Deportation

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Prisoners and gendarmes on the road to Siberia, 1845 Prisoners and gendarms on the road to Siberia (Geoffroy, 1845).JPG
Prisoners and gendarmes on the road to Siberia, 1845
1891 certificate of identity of the Imperial Government of China. The case to which this document pertains is representative of the many Chinese deportation case files within the records of the US District court, Los Angeles County, California. Certificate (of Identity) of the Imperial Government of China - NARA - 294991.jpg
1891 certificate of identity of the Imperial Government of China. The case to which this document pertains is representative of the many Chinese deportation case files within the records of the US District court, Los Angeles County, California.

Deportation is the expulsion of a person or group of people from a place or country. The term expulsion is often used as a synonym for deportation, though expulsion is more often used in the context of international law, while deportation is more used in national (municipal) law. [1] Forced displacement or forced migration of an individual or a group may be caused by deportation, for example ethnic cleansing, and other reasons.

Contents

Definition

Definitions of deportation apply equally to nationals and foreigners. [2] Nonetheless, in the common usage the expulsion of foreign nationals is usually called deportation, whereas the expulsion of nationals is called extradition, banishment, exile, or penal transportation. For example, in the United States:

"Strictly speaking, transportation, extradition, and deportation, although each has the effect of removing a person from the country, are different things, and have different purposes. Transportation is by way of punishment of one convicted of an offense against the laws of the country. Extradition is the surrender to another country of one accused of an offense against its laws, there to be tried, and, if found guilty, punished. Deportation is the removal of an alien out of the country, simply because his presence is deemed inconsistent with the public welfare and without any punishment being imposed or contemplated either under the laws of the country out of which he is sent or of those of the country to which he is taken." [3]

Expulsion is an act by a public authority to remove a person or persons against his or her will from the territory of that state. A successful expulsion of a person by a country is called a deportation. [4]

According to the European Court of Human Rights, collective expulsion is any measure compelling non-nationals, as a group, to leave a country, except where such a measure is taken on the basis of a reasonable and objective examination of the particular case of each individual non-national of the group. Mass expulsion may also occur when members of an ethnic group are sent out of a state regardless of nationality. Collective expulsion, or expulsion en masse, is prohibited by several instruments of international law. [5]

History

Deportations widely occurred in ancient history, and is well-recorded particularly in ancient Mesopotamia. [6]

In Assyrian Empire

In Achaemenid Empire

Deportation was practiced as a policy toward rebellious people in Achaemenid Empire. The precise legal status of the deportees is unclear; but ill-treatment is not recorded. Instances include: [6]

Deportations in the Achaemenid Empire
Deported peopleDeported toDeporter
6,000 Egyptians (including the king Amyrtaeus and many artisans) Susa Cambyses II
Northwest African Barcaean captivesA village in Bactria Darius I
Paeonians of Thrace Sardes, Asia Minor (later returned)Darius I
Milesians Ampé, on the mouth of Tigris near the Persian Gulf Darius I
Carians and Sitacemians Babylonia
Eretrians Ardericca in Susiana Darius I
Beotians Tigris region
Sidonian prisoners of war Susa and Babylon Artaxerxes III
Jews who supported the Sidonian revolt [7] Hyrcania Artaxerxes III

In Parthian Empire

Unlike in the Achaemenid and Sassanian periods, records of deportation are rare during the Arsacid Parthian period. One notable example was the deportation of the Mards in Charax, near Rhages (Ray) by Phraates I. The 10,000 Roman prisoners of war after the Battle of Carrhae appear to have been deported to Alexandria Margiana (Merv) near the eastern border in 53 BC, who are said to married to local people. It is hypothesized that some of them founded the Chinese city of Li-Jien after becoming soldiers for the Hsiung-nu, but this is doubted. [6]

Hyrcanus II, the Jewish king of Judea (Jeruselem), was settled among the Jews of Babylon in Parthia after being taken as captive by the Parthian-Jewish forces in 40 BC. [8]

Roman POWs in the Antony's Parthian War may have suffered deportation. [6]

In Sasanian Empire

Deportation was widely used by the Sasanians, especially during the wars with the Romans.

During Shapur I's reign, the Romans (including Valerian) who were defeated at the Battle of Edessa were deported to Persis. Other destinations were Parthia, Khuzestan, and Asorestan. There were cities which were founded and were populated by Romans prisoners of war, including Shadh-Shapur (Dayr Mikhraq) in Meshan, Bishapur in Persis, Wuzurg-Shapur (Ukbara; Marw-Ḥābūr), and Gundeshapur. Agricultural land were also given to the deportees. These deportations initiated the spread Christianity in the Sassanian empire. In Rēw-Ardashīr (Rishahr; Yarānshahr), Persis, there was a church for the Romans and another one for Carmanians. [6] In the mid-3rd century, Greek-speaking deportees from north-western Syria were settled in Kashkar, Mesopotamia.

