Emerging Sports for Women program effective with the 2020–21 school year. At that time, 35 NCAA members sponsored women's wrestling teams. [47]

Women’s wrestling made its Olympic Debut in Athens 2004. Typically the females have 7 weight classes (48 kg, 51 kg, 55 kg, 59 kg, 63 kg, 67 kg, 72 kg) that compete in a World Championships. Though, during the Olympic year, the weights are reduced to only 4 (48 kg, 55 kg, 63 kg, and 72 kg). [48] Only one representative from each weight class is permitted to enter Olympic Competition.

See also

Notes

  1. "Growing Wrestling: Women's Collegiate Wrestling Association". National Wrestling Coaches Association. Retrieved June 23, 2020.
  2. Fila Wrestling : site de la Fédération Internationale des Luttes Associées
  3. 1 2 3 International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles. "Freestyle Wrestling". FILA. Archived from the original on 2011-07-11. Retrieved 2008-10-28.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 "Wrestling, Freestyle" by Michael B. Poliakoff from Encyclopedia of World Sport: From Ancient Times to the Present, Vol. 3, p. 1190, eds. David Levinson and Karen Christensen (Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, Inc., 1996).
  5. "Wrestling, Greco-Roman" by Michael B. Poliakoff from Encyclopedia of World Sport: From Ancient Times to the Present, Vol. 3, p. 1196, eds. David Levinson and Karen Christensen (Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, Inc., 1996).
  6. 1 2 "Wrestling, Freestyle" by Michael B. Poliakoff from Encyclopedia of World Sport: From Ancient Times to the Present, Vol. 3, p. 1191, eds. David Levinson and Karen Christensen (Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, Inc., 1996)
  7. Dellinger, Bob. "The Oldest Sport". National Wrestling Hall of Fame and Museum. Archived from the original on 2007-07-03. Retrieved 2007-08-12.
  8. "Wrestling, Freestyle" by Michael B. Poliakoff from Encyclopedia of World Sport: From Ancient Times to the Present, Vol. 3, p. 1193, eds. David Levinson and Karen Christensen (Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, Inc., 1996).
  9. http://espn.go.com/olympics/wrestling/story/_/id/8939185/ioc-drops-wrestling-2020-olympics
  10. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-12-03. Retrieved 2015-03-26.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  11. http://espn.go.com/olympics/story/_/id/9650530/wrestling-gets-reinstated-2020-olympics
  12. 1 2 International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles (2006-12-01). "International Wrestling Rules: Greco-Roman Wrestling, Freestyle Wrestling, Women's Wrestling" (PDF). p. 11. FILA . Retrieved 2008-10-28.
  13. 1 2 3 4 International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles (2006-12-01). "International Wrestling Rules: Greco-Roman Wrestling, Freestyle Wrestling, Women's Wrestling" (PDF). pp. 11-12. FILA . Retrieved 2008-10-28.
  14. International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles (2006-12-01). "International Wrestling Rules: Greco-Roman Wrestling, Freestyle Wrestling, Women's Wrestling" (PDF). pp. 11-13. FILA . Retrieved 2008-10-28.
  15. 1 2 3 4 5 International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles (2006-12-01). "International Wrestling Rules: Greco-Roman Wrestling, Freestyle Wrestling, Women's Wrestling" (PDF). p. 55. FILA . Retrieved 2008-10-28.
  16. International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles (2006-12-01). "International Wrestling Rules: Greco-Roman Wrestling, Freestyle Wrestling, Women's Wrestling" (PDF). pp. 12, 55. FILA . Retrieved 2008-10-28.
  17. International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles (2006-12-01). "International Wrestling Rules: Greco-Roman Wrestling, Freestyle Wrestling, Women's Wrestling" (PDF). p. 14. FILA . Retrieved 2008-10-28.
  18. International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles (2006-12-01). "International Wrestling Rules: Greco-Roman Wrestling, Freestyle Wrestling, Women's Wrestling" (PDF). pp. 19-20. FILA . Retrieved 2008-10-28.
  19. International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles (2006-12-01). "International Wrestling Rules: Greco-Roman Wrestling, Freestyle Wrestling, Women's Wrestling" (PDF). pp. 14-15. FILA . Retrieved 2008-10-28.
  20. International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles (2006-12-01). "International Wrestling Rules: Greco-Roman Wrestling, Freestyle Wrestling, Women's Wrestling" (PDF). pp. 15-16. FILA . Retrieved 2008-10-28.
  21. International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles (2006-12-01). "International Wrestling Rules: Greco-Roman Wrestling, Freestyle Wrestling, Women's Wrestling" (PDF). p. 16. FILA . Retrieved 2008-10-28.
  22. International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles (2006-12-01). "International Wrestling Rules: Greco-Roman Wrestling, Freestyle Wrestling, Women's Wrestling" (PDF). p. 20. FILA . Retrieved 2008-10-28.
