Cato Institute

Last updated

Cato Institute
Cato Institute.svg
Motto"Individual Liberty, Free Markets, and Peace"
Established1974;45 years ago (1974) [1]
Founders Ed Crane, Charles Koch, Murray Rothbard
Type 501(c)(3) Non-profit think tank
237432162
FocusPublic advocacy, media exposure and societal influence
Location
Coordinates 38°54′12″N77°01′35″W / 38.90333°N 77.02639°W / 38.90333; -77.02639 Coordinates: 38°54′12″N77°01′35″W / 38.90333°N 77.02639°W / 38.90333; -77.02639
President and CEO
Peter N. Goettler [2]
Chairman
Robert A. Levy [2]
Executive Vice-President
David Boaz [3]
Budget (FYE March 2015)
Revenue: $37.3 million
Expenses: $29.4 million [4]
Endowment $72,934,328 (2015)
Staff
100 staff
46 faculty
70 adjunct faculty
Website cato.org
Formerly called
Charles Koch Foundation; Cato Foundation

The Cato Institute is an American libertarian think tank headquartered in Washington, D.C. It was founded as the Charles Koch Foundation in 1974 by Ed Crane, Murray Rothbard, and Charles Koch, [5] chairman of the board and chief executive officer of the conglomerate Koch Industries. [nb 1] In July 1976, the name was changed to the Cato Institute. [5] [6] Cato was established to have a focus on public advocacy, media exposure and societal influence. [7] According to the 2017 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report (Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program, University of Pennsylvania), Cato is number 15 in the "Top Think Tanks Worldwide" and number 10 in the "Top Think Tanks in the United States". [8]

Contents

The Cato Institute is libertarian in its political philosophy, and advocates a limited role for government in domestic and foreign affairs as well as a strong protection of civil rights. This includes support for the demilitarization of the police, lowering or abolishing most taxes, opposition to the Federal Reserve system, the privatization of numerous government agencies and programs including Social Security, the Affordable Care Act and the United States Postal Service, along with adhering to a non-interventionist foreign policy.

Cato Institute building in Washington, D.C. Cato Institute by Matthew Bisanz.JPG
Cato Institute building in Washington, D.C.

History

The institute was founded in December 1974 in Wichita, Kansas, as the Charles Koch Foundation and initially funded by Charles Koch. [nb 2] [9] The other members of the first board of directors included co-founder Murray Rothbard, libertarian scholar Earl Ravenal, and businessmen Sam H. Husbands Jr. and David H. Padden. [5] [10] At the suggestion of Rothbard, [10] the institute changed its name in 1976 to Cato Institute after Cato's Letters , a series of British essays penned in the early 18th century by John Trenchard and Thomas Gordon. [11] [12]

Cato relocated first to San Francisco, California, in 1977, then to Washington, D.C., in 1981, settling initially in a historic house on Capitol Hill. [13] (p446) The institute moved to its current location on Massachusetts Avenue in 1993. Cato Institute was named the fifth-ranked think tank in the world for 2009 in a study of think tanks by James G. McGann, PhD of the University of Pennsylvania, based on a criterion of excellence in "producing rigorous and relevant research, publications and programs in one or more substantive areas of research". [14]

Activities

Various Cato programs were favorably ranked in a survey published by the University of Pennsylvania in 2012. [8]

Publications

The Cato Institute publishes numerous policy studies, briefing papers, periodicals, and books. Peer-reviewed academic journals include the Cato Journal [15] [16] [17] and Regulation. [18] [19] [20] Other periodicals include Cato's Letter, [21] Cato Supreme Court Review, [22] and Cato Policy Report. [23] Cato published Inquiry Magazine from 1977 to 1982 (before transferring it to the Libertarian Review Foundation) [24] and Literature of Liberty from 1978 to 1979 (before transferring it to the Institute for Humane Studies). [25]

Notable books from Cato and Cato scholars include:

Web projects

In addition to maintaining its own website in English and Spanish, [26] Cato maintains websites focused on particular topics:

Social media sponsored by Cato includes "Daily Podcasts" (through iTunes and RSS feeds), plus pages on Facebook, Twitter, Google+, and YouTube. [32]

Conferences

Speakers at Cato have included Federal Reserve Chairmen Alan Greenspan and Ben Bernanke, and International Monetary Fund Managing Director Rodrigo de Rato. [33] [34] [35] In 2009 Czech Republic President Václav Klaus spoke at a conference. [36]

Ideological relationships

Libertarianism, classical liberalism, and conservatism

Many Cato scholars advocate support for civil liberties, liberal immigration policies, [37] drug liberalization, [38] and the repeal of Don't Ask Don't Tell and laws restricting consensual sexual activity. [39] [40] The Cato Institute officially resists being labeled as part of the conservative movement because "'conservative' smacks of an unwillingness to change, of a desire to preserve the status quo". [41]

In 2006, Markos Moulitsas of the Daily Kos proposed the term "Libertarian Democrat" to describe his particular liberal position, suggesting that libertarians should be allies of the Democratic Party. Replying, Cato vice president for research Brink Lindsey agreed that libertarians and liberals should view each other as natural ideological allies, [42] and noted continuing differences between mainstream liberal views on economic policy and Cato's "Jeffersonian philosophy". Cato has stated on its "About Cato" page: "The Jeffersonian philosophy that animates Cato's work has increasingly come to be called 'libertarianism' or 'market liberalism.' It combines an appreciation for entrepreneurship, the market process, and lower taxes with strict respect for civil liberties and skepticism about the benefits of both the welfare state and foreign military adventurism." [43]

Some Cato scholars disagree with conservatives on neo-conservative foreign policy, albeit that this has not always been uniform. [44]

Objectivism

John A. Allison IV speaking at the 2014 International Students for Liberty Conference (ISFLC) John A. Allison IV of the Cato Institute.jpg
John A. Allison IV speaking at the 2014 International Students for Liberty Conference (ISFLC)

The relationship between Cato and the Ayn Rand Institute (ARI) improved with the nomination of Cato's new president John A. Allison IV in 2012. He is a former ARI board member and is reported to be an "ardent devotee" of Rand who has promoted reading her books to colleges nationwide. [45] In March 2015 Allison retired and was replaced by Peter Goettler. Allison remains on the Cato Institute's board. [46]

Cato positions on political issues and policies

The Cato Institute advocates policies that advance "individual liberty, limited government, free markets, and peace". They are libertarian in their policy positions, typically advocating diminished government intervention in domestic, social, and economic policies and decreased military and political intervention worldwide. Cato was cited by columnist Ezra Klein as nonpartisan, saying that it is "the foremost advocate for small-government principles in American life" and it "advocates those principles when Democrats are in power, and when Republicans are in power"; [47] and Eric Lichtblau called Cato "one of the country's most widely cited research organizations." [48] Nina Eastman reported in 1995 that "on any given day, House Majority Whip Tom DeLay of Texas might be visiting for lunch. Or Cato staffers might be plotting strategy with House Majority Leader Dick Armey, another Texan, and his staff." [49]

On domestic issues

Cato scholars have consistently called for the privatization of many government services and institutions, including NASA, Social Security, the United States Postal Service, the Transportation Security Administration, public schooling, public transportation systems, and public broadcasting. [50] [51] [52] [53] [54] [55] [56] [57] The institute opposes minimum wage laws, saying that they violate the freedom of contract and thus private property rights, and increase unemployment. [58] [59] It is opposed to expanding overtime regulations, arguing that it will benefit some employees in the short term, while costing jobs or lowering wages of others, and have no meaningful long-term impact. [60] [61] It opposes child labor prohibitions. [62] [63] [64] It opposes public sector unions and supports right-to-work laws. [65] [66] It opposes universal health care, arguing that it is harmful to patients and an intrusion onto individual liberty. [67] [68] It is against affirmative action. [69] It has also called for total abolition of the welfare state, and has argued that it should be replaced with reduced business regulations to create more jobs, and argues that private charities are fully capable of replacing it. [70] [71] Cato has also opposed antitrust laws. [72] [73]