After the Arab incursion into Persia during Shapur II's reign, he scattered the defeated Arab tribes by deporting them to other regions. Some were deported to Bahrain and Kirman, possibly to both populate these unattractive regions (due to their climate) and bringing the tribes under control. [6]

In 395 AD, 18,000 Roman populations of Sophene, Armenia, Mesopotamia, Syria, and Cappadocia were captured and deported by the "Huns". the prisoners were freed by the Persians as they reached Persia, and were settled in Slōk (Wēh Ardashīr) and Kōkbā (Kōkhē). The author of the text Liber Calipharum has praised the king Yazdegerd I (399–420) for his treatment of the deportees, who also allowed some to return. [6]

Major deportations occurred during the Anastasian War, including Kavad I's deportation of the populations of Theodosiopolis and Amida to Arrajan (Weh-az-Amid Kavad). [6]

Major deportations occurred during the campaigns of Khosrau I from the Roman cities of Sura, Beroea, Antioch, Apamea, Callinicum, and Batnai in Osrhoene, to Wēh-Antiyōk-Khosrow (also known as Rūmagān; in Arabic: al-Rūmiyya). The city was founded near Ctesiphon especially for them, and Khosrow reportedly "did everything in his power to make the residents want to stay". [6] The number of the deportees is recorded to be 292,000 in another source. [9]

Military occupation

Article 49 of the Fourth Geneva Convention prohibits the deportation of people into or out of occupied territory under belligerent military occupation: [10]

Individual or mass forcible transfers, as well as deportations of protected persons from occupied territory to the territory of the Occupying Power or to that of any other country, occupied or not, are prohibited, regardless of their motive.... The Occupying Power shall not deport or transfer parts of its own civilian population into the territory it occupies.

External deportation

Ethnic Germans being deported from the Sudetenland in the aftermath of World War II Vertreibung.jpg
Ethnic Germans being deported from the Sudetenland in the aftermath of World War II
Radicals awaiting deportation, Ellis Island, New York Harbor, 1920 Radicals awaiting deportation.jpg
Radicals awaiting deportation, Ellis Island, New York Harbor, 1920

All countries reserve the right to deport persons without right of abode even those who are longtime residents or possess permanent residency. In general, foreigners who have committed serious crimes, entered the country illegally, overstayed or broken the conditions of their visa, or otherwise lost their legal status to remain in the country may be administratively removed or deported. [11] In some cases, even citizens can be deported; some of the countries in the Persian Gulf have deported their own citizens. They have paid the Comoros to give them passports and accept them. [12] [13]

In many cases, deportation is done by the government's executive apparatus, and as such is often subject to a simpler legal process (or none), with reduced or no right to trial, legal representation or appeal due to the subject's lack of citizenship. For example, in the 1930s, during the Great Depression, more stringent enforcement of immigration laws were ordered by the executive branch of the U.S. government, which led to the expulsion of up to 2 million Mexican nationals from the United States. [14] In 1954, the executive branch of the U.S. government implemented Operation Wetback, a program created in response to public hysteria about immigration and immigrants from Mexico. [15] Operation Wetback led to the deportation of nearly 1.3 million Mexicans from the United States. [16] [17] Between 2009 and 2016, about 3.2 million people were deported from the United States. [18] Since 1997 U.S. mass deportations of non-citizens particularly convicted felons have risen steadily with the passing into law by the U.S. Congress of the 1996 Illegal Immigration Reform and Responsibility Act (IIRRA) which brought sweeping changes to the threshold for deportation of convicted felons [19] that have been criticized by some as having human rights abuses. [20] Since this time, the former U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Services (INS) has been transformed into Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and has renamed deportation as "expedited removal". The ICE website publishes removal statistics annually on its website. According to recent numbers ICE removed a total of 240,255 aliens in FY 2016, a two percent increase over FY 2015, but a 24 percent decrease from FY 2014. [21]

Already in natural law of the 18th century, philosophers agreed that expulsion of a nation from the territory that it historically inhabits is not allowable. [22] In the late 20th century, the United Nations drafted a code related to crimes against humanity; Article 18 of the Draft Code of Crimes Against the Peace and Security of Mankind declares "large scale" arbitrary or forcible deportation to be a crime against humanity. [23]

Deportation often requires a specific process that must be validated by a court or senior government official. It should not be confused with administrative removal, which is the process of a country denying entry to individuals at a port of entry and expelling them. [24] [25]

Internal deportation

Striking miners and others being deported at gunpoint from Lowell, Arizona, on July 12, 1917, during the Bisbee Deportation. Bisbee deportation lowell.jpg
Striking miners and others being deported at gunpoint from Lowell, Arizona, on July 12, 1917, during the Bisbee Deportation.