  23. International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles (2006-12-01). "International Wrestling Rules: Greco-Roman Wrestling, Freestyle Wrestling, Women's Wrestling" (PDF). pp. 16-18, 40. FILA . Retrieved 2008-10-28.
  24. International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles (2006-12-01). "International Wrestling Rules: Greco-Roman Wrestling, Freestyle Wrestling, Women's Wrestling" (PDF). pp. 8-9. FILA . Retrieved 2008-10-28.
  25. 1 2 3 International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles (2006-12-01). "International Wrestling Rules: Greco-Roman Wrestling, Freestyle Wrestling, Women's Wrestling" (PDF). p. 9. FILA . Retrieved 2008-10-28.
  26. 1 2 International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles (2006-12-01). "International Wrestling Rules: Greco-Roman Wrestling, Freestyle Wrestling, Women's Wrestling" (PDF). p. 10. FILA . Retrieved 2008-10-28.
  27. International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles (2006-12-01). "International Wrestling Rules: Greco-Roman Wrestling, Freestyle Wrestling, Women's Wrestling" (PDF). pp. 22-26. FILA . Retrieved 2008-10-28.
  28. 1 2 3 4
  29. International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles (2006-12-01). "International Wrestling Rules: Greco-Roman Wrestling, Freestyle Wrestling, Women's Wrestling" (PDF). pp. 30, 43-44. FILA . Retrieved 2008-10-28.
  30. International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles (2006-12-01). "International Wrestling Rules: Greco-Roman Wrestling, Freestyle Wrestling, Women's Wrestling" (PDF). p. 29. FILA . Retrieved 2008-10-28.
  31. 1 2 International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles (2006-12-01). "International Wrestling Rules: Greco-Roman Wrestling, Freestyle Wrestling, Women's Wrestling" (PDF). p. 37. FILA . Retrieved 2008-10-28.
  32. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-02-16. Retrieved 2016-02-09.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  33. 1 2 3 International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles (2006-12-01). "International Wrestling Rules: Greco-Roman Wrestling, Freestyle Wrestling, Women's Wrestling" (PDF). p. 36. FILA . Retrieved 2008-10-28.
  34. International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles (2006-12-01). "International Wrestling Rules: Greco-Roman Wrestling, Freestyle Wrestling, Women's Wrestling" (PDF). p. 35. FILA . Retrieved 2008-10-28.
  35. 1 2 International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles (2006-12-01). "International Wrestling Rules: Greco-Roman Wrestling, Freestyle Wrestling, Women's Wrestling" (PDF). pp. 36-37. FILA . Retrieved 2008-10-28.
  36. 1 2 "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-07-02. Retrieved 2009-03-13.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  37. International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles (2006-12-01). "International Wrestling Rules: Greco-Roman Wrestling, Freestyle Wrestling, Women's Wrestling" (PDF). p. 40. FILA . Retrieved 2008-10-28.
  38. International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles (2006-12-01). "International Wrestling Rules: Greco-Roman Wrestling, Freestyle Wrestling, Women's Wrestling" (PDF). p. 41. FILA . Retrieved 2008-10-28.
  39. Wrestling (2009-02-01). "International Wrestling Rules: Greco-Roman Wrestling, Freestyle Wrestling, Women's Wrestling, modified for USA Wrestling" (PDF). pp. 41, 72. USAW. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-07-02. Retrieved 2009-03-19.
  40. International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles (2006-12-01). "International Wrestling Rules: Greco-Roman Wrestling, Freestyle Wrestling, Women's Wrestling" (PDF). pp. 30-31, 43-44. FILA . Retrieved 2008-10-28.
  41. International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles (2006-12-01). "International Wrestling Rules: Greco-Roman Wrestling, Freestyle Wrestling, Women's Wrestling" (PDF). pp. 27, 30. FILA . Retrieved 2008-10-28.
  42. International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles (2006-12-01). "International Wrestling Rules: Greco-Roman Wrestling, Freestyle Wrestling, Women's Wrestling" (PDF). pp. 30, 52-53. FILA . Retrieved 2008-10-28.
  43. International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles (2006-12-01). "International Wrestling Rules: Greco-Roman Wrestling, Freestyle Wrestling, Women's Wrestling" (PDF). pp. 31, 50. FILA . Retrieved 2008-10-28.
  44. International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles (2006-12-01). "International Wrestling Rules: Greco-Roman Wrestling, Freestyle Wrestling, Women's Wrestling" (PDF). pp. 31-32. FILA . Retrieved 2008-10-28.
  45. International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles (2006-12-01). "International Wrestling Rules: Greco-Roman Wrestling, Freestyle Wrestling, Women's Wrestling" (PDF). pp. 32-33. FILA . Retrieved 2008-10-28.
  46. "Acrobatics and tumbling, women's wrestling added to NCAA Emerging Sports for Women program" (Press release). NCAA. June 17, 2020. Retrieved June 23, 2020.
  47. http://www.olympic.org/wrestling-freestyle