Cato is an opponent of campaign finance reform, arguing that government is the ultimate form of potential corruption and that such laws undermine democracy by undermining competitive elections. Cato also supports the repeal of the Federal Election Campaign Act. [74] [75]

Cato has published strong criticisms of the 1998 settlement which many U.S. states signed with the tobacco industry. [76] In 2004, Cato scholar Daniel Griswold wrote in support of President George W. Bush's failed proposal to grant temporary work visas to otherwise undocumented laborers which would have granted limited residency for the purpose of employment in the U.S. [77]

The Cato Institute published a study proposing a Balanced Budget Veto Amendment to the United States Constitution. [78]

In 2003, Cato filed an amicus brief in support of the Supreme Court's decision in Lawrence v. Texas , which struck down the remaining state laws that made private, non-commercial homosexual relations between consenting adults illegal. Cato cited the 14th Amendment, among other things, as the source of their support for the ruling. The amicus brief was cited in Justice Kennedy's majority opinion for the Court. [79]

In 2006, Cato published a Policy Analysis criticising the Federal Marriage Amendment as unnecessary, anti-federalist, and anti-democratic. [80] The amendment would have changed the United States Constitution to prohibit same-sex marriage; the amendment failed in both houses of Congress.

Cato scholars have been sharp critics of current U.S. drug policy and the perceived growing militarization of U.S. law enforcement. [81]

Criticism of corporate welfare

In 2004, the institute published a paper arguing in favor of "drug re-importation". [82] Cato has published numerous studies criticizing what it calls "corporate welfare", the practice of public officials funneling taxpayer money, usually via targeted budgetary spending, to politically connected corporate interests. [83] [84] [85] [86]

Cato president Ed Crane and Sierra Club executive director Carl Pope co-wrote a 2002 op-ed piece in The Washington Post calling for the abandonment of the Republican energy bill, arguing that it had become little more than a gravy train for Washington, D.C., lobbyists. [87] Again in 2005, Cato scholar Jerry Taylor teamed up with Daniel Becker of the Sierra Club to attack the Republican Energy Bill as a give-away to corporate interests. [88]

A 2006 study criticized the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. [89]

On foreign policy

Cato's non-interventionist foreign policy views, and strong support for civil liberties, have frequently led Cato scholars to criticize those in power, both Republican and Democratic. Cato scholars opposed President George H. W. Bush's 1991 Gulf War operations (a position which caused the organization to lose nearly $1 million in funding), [13] (p454) President Bill Clinton's interventions in Haiti and Kosovo, President George W. Bush's 2003 invasion of Iraq, and President Barack Obama's 2011 military intervention in Libya. [90] As a response to the September 11 attacks, Cato scholars supported the removal of al Qaeda and the Taliban regime from power, but are against an indefinite and open-ended military occupation of Afghanistan. [91] Cato scholars criticized U.S. involvement in Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen. [90]

Ted Galen Carpenter, Cato's vice president for defense and foreign policy studies, criticized many of the arguments offered to justify the 2003 invasion of Iraq. One of the war's earliest critics, Carpenter wrote in January 2002: "Ousting Saddam would make Washington responsible for Iraq's political future and entangle the United States in an endless nation-building mission beset by intractable problems." [92] Carpenter also predicted: "Most notably there is the issue posed by two persistent regional secession movements: the Kurds in the north and the Shiites in the south." [92] But in 2002 Carpenter wrote, "the United States should not shrink from confronting al-Qaeda in its Pakistani lair," [93] a position echoed in the institute's policy recommendations for the 108th Congress. [94] Cato's director of foreign policy studies, Christopher Preble, argues in The Power Problem: How American Military Dominance Makes Us Less Safe, Less Prosperous, and Less Free, that America's position as an unrivaled superpower tempts policymakers to constantly overreach and to redefine ever more broadly the "national interest". [95]

Christopher Preble has said that the "scare campaign" to protect military spending from cuts under the Budget Control Act of 2011 has backfired. [96]

On environmental policy

Cato scholars have written about the issues of the environment, including global warming, environmental regulation, and energy policy.