Deportation can also happen within a state, when (for example) an individual or a group of people is forcibly resettled to a different part of the country. If ethnic groups are affected by this, it may also be referred to as population transfer. The rationale is often that these groups might assist the enemy in war or insurrection. For example, the American state of Georgia deported 400 female mill workers during the Civil War on the suspicion they were Northern sympathizers. [26]

During World War II, Joseph Stalin (see Population transfer in the Soviet Union) ordered the deportation of Volga Germans, Chechens, Crimean Tatars, Ukrainians and others to areas away from the front, including central and western Soviet Union. Some historians have estimated the number of deaths from the deportation to be as high as 1 in 3 among some populations. [27] [28] On February 26, 2004 the European Parliament characterized deportations of the Chechens as an act of genocide. [29]

The Soviet Union also used deportation, as well as instituting the Russian language as the only working language and other such tactics, to achieve Russification of its occupied territories (such as the Baltic nations and Bessarabia). In this way, it removed the historical ethnic populations and repopulated the areas with Russian nationals. The deported people were sent to remote, scarcely populated areas or to GULAG labour camps. It has been estimated that, in their entirety, internal forced migrations affected some 6 million people. [30] [31] Of these, some 1 to 1.5 million perished. [32] [33]

After World War II approximately 50,000 Hungarians were deported from South Slovakia by Czechoslovak authorities to the Czech borderlands in order to alter the ethnic composition of the region. [34] Between 110,000 and 120,000 Japanese and Japanese Americans on the West Coast, [35] as well as about 3,000 Italian American [36] and about 11,500 German American families, [37] were forcibly resettled from the coasts to internment camps in interior areas of the United States of America by President Franklin Roosevelt. [38]

In the late 19th and early 20th century, deportation of union members and labor leaders was not uncommon in the United States during strikes or labor disputes. [39] For an example, see the Bisbee Deportation. [40]

Colonial deportations

Deporting individuals to an overseas colony is a special case that is neither completely internal nor external. For example, from 1717, Britain deported around 40,000 [41] :5 religious objectors and criminals to America before the practice ceased in 1776. [42] Jailers sold the criminals to shipping contractors, who then sold them to plantation owners. The criminal was forced to work for the plantation owner for the duration of their sentence. [41] :5 After Britain lost control of the area which became the United States, Australia became the destination for criminals deported to British colonies. Britain transported more than 160,000 [41] :1 criminals to the Australian colonies between 1787 and 1855. [43]

It may help deporting authorities to have access to a far-flung empire. During the Second Boer War of 1899-1902 the British deported about 26,000 Boer prisoners-of-war to overseas camps in Saint Helena, Ceylon, Bermuda and India. [44]

Medical deportation

Russia expelled dozens of Chinese for violating their terms of quarantine in 2020. [45]

Deportation during World War II

Nazi Germany

People being deported during the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. Stroop Report - Warsaw Ghetto Uprising 09.jpg
People being deported during the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising.

Nazi policies openly deported homosexuals, Jews, [46] [47] Poles, and Romani from their native places of residence to Nazi concentration camps or extermination camps set up at a considerable distance from their original residences. This was the policy officially known as the "Final Solution". The historical term "deportation", occurring frequently instead of the religious term Holocaust in various locations, thus means in effect "sent to their deaths" — as distinct from deportations in other times and places.[ citation needed ] [48]

Soviet Union

Under orders of Joseph Stalin the Soviet Union carried out a forced transfer of various groups before, during and after World War II (from 1930s up to the 1950s). During the June deportation of 1941, after the occupation of the Baltic countries, Eastern Poland and Moldavia, as was agreed by the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany in the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, in an attempt to subdue the countries for their forced incorporation into the Soviet Union, the Soviet Union deported tens-of-thousands of innocent people to Siberia.

Independent State of Croatia

An estimated 120,000 Serbs were deported from the Independent State of Croatia to German-occupied Serbia, and 300,000 fled by 1943. [49]

Noteworthy deportees

Alexander Berkman, Emma Goldman, C.L.R. James, Claudia Jones, Fritz Julius Kuhn, Lucky Luciano, and Anna Sage were all deported from the United States by being arrested and brought to the federal immigration control station on Ellis Island in New York Harbor and, from there, forcibly removed from the United States on ships.