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Collegiate wrestling is the form of wrestling practiced by men at the college and university level in the United States. This style, with some slight modifications, is also practiced at high school and middle school levels, and also among younger participants, where it is known as scholastic wrestling. These names help distinguish collegiate wrestling from other styles of wrestling that are practiced around the world such as those in the Olympic Games: freestyle wrestling and Greco-Roman wrestling.

Aleksandr Karelin Soviet-Russian wrestler

Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Karelin is a retired Greco-Roman wrestler for the Soviet Union and Russia. Nicknamed the "Russian Bear", "Russian King Kong", "Alexander the Great" and "The Experiment", he is considered the greatest Greco-Roman wrestler of all time. Karelin won gold medals at the 1988, 1992 and 1996 Olympic Games under a different flag each time, and a silver medal at the 2000 Olympic Games. His wrestling record is 887 wins and two losses, both by a single point. Prior to his farewell match versus Rulon Gardner in September 2000, he hadn't a point scored on him within six years. Karelin was the national flag bearer at three consecutive Olympics: in 1988 for the Soviet Union, in 1992 for the Unified Team, and in 1996 for Russia.

Wrestling Form of combat sport involving grappling type techniques

Wrestling is a combat sport involving grappling-type techniques such as clinch fighting, throws and takedowns, joint locks, pins and other grappling holds. The sport can either be theatrical for entertainment, or genuinely competitive and it is of different types like Folkstyle, Freestyle, Greco-Roman, Judo, Sombo and others. A wrestling bout is a physical competition, between two competitors or sparring partners, who attempt to gain and maintain a superior position. There are a wide range of styles with varying rules with both traditional historic and modern styles. Wrestling techniques have been incorporated into other martial arts as well as military hand-to-hand combat systems.

Greco-Roman wrestling style of amateur wrestling

Greco-Roman (US), Graeco-Roman (UK), classic wrestling (Europe) or French wrestling is a style of wrestling that is practiced worldwide. It was contested at the first modern Olympic Games in 1896 and has been included in every edition of the summer Olympics held since 1904. This style of wrestling forbids holds below the waist; this is the major difference from freestyle wrestling, the other form of wrestling at the Olympics. This restriction results in an emphasis on throws because a wrestler cannot use trips to take an opponent to the ground, or avoid throws by hooking or grabbing the opponent's leg.

Amateur wrestling Widespread form of sport wrestling

Amateur wrestling is the most widespread form of sport wrestling. There are two international wrestling styles performed in the Olympic Games: freestyle and Greco-Roman. Both styles are under the supervision of United World Wrestling. A similar style, commonly called collegiate, is practiced in colleges and universities, secondary schools, middle schools, and among younger age groups in the United States. Where the style is not specified, this article refers to the international styles of competition on a mat. In February 2013, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) voted to remove the sport from the 2020 Summer Olympics onwards. On 8 September 2013, the IOC announced that wrestling would return to the Summer Olympics in 2020. The rapid rise in the popularity of the combat sport mixed martial arts (MMA) has increased interest in amateur wrestling due to its effectiveness in the sport and it is considered a core discipline.

In amateur wrestling, a technical fall, or technical superiority, is a victory condition satisfied by outscoring one's opponent by a specified number of points. It is wrestling's version of the mercy rule. It is informally abbreviated to "tech" as both a noun and verb.

Scholastic wrestling

Scholastic wrestling, sometimes known in the United States as folkstyle wrestling, is a style of amateur wrestling practiced at the high school and middle school levels in the United States. This wrestling style is essentially collegiate wrestling with some slight modifications. It is practiced in 49 of the 50 states in the United States. When practiced by wrestling clubs of younger participants, scholastic wrestling is better known as "folkstyle".