PolitiFact.com and Scientific American have criticized Cato's work on global warming. [97] [98] A December 2003 Cato panel included Patrick Michaels, Robert Balling and John Christy.[ citation needed ] Michaels, Balling and Christy agreed that global warming is related at least some degree to human activity but that some scientists and the media have overstated the danger.[ citation needed ] The Cato Institute has also criticized political attempts to stop global warming as expensive and ineffective:

No known mechanism can stop global warming in the near term. International agreements, such as the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, would have no detectable effect on average temperature within any reasonable policy time frame (i.e., 50 years or so), even with full compliance. [99]

Cato scholars have been critical of the Bush administration's views on energy policy. In 2003, Cato scholars Jerry Taylor and Peter Van Doren said the Republican Energy Bill was "hundreds of pages of corporate welfare, symbolic gestures, empty promises, and pork-barrel projects". [100] They also spoke out against the former president's calls for larger ethanol subsidies. [101]

With regard to the "Takings Clause" of the United States Constitution and environmental protection, libertarians associated with Cato contend that the Constitution is not adequate to guarantee the protection of private property rights. [102]

Other commentaries of presidential administrations

Cato scholars were critical of George W. Bush's Republican administration (2001–2009) on several issues, including education, [103] and excessive government spending. [104] On other issues, they supported Bush administration initiatives, most notably health care, [105] Social Security, [106] [107] global warming, [99] tax policy, [108] and immigration. [77] [109] [110] [111]

During the 2008 U.S. presidential election, Cato scholars criticized both major-party candidates, John McCain and Barack Obama. [112] [113]

Cato has criticized President Obama's stances on policy issues such as fiscal stimulus, [114] healthcare reform, [115] foreign policy, [116] and drug-related matters, [38] while supporting his stance on the repeal of Don't Ask, Don't Tell [40] and the DREAM Act. [37]

Cato was critical of Trump's immigration ban, which was enacted in January 2017. [117]

Funding, tax status, and corporate structure

The Cato Institute is classified as a 501(c)(3) organization under U.S. Internal Revenue Code. For revenue, the institute is largely dependent on private contributions and does not receive government funding. [118] The Cato Institute reported fiscal year 2015 revenue of $37.3 million and expenses of $29.4 million. [4] According to the organization's annual report, $32.1 million came from individual donors, $2.9 million came from foundations, $1.2 million came from program revenue and other income, and $1 million came from corporations. [4]

Sponsors of Cato have included FedEx, Google, CME Group and Whole Foods Market. [119] The Nation reported support for Cato from the tobacco industry in a 2012 story. [120]

Funding details

Net assets as of FYE March 2015: $70,186,000.

Shareholder dispute and departure of Ed Crane

According to an agreement signed in 1977, there were to be four shareholders of the Cato Institute. They were Charles and David Koch, Ed Crane, [121] and William A. Niskanen. Niskanen died in October 2011. [122] In March 2012, a dispute broke out over the ownership of Niskanen's shares. [121] [122] Charles and David Koch filed suit in Kansas, seeking to void his shareholder seat. The Kochs argued that Niskanen's shares should first be offered to the board of the institute, and then to the remaining shareholders. [123] Crane contended that Niskanen's share belonged to his widow, Kathryn Washburn, and that the move by the Kochs was an attempt to turn Cato into "some sort of auxiliary for the G.O.P ... It's detrimental to Cato, it's detrimental to Koch Industries, it's detrimental to the libertarian movement." [48]