In literature, deportation appears as an overriding theme in the 1935 novel, Strange Passage by Theodore D. Irwin. Films depicting or dealing with fictional cases of deportation are many and varied. Among them are Ellis Island (1936), Exile Express (1939), Five Came Back (1939), Deported (1950), and Gambling House (1951). More recently, Shottas (2002) treated the issue of U.S. deportation to the Caribbean post-1997.

See also

Notes

  1. Jean-Marie Henckaerts in his book 'Mass Expulsion in Modern International Law and Practice wrote: "As far as deportation is concerned, there is no general feature that clearly sets it apart from expulsion. Both term basically indicate the same phenomenon. [...] The only difference seems to be one of preferential use, expulsion being more an international term while deportation is more used in municipal law. [...] One study [discusses this distinction] but immediately adds that in modern practice both terms have become interchangeable." See Jean-Marie Henckaerts (6 July 1995). Mass Expulsion in Modern International Law and Practice. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. pp. 5–6. ISBN   90-411-0072-5.
  2. Henckaerts, Mass Expulsion in Modern International Law and Practice, 1995, pp. 4–5.
  3. Fong Yue Ting v. United States , 149 U.S. 697, at 709 (1893).
  4. IOM 2011, p. 27.
  5. IOM 2011, p. 35.
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A. Shapur Shahbazi, Erich Kettenhofen, John R. Perry, “DEPORTATIONS,” Encyclopædia Iranica, VII/3, pp. 297-312, available online at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/deportations (accessed on 30 December 2012).
  7. Bruce, Frederick Fyvie (1990). The Acts of the Apostles: The Greek Text with Introduction and Commentary. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 117. ISBN   0-8028-0966-9.
  8. Kooten, George H. van; Barthel, Peter (2015). The Star of Bethlehem and the Magi: Interdisciplinary Perspectives from Experts on the Ancient Near East, the Greco-Roman World, and Modern Astronomy. 540: BRILL. ISBN   9789004308473.CS1 maint: location (link)
  9. Christensen, The Decline of Iranshahr: Irrigation and Environments in the History of the Middle East, 500 B.C. to A.D. 1500, 1993. [ page needed ]
  10. Convention (IV) relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War. Geneva, 12 August 1949.Commentary on Part III : Status and treatment of protected persons #Section III : Occupied territories Art. 49 by the ICRC
  11. Henckaerts, Mass Expulsion in Modern International Law and Practice, 1995, p. 5; Forsythe and Lawson, Encyclopedia of Human Rights, 1996, pp. 53–54.
  12. https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/kuwait/2016-06-30/stateless-and-sale-gulf
  13. "To silence dissidents, Gulf states are revoking their citizenship".
  14. McKay, "The Federal Deportation Campaign in Texas: Mexican Deportation from the Lower Rio Grande Valley During the Great Depression", Borderlands Journal, Fall 1981; Balderrama and Rodriguez, Decade of Betrayal: Mexican Repatriation in the 1930s, 1995; Valenciana, "Unconstitutional Deportation of Mexican Americans During the 1930s: A Family History and Oral History", Multicultural Education, Spring 2006.
  15. See Albert G. Mata, "Operation Wetback: The Mass Deportation of Mexican Undocumented Workers in 1954 by Juan Ramon García", Contemporary Sociology, 1:5 (September 1983), p. 574 ("the widespread concern and hysteria about 'wetback inundation'..."); Bill Ong Hing, Defining America Through Immigration Policy, Temple University Press, 2004, p. 130. ISBN   1-59213-233-2 ("While Operation Wetback temporarily relieved national hysteria, criticism of the Bracero program mounted."); David G. Gutiérrez, Walls and Mirrors: Mexican Americans, Mexican Immigrants, and the Politics of Ethnicity, University of California Press, 1995, p. 168. ISBN   0-520-20219-8 ("The situation was further complicated by the government's active collusion in perpetuating the political powerlessness of ethnic Mexicans by condoning the use of Mexican labor while simultaneously whipping up anti-Mexican hysteria against wetbacks."); Ian F. Haney López, Racism on Trial: The Chicano Fight for Justice, new ed., Belknap Press, 2004, p. 83. ISBN   0-674-01629-7 ("... Operation Wetback revived Depression-era mass deportations. Responding to public hysteria about the 'invasion' of the United States by 'illegal aliens', this campaign targeted large Mexican communities such as East Los Angeles."); Jaime R. Aguila, "Book Reviews: Decade of Betrayal: Mexican Repatriation in the 1930s. By Francisco E. Balderrama and Raymond Rodríguez", Journal of San Diego History, 52:3–4 (Summer-Fall 2006), p. 197. ("Anti-immigrant hysteria contributed to the implementation of Operation Wetback in the mid 1950s....")
  16. García, Juan Ramon. Operation Wetback: The Mass Deportation of Mexican Undocumented Workers in 1954. Westport, Ct.: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1980. ISBN   0-313-21353-4
  17. Hing, Bill Ong. Defining America Through Immigration Policy. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2004. ISBN   1-59213-232-4
  18. "Obama deported record number of immigrants, despite Trump's claim". New York Daily News . September 1, 2016. Retrieved 2016-11-15.
  19. "Forced Apart: Families Separated and Immigrants Harmed by United States Deportation Policy: IV. Deportation Law Based on Criminal Convictions After 1996". www.hrw.org. Retrieved 2017-10-19.
  20. "US: 20 Years of Immigrant Abuses". Human Rights Watch. 2016-04-25. Retrieved 2017-10-19.
  21. "FY 2016 ICE Immigration Removals". www.ice.gov. Retrieved 2017-10-19.
  22. See, e.g., Emerich de Vattel, The Law of Nations - Principles of the Law of Nature, Applied to the Conduct and Affairs of Nations and Sovereigns (translated from French), Philadelphia 1856 (Dublin 1792), Book II, § 90.