Ara Abrahamian Armenian-Swedish Greco-Roman wrestler

Ara Abrahamian is an Armenian-Swedish wrestler in Greco-Roman wrestling. He has won two World Championships in the 76 kg and 84 kg weight classes and a silver medal at the 2004 Summer Olympics in the 84 kg weight class. He also won the bronze match at the 2008 Summer Olympics, but he rejected the medal because of a controversial ruling in the semifinal. During the highly publicised medal ceremony, Abrahamian protested by placing the medal in the center of the mat and walking away. He was later disqualified by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and stripped of his rejected bronze medal for disrupting the award ceremony. This resulted in him receiving a lifetime ban from the Olympics. He was also banned from wrestling for two years by FILA, but the ban was overturned by the Court of Arbitration for Sport in March 2009.

United World Wrestling international sport governing body

United World Wrestling (UWW) is the international governing body for the sport of amateur wrestling; its duties include overseeing wrestling at the Olympics. It presides over international competitions for various forms of wrestling, including Greco-Roman wrestling, freestyle wrestling for men and women, as well as others. The flagship event of UWW is the Wrestling World Championships. It was formerly known as the FILA, having assumed its current name in September 2014.

Wrestling competitions at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, China, were held at the China Agricultural University Gymnasium from 12–21 August 2008. It was split into two disciplines, Freestyle and Greco-Roman which are further divided into different weight categories. Men competed in both disciplines whereas women only took part in the freestyle events with 18 gold medals being awarded. This was the second Olympics with women's wrestling as an event.

Wrestling headgear Head accessory worn by wrestlers for protection during matches

Wrestling headgear is protection that a person wears over the ears and chin during wrestling matches.

USA Wrestling organization

USA Wrestling is the organization that currently governs freestyle wrestling and Greco-Roman wrestling in the United States. USA Wrestling is also the official representative to the United States Olympic & Paralympic Committee (USOPC) and to United World Wrestling (UWW) and is considered the national governing body of the sport at the amateur level. Their mission statement is, "USA Wrestling, guided by the Olympic Spirit, provides quality opportunities for its members to achieve their full human and athletic potential."

Pin (amateur wrestling) victory condition in amateur wrestling

A pin, or fall, is a victory condition in various forms of wrestling that is met by holding an opponent's shoulders or scapulae on the wrestling mat for a prescribed period of time. This article deals with the pin as it is defined in amateur wrestling.

Sim Kwon-Ho is a retired South Korean Greco Roman wrestler. He won gold medals at the 1996 and 2000 Olympic Games, and is the only South Korean wrestler to win two gold medals in the Olympics.

Men's Greco-Roman 84 kilograms competition at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, China, was held on August 14 at the China Agricultural University Gymnasium. Italian wrestler Andrea Minguzzi won the gold medal in this event.

FILA Grappling was a non-striking hybrid combat sport sanctioned by the International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles (FILA). A form of submission wrestling influenced by freestyle wrestling, Greco-Roman wrestling, Brazilian jiu jitsu, judo, and sambo, it applied submission holds and choking techniques in order to make the opponent abandon the fight. FILA ceased sanctioning the sport in 2013.

Spenser Mango American Greco-Roman wrestler

Spenser Mango is an American Greco-Roman wrestler. He has represented the United States in numerous international competitions including the 2008 and 2012 Olympics. At the 2008 Summer Olympics, he competed in the 55 kg weight class. He won his first match against Romanian, Virgil Munteanu, before losing the South Korean, Park Eun-chul.

Wrestling has deep historical roots in Armenia. Wrestling existed in the Armenian Highlands since ancient times. Armenians have their own variant of the game called Kokh. It was recorded that King Tiridates III of Armenia won the Ancient Olympic Games in wrestling in 281 AD. During the Soviet era, wrestling became one of the most practiced sports in Armenia and remained popular after Armenia's independence in 1991. Armenian athletes have been successful at international competitions in the last two decades. Many have become World and European champions, both in Greco-Roman and Freestyle wrestling. Over half of the fifteen Armenian Olympic medalists and the two gold medal winners were wrestlers.

Kyle Snyder (wrestler) American freestyle wrestler

Kyle Frederick Snyder is an American freestyle wrestler. He has the distinctions of being the youngest Olympic gold medalist and the youngest World Champion in American wrestling history. Snyder is also the youngest wrestler ever to win the World, NCAA, and Olympic championships in the same year — a Triple Crown of American wrestling that had not been accomplished in a generation until he completed his sweep at the 2016 Rio Olympics.

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