In June 2012, Cato announced an agreement in principle to settle the dispute by changing the institute's governing structure. Under the agreement, a board replaced the shareholders and Crane, who at the time was also chief executive officer, retired. Former BB&T bank CEO John A. Allison IV replaced him. [124] [125] The Koch brothers agreed to drop two lawsuits. [126]

In 2018, several former Cato employees alleged longtime sexual harassment by Crane, going back to the 1990s and continuing until his departure in 2012. Politico reported that he settled one such claim in 2012. Crane denied the allegations. [127]

Associates in the news

Nobel laureates at Cato

The following Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences laureates have worked with Cato: [131]

Milton Friedman Prize

Since 2002, the Cato Institute has awarded the Milton Friedman Prize for Advancing Liberty every two years to "an individual who has made a significant contribution to advancing human freedom." [132] The prize comes with a cash award of US$250,000. [133]

||

Friedman Prize winners
YearRecipientNationality
2002 Peter Thomas Bauer [134] Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  British
2004 Hernando de Soto Polar [135] Flag of Peru.svg  Peruvian
2006 Mart Laar [136] Flag of Estonia.svg  Estonian
2008 Yon Goicoechea [137] Flag of Venezuela.svg  Venezuelan
2010 Akbar Ganji [138] Flag of Iran.svg  Iranian
2012 Mao Yushi [139] Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  Chinese
2014 Leszek Balcerowicz [140] Flag of Poland.svg  Polish
2016 Flemming Rose [141] Flag of Denmark.svg  Danish
2018 Ladies in White [142] Flag of Cuba.svg  Cuban

Board of directors

As of 2016: [2]

Notable Cato experts

Notable scholars associated with Cato include the following: [143]

Policy scholars

Adjunct scholars

Fellows

Affiliations

The Cato Institute is an associate member of the State Policy Network, a U.S. national network of free-market oriented think tanks. [144] [145]

Rankings

According to the 2017 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report (Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program, University of Pennsylvania), Cato is number 15 in the "Top Think Tanks Worldwide" and number 10 in the "Top Think Tanks in the United States". [8] Other "Top Think Tank" rankings include # 13 (of 85) in Defense and National Security, #5 (of 80) in Domestic Economic Policy, #4 (of 55) in Education Policy, #17 (of 85) in Foreign Policy and International Affairs, #8 (of 30) in Domestic Health Policy, #14 (of 25) in Global Health Policy, #18 (of 80) in International Development, #14 (of 50) in International Economic Policy, #8 (of 50) in Social Policy, #8 (of 75) for Best Advocacy Campaign, #17 (of 60) for Best Think Tank Network, #3 (of 60) for best Use of Social Networks, #9 (of 50) for Best External Relations/Public Engagement Program, #2 (of 40) for Best Use of the Internet, #12 (of 40) for Best Use of Media, #5 (of 30) for Most Innovative Policy Ideas/Proposals, #11 (of 70) for the Most Significant Impact on Public Policy, and #9 (of 60) for Outstanding Policy-Oriented Public Programs. Cato also topped the 2014 list of the budget-adjusted ranking of international development think tanks. [146]

See also

Notes

  1. Koch Industries is the second largest privately held company by revenue in the United States. "Forbes List". Forbes. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
  2. Koch is chairman of the board and chief executive officer of the conglomerate Koch Industries, the second largest privately held company by revenue in the United States. "Forbes List". Forbes. Retrieved November 13, 2011.

Related Research Articles

Mises Institute Austrian Economics educative organization

The Mises Institute, short name for Ludwig von Mises Institute for Austrian Economics, is a nonprofit organization of economic education located in Auburn, Alabama, United States. It is named after Austrian School economist Ludwig von Mises (1881–1973) because it promotes teaching and research in the Austrian School of economics and Misesian views on social and political philosophy.