  23. International Law Commission, Yearbook of the International Law Commission 1996: Report of the Commission to the General Assembly on the Work of Its 48th Session, 2000.
  24. Fragomen and Bell, Immigration Fundamentals: A Guide to Law and Practice. New York: Practising Law Institute, 1996.
  25. "Deportations, Removals and Voluntary Departures from the UK - Migration Observatory".
  26. Dillman, The Roswell Mills and A Civil War Tragedy: Excerpts from Days Gone by in Alpharetta and Roswell, Georgia, 1996; Hitt, Charged with Treason: The Ordeal of 400 Mill Workers During Military Operations in Roswell, Georgia, 1864–1865, 1992.
  27. In one estimate, based on a report by Lavrenti Beria to Joseph Stalin, 150,000 of 478,479 deported Ingush and Chechen people (or 31.3 percent) died within the first four years of the resettlement. See: Kleveman, Lutz. The New Great Game: Blood and Oil in Central Asia. Jackson, Tenn.: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2003. ISBN   0-87113-906-5. Another scholar puts the number of deaths at 22.7 percent: Extrapolating from NKVD records, 113,000 Ingush and Chechens died (3,000 before deportation, 10,000 during deportation, and 100,000 after resettlement) in the first three years of the resettlement out of 496,460 total deportees. See: Naimark, Norman M. Fires of Hatred: Ethnic Cleansing in Twentieth-Century Europe. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2001. ISBN   0-674-00994-0. A third source says a quarter of the 650,000 deported Chechens, Ingush, Karachais and Kalmyks died within four years of resettlement. See: Mawdsley, Evan. The Stalin Years: The Soviet Union 1929–1953. Manchester, England: Manchester University Press, 2003. ISBN   0-7190-6377-9. However, estimates of the number of deportees sometimes varies widely. Two scholars estimated the number of Chechen and Ingush deportees at 700,000, which would halve the percentage estimates of deaths. See: Fischer, Ruth and Leggett, John C. Stalin and German Communism: A Study in the Origins of the State Party. Edison, N.J.: Transaction Publishers, 2006. ISBN   0-87855-822-5
  28. Conquest, Robert. The Nation Killers. New York: Macmillan, 1970. ISBN   0-333-10575-3
  29. Campana, Aurélie. "Case Study: The Massive Deportation of the Chechen People: How and why Chechens were Deported", Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence. November 2007. Accessed August 11, 2008; Nurbiyev, Aslan. "Relocation of Chechen 'Genocide' Memorial Opens Wounds". Agence France Press. June 4, 2008 Archived December 2, 2008, at the Wayback Machine ; Jaimoukha, Amjad M. The Chechens: A Handbook. Florence, Ky.: Routledge, 2005. ISBN   0-415-32328-2.
  30. Pavel Polian. Against Their Will: The History and Geography of Forced Migrations in the USSR. Central European University Press, 2004. p.  4. ISBN   978-963-9241-68-8.
  31. Rosefielde, Steven (2009). Red Holocaust . Routledge. p. 83. ISBN   978-0-415-77757-5.
  32. Naimark, Norman M. Stalin's Genocides (Human Rights and Crimes against Humanity). Princeton University Press, 2010. p. 131. ISBN   0-691-14784-1
  33. Rosefielde, Steven (2009). Red Holocaust . Routledge. p. 84. ISBN   978-0-415-77757-5.
  34. J. Rieber, Alfred (2000). Forced Migration in Central and Eastern Europe, 1939-1950. Routledge. p. 90. ISBN   978-0-7146-5132-3.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  35. Smith & Hung 2010, p. 84 fn. 414.
  36. Iorizzo & Rossi 2010, p. 114.
  37. Tetsuden 2003, p. 124.
  38. Kennedy 1999, pp. 748–760.
  39. Deportation is the term commonly used to depict ejecting an individual from a political or legal jurisdiction. It has been used by the press, legal community, historians and sociologists. See, variously, "Lewis Attacks Deportation of Leaders by West Virginia Authorities", The New York Times, July 17, 1921; "The Law of Necessity As Applied in the Bisbee Deportation Case", Arizona Law Review, 1961; Martin, The Corpse On Boomerang Road: Telluride's War on Labor, 1899–1908, 2004; Silverberg, "Citizens' Committees: Their Role in Industrial Conflict", Public Opinion Quarterly, March 1941; Suggs, Colorado's War on Militant Unionism: James H. Peabody and the Western Federation of Miners, 1991; Lindquist and Fraser, "A Sociological Interpretation of the Bisbee Deportation", Pacific Historical Review, November 1968. Deportation has also been used to describe these events by Presidential commissions; see President's Mediation Commission, Report on the Bisbee Deportations, 1918. The U.S. Supreme Court has also referred to forced internal removal as deportation; see United States v. Guest , 383 U.S. 745, (1966), Harlan, concurring in part and dissenting in part, at 766.
  40. "The Bisbee Deportation 1917". University of Arizona. 2005.
  41. 1 2 3 Hill, David (2010). 1788 the brutal truth of the first fleet. Random House Australia. ISBN   978-1741668001.
  42. Daniels, Coming to America: A History of Immigration and Ethnicity in American Life, 2002
  43. McCaffray and Melancon, p. 171.
  44. Scheipers, Sibylle (2015). Unlawful Combatants: A Genealogy of the Irregular Fighter. Oxford Leverhulme Programme on the Changing Character of War. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 164. ISBN   9780199646111 . Retrieved 18 October 2019. During the Boer War, no deportations occurred other than the detention of Boer POWs in overse[a]s camps.
  45. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-health-moscow-deportation-idUSKCN20M252
  46. Deportation to the Death Camps, Yad Vashem
  47. Database of deportations during the Holocaust - The International Institute for Holocaust Research, Yad Vashem
  48. "Holocaust Glossary". Scholastic.
  49. Ramet, Sabrina P. (2006). The Three Yugoslavias: State-Building and Legitimation, 1918–2005. New York: Indiana University Press. p. 114. ISBN   0-253-34656-8.

Related Research Articles

Population transfer Movement of a large group of people from one region to another

Population transfer or resettlement is the movement of a large group of people from one region to another, often a form of forced migration imposed by state policy or international authority and most frequently on the basis of ethnicity or religion but also due to economic development. Banishment or exile is a similar process, but is forcibly applied to individuals and groups.

Flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–1950) Population transfers

During the later stages of World War II and the post-war period, Germans and Volksdeutsche fled or were expelled from various Eastern and Central European countries, including Czechoslovakia, and the former German provinces of Silesia, Pomerania, and East Prussia, which were annexed by other countries. In 1957, Walter Schlesinger discussed reasons for these actions, which reversed the effects of German eastward colonization and expansion: he concluded, "it was a devastating result of twelve years of National Socialist Eastern Policy." The idea to expel the Germans from the annexed territories was considered by Winston Churchill and by the Polish and Czechoslovak exile governments in London at least since 1942. In late 1944 the Czechoslovak exile government pressed the Allies to espouse the principle of German population transfers. On the other hand, Polish prime minister Tomasz Arciszewski, in an interview for The Sunday Times on 17 December 1944, supported the annexation of Warmia-Masuria, Opole Regency, north-east parts of Lower Silesia, and parts of Pomerania, but he opposed the idea of expulsion. He wanted to naturalize the Germans as Polish citizens and to assimilate them.

Ethnic cleansing systematic removal of a certain ethnic or religious group

Ethnic cleansing is the systematic forced removal of ethnic, racial and/or religious groups from a given territory by a more powerful ethnic group, often with the intent of making it ethnically homogeneous. The forces which may be applied may be various forms of forced migration, intimidation, as well as genocide and genocidal rape.

Death march forced march of prisoners of war or other captives or deportees in which individuals are left to die along the way

A death march is a forced march of prisoners of war or other captives or deportees in which individuals are left to die along the way. It is distinguished in this way from simple prisoner transport via foot march. Article 19 of the Geneva Convention requires that prisoners must be moved away from a danger zone such as an advancing front line, to a place that may be considered more secure. It is not required to evacuate prisoners that are too sick or injured to move. In times of war such evacuations are not carried out without difficulty.