The Koch family foundations are a group of charitable foundations in the United States associated with the family of Fred C. Koch. The most prominent of these are the Charles Koch Foundation and the David H. Koch Charitable Foundation, created by Charles Koch and David Koch, two sons of Fred C. Koch who own the majority of Koch Industries, an oil, gas, paper, and chemical conglomerate which is the US's second-largest privately held company. Charles' and David's foundations have provided millions of dollars to a variety of organizations, including libertarian and conservative think tanks. Areas of funding include think tanks, political advocacy, climate change skepticism, higher education scholarships, cancer research, arts, and science.

Fraser Institute think tank

The Fraser Institute is a Canadian public policy think tank and registered charity. It has been described as politically conservative and libertarian. The Institute is headquartered in Vancouver, with offices also located in Calgary, Toronto, and Montreal, and ties to a global network of 80 think-tanks through the Economic Freedom Network.

The Institute for Humane Studies (IHS) is a libertarian non-profit organization that engages with students and professors throughout the United States. IHS offers educational and career programs, holds seminars and on-campus programs for university students, awards scholarships, provides mentoring and research grants for aspiring professors, and sponsors a collection of online videos.

Tom G. Palmer American writer

Tom Gordon Palmer is a libertarian author and theorist, a Senior Fellow at the Cato Institute and Vice President for International Programs at the Atlas Network.

Edward Harrison Crane is an American libertarian and co-founder of the Cato Institute. He served as its president until October 1, 2012.

Tibor Machan Hungarian-American philosopher

Tibor Richard Machan was a Hungarian-American philosopher. A professor emeritus in the department of philosophy at Auburn University, Machan held the R. C. Hoiles Chair of Business Ethics and Free Enterprise at the Argyros School of Business & Economics at Chapman University in Orange, California until 31 December 2014.

Robert Higgs economist

Robert Higgs is an American economic historian and economist combining material from Public Choice, the New institutional economics, and the Austrian school of economics; and describes himself as a libertarian anarchist in political and legal theory and public policy. His writings in economics and economic history have most often focused on the causes, means, and effects of government power and growth.

The Mercatus Center at George Mason University is an American non-profit free-market-oriented research, education, and outreach think tank directed by Tyler Cowen. It works with policy experts, lobbyists, and government officials to connect academic learning and real-world practice. Taking its name from the Latin word for "market", the center advocates free-market approaches to public policy. During the George W. Bush administration's campaign to reduce government regulation, the Wall Street Journal reported, "14 of the 23 rules the White House chose for its "hit list" to eliminate or modify were Mercatus entries".

William Arthur Niskanen was an American economist. He was and one of the architects of President Ronald Reagan's economic programme and contributed to public choice theory. He was also a long-time chairman of the libertarian Cato Institute.

Will Wilkinson is an American writer who currently serves as Vice President of Policy at the Niskanen Center. Until August 2010, he was a research fellow at the Cato Institute where he worked on a variety of issues including Social Security privatization and, most notably, the policy implications of happiness research. Wilkinson was also the managing editor of the Cato Institute's monthly web magazine, Cato Unbound. Previously, he was Academic Coordinator of the Social Change Project and the Global Prosperity Initiative at The Mercatus Center at George Mason University, and, before that, he ran the Social Change Workshop for Graduate Students for The Institute for Humane Studies. His political philosophy is described by The American Conservative magazine as "Rawlsekian"; that is, a mixture of John Rawls's principles and Friedrich von Hayek's methods. Wilkinson formerly described his political views as libertarian, but he now rejects that label.

Jerome Cogburn "Jerry" Taylor is an American environmental activist and policy analyst. Taylor is the president of the Niskanen Center, a Washington, D.C. based think tank that advocates for market environmentalism and the adoption of a carbon tax system to combat global warming.

Gene Healy is an American political pundit, journalist and editor. He serves as Vice President at the libertarian think tank Cato Institute, as well as a contributing editor to Liberty magazine.