Mass evacuation, forced displacement, expulsion, and deportation of millions of people took place across most countries involved in World War II. A number of these phenomena were categorised as violations of fundamental human values and norms by the Nuremberg Tribunal after the war ended. The mass movement of people – most of them refugees – had either been caused by the hostilities, or enforced by the former Axis and the Allied powers based on ideologies of race and ethnicity, culminating in the postwar border changes enacted by international settlements. The refugee crisis created across formerly occupied territories in World War II provided the context for much of the new international refugee and global human rights architecture existing today.

Population transfer in the Soviet Union

Population transfer in the Soviet Union was the forced transfer of various groups from the 1930s up to the 1950s ordered by Joseph Stalin. It may be classified into the following broad categories: deportations of "anti-Soviet" categories of population, deportations of entire nationalities, labor force transfer, and organized migrations in opposite directions to fill the ethnically cleansed territories. Dekulakization marked the first time that an entire class was deported, whereas the deportation of the Soviet Koreans in 1937 marked the first instance of an ethnic deportation of an entire nationality.

Deportation of the Kalmyks genocidal deportation of the Kalmyks to Siberia

The Kalmyk deportations of 1943, codename Operation Ulusy was the Soviet deportation of more than 93,000 people of Kalmyk nationality, and non-Kalmyk women with Kalmyk husbands, on 28–31 December 1943. Families and individuals were forcibly relocated in cattle wagons to special settlements for forced labor in Siberia. Kalmyk women married to non-Kalmyk men were exempted from the deportations. The government's official reason for the deportation was an accusation of Axis collaboration during World War II based on the approximately 5,000 Kalmyks who fought in the Nazi-affiliated Kalmykian Cavalry Corps. The government refused to acknowledge that more than 23,000 Kalmyks served in the Red Army and fought against Axis forces at the same time.

Operation Wetback 1950s U.S. immigration law enforcement initiative

Operation Wetback was an immigration law enforcement initiative created by Joseph Swing, the Director of the United States Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), in cooperation with the Mexican government. The program was implemented in June 1954 by U.S. Attorney General Herbert Brownell. The short-lived operation used military-style tactics to remove Mexican immigrants—some of them American citizens—from the United States. Though millions of Mexicans had legally entered the country through joint immigration programs in the first half of the 20th century, Operation Wetback was designed to send them back to Mexico. The program became a contentious issue in Mexico–United States relations, even though it originated from a request by the Mexican government to stop the illegal entry of Mexican laborers into the United States. Legal entry of Mexican workers for employment was at the time controlled by the Bracero program, established during World War II by an agreement between the U.S. and Mexican governments. Operation Wetback was primarily a response to pressure from a broad coalition of farmers and business interests concerned with the effects of Mexican immigrants living in the United States without legal permission. Upon implementation, Operation Wetback gave rise to arrests and deportations by the U.S. Border Patrol.

The Mexican Repatriation was a mass deportation of Mexicans and Mexican-Americans from the United States between 1929 and 1936. Estimates of how many were repatriated range from 400,000 to 2,000,000. An estimated sixty percent of those deported were birthright citizens of the United States. Because the forced movement was based on ethnicity, and frequently ignored citizenship, some scholars argue the process meets modern legal definitions of ethnic cleansing.

Forced labor of Germans in the Soviet Union

Forced labor of Germans in the Soviet Union was considered by the Soviet Union to be part of German war reparations for the damage inflicted by Nazi Germany on the Soviet Union during the Axis-Soviet campaigns (1941-1945) of World War II. Soviet authorities deported German civilians from Germany and Eastern Europe to the USSR after World War II as forced laborers, while ethnic Germans living in the USSR were deported during World War II and conscripted for forced labor. German prisoners of war were also used as a source of forced labor during and after the war by the Soviet Union and by the Western Allies.

Bisbee Deportation strike-breaking event in Arizona

The Bisbee Deportation was the illegal kidnapping and deportation of about 1,300 striking mine workers, their supporters, and citizen bystanders by 2,000 members of a deputized posse, who arrested these people beginning on July 12, 1917. The action was orchestrated by Phelps Dodge, the major mining company in the area, which provided lists of workers and others who were to be arrested in Bisbee, Arizona, to the Cochise County sheriff, Harry C. Wheeler. These workers were arrested and held at a local baseball park before being loaded onto cattle cars and deported 200 miles (320 km) to Tres Hermanas in New Mexico. The 16-hour journey was through desert without food and with little water. Once unloaded, the deportees, most without money or transportation, were warned against returning to Bisbee.

Polish population transfers (1944–1946) Post WWII resettlement

The Polish population transfers in 1944–46 from the eastern half of prewar Poland, refer to the forced migrations of Poles toward the end – and in the aftermath – of World War II. These were the result of Soviet policy that was ratified by its Allies. Similarly the Soviet Union had enforced policy between 1939 and 1941, that targeted and expelled ethnic Poles residing in the Soviet zone of occupation following the Nazi-Soviet invasion of Poland. The second wave of expulsions resulted from the retaking of Poland by the Red Army during the Soviet counter-offensive. It took over territory for its republic of Ukraine, a shift that was ratified at the end of World War II by the Soviet Union's then Allies of the West.

Deportation of the Chechens and Ingush

The Deportation of the Chechens and Ingush, also known as Aardakh, Operation Lentil ; Ingush and Chechen: Вайнах махкахбахарVaynah Mahkahbahar) was the Soviet forced transfer of the whole of the Vainakh populations of the North Caucasus to Central Asia on February 23, 1944, during World War II. The expulsion, preceded by the 1940–44 insurgency in Chechnya, was ordered by NKVD chief Lavrentiy Beria after approval by Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin, as a part of a Soviet forced settlement program and population transfer that affected several million members of non-Russian Soviet ethnic minorities between the 1930s and the 1950s.

History of immigration to the United States

The history of immigration to the United States details the movement of people to the United States starting with the first European settlements from around 1600. Beginning around this time, British and other Europeans settled primarily on the east coast. In 1619, Africans began being imported as slaves. The United States experienced successive waves of immigration, particularly from Europe. Immigrants sometimes paid the cost of transoceanic transportation by becoming indentured servants after their arrival in the New World. Later, immigration rules became more restrictive; the ending of numerical restrictions occurred in 1965. Recently, cheap air travel has increased immigration from Asia and Latin America.

Emigration from Mexico Mexicans moving abroad

Emigration from Mexico is the movement of people from Mexico to other countries. The top destination by far is the United States, by a factor of over 150 to 1 compared to the second most popular destination, Canada.

Deportation of Germans from Romania after World War II

The deportation of Germans from Romania after World War II, conducted on Soviet order early in 1945, uprooted 60,000 to 75,000 of Romania's Germans to the USSR; at least 3,000 of the deportees died before release. The deportation was part of the Soviet plan for German war reparations in the form of forced labor, according to the 1944 secret Soviet Order 7161. Most of the survivors returned to Romania between late 1945 and 1952, with a smaller part settling in different parts of Germany.

The deportation of Azerbaijanis from Armenia took place as an act of forced resettlement and ethnic cleansing throughout the 20th century. Prior to the October Revolution, Azerbaijanis had made up 43 percent of the population of Yerevan. The Tartar population endured a process of forced migration from the territory of the First Republic of Armenia and later in the Armenian SSR several times during the 20th century. Under Stalin's policies, approximately 100,000 Azerbaijanis were deported from the Armenian SSR in 1948. Their houses were subsequently inhabited by Armenian repatriates who arrived in the Soviet Union from abroad.

Soviet leaders and authorities officially condemned nationalism and proclaimed internationalism, including the right of nations and peoples to self-determination. In practice however, they conducted policies which were the complete opposite of internationalism and these policies included but were not limited to: the systematic large-scale cleansing of ethnic minorities, political repression and various forms of ethnic and social discrimination, including state-enforced antisemitism, Tatarophobia, and Polonophobia.

Deportation of the Meskhetian Turks

The Deportation of the Meskhetian Turks was the forced transfer by the Soviet government of the entire Meskhetian Turk population from the Meskheti region of the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic to Central Asia on 14 November 1944. During the deportation, between 92,307 and 94,955 Meskhetian Turks were forcibly removed from 212 villages. They were packed into cattle wagons and mostly sent to the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic. Members of other ethnic groups were also deported during the operation, including Kurds and Hemshils, bringing the total to approximately 115,000 evicted people. They were placed in special settlements where they were assigned to forced labor. The deportation and harsh conditions in exile caused between 12,589 and 14,895 deaths, at a minimum.

Deportation of the Karachays

The Deportation of the Karachays, codenamed Operation Seagull, was the forced transfer by the Soviet government of the entire Karachay population of the North Caucasus to Central Asia in November 1943, during World War II. The expulsion was ordered by NKVD chief Lavrentiy Beria after approval by Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin. Nearly 70,000 Karachays of the Caucasus were deported from their native land. The crime was a part of a Soviet forced settlement program and population transfer that affected several million members of non-Russian Soviet ethnic minorities between the 1930s and the 1950s.

References

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