The Koch family is an American family engaged in business and most noted for their political activities and their control of Koch Industries, the second-largest privately owned company in the United States. The family business was started by Fred C. Koch, who developed a new cracking method for the refinement of heavy crude oil into gasoline. Fred's four sons litigated against each other over their interests in the business during the 1980s and 1990s.

The political activities of the Koch brothers include the financial and political influence of Charles G. and David H. Koch (1940–2019) on United States politics. This influence is seen both directly and indirectly via various political and public policy organizations that were supported by the Koch brothers.

Charles Koch American billionaire and businessman

Charles de Ganahl Koch is an American businessman, political donor and philanthropist. As of March 2019, he was ranked as the 11th-richest person in the world, with an estimated net worth of $50.5 billion. Koch has been co-owner, chairman, and chief executive officer of Koch Industries since 1967, while his late brother David Koch served as executive vice president. Charles and David each owned 42% of the conglomerate. The brothers inherited the business from their father, Fred C. Koch, then expanded the business. Originally involved exclusively in oil refining and chemicals, Koch Industries now includes process and pollution control equipment and technologies, polymers and fibers, minerals, fertilizers, commodity trading and services, forest and consumer products, and ranching. The businesses produce a wide variety of well-known brands, such as Stainmaster carpet, the Lycra brand of spandex fiber, Quilted Northern tissue, and Dixie Cup.

Donors Trust is an American non-profit donor-advised fund. It was founded in 1999 with the goal of "safeguarding the intent of libertarian and conservative donors". As a donor advised fund, Donors Trust is not legally required to disclose its donors, and most of its donors remain anonymous. It distributes funds to various conservative and libertarian organizations. It is affiliated with Donors CapitalFund, another donor-advised fund. In September 2015, Lawson Bader was announced as the new president of both Donors Trust and Donors Capital Fund. Bader was formerly president of the Competitive Enterprise Institute and Vice President at the Mercatus Center.

Ronald Hamowy was a Canadian academic, known primarily for his contributions to political and social academic fields. At the time of his death, he was professor emeritus of Intellectual History at the University of Alberta in Edmonton, Canada. Hamowy was closely associated with the political ideology of libertarianism and his writings and scholarship place particular emphasis on individual liberty and the limits of state action in a free society. He is associated with a number of prominent American libertarian organizations.

Kevin Gentry is a conservative political activist and fundraiser who serves as vice president of the Charles G. Koch Charitable Foundation. A top aide to Charles Koch and David H. Koch, Gentry serves as vice president of special projects at Koch Industries.

The Niskanen Center is a Washington, D.C.-based think tank that advocates environmentalism, immigration reform, civil liberties, and a national defense policy based on market principles. The center is named after William A. Niskanen, an economic adviser to President Ronald Reagan. The Center states that its "main audience is Washington insiders," and characterizes itself as a moderate think tank.

References

  1. Kansas Secretary of State Business Entity Name Search for "Cato Foundation" gives entity no. 0385872, established in Kansas December 19, 1974.
  2. 1 2 3 "Board of Directors". Cato Institute. Retrieved March 22, 2016.
  3. "Cato Institute website profile of David Boaz". Cato Institute. Retrieved September 6, 2012.
  4. 1 2 3 4 "2014 Annual Report" (PDF). Cato Institute. Retrieved April 14, 2016.
  5. 1 2 3 "25 years at the Cato Institute: The 2001 Annual Report" (PDF). OCLC   52255585 . Retrieved August 19, 2013.
  6. "Articles of Incorporation Charles Koch Foundation and Restated Articles of Incorporation". December 19, 1974. Archived from the original on March 15, 2012. Retrieved March 20, 2012.
  7. Cobane, Craig T. (2005). "Think Tanks". Americans at War. Gale. Archived from the original on March 29, 2015. Retrieved August 18, 2013.
  8. 1 2 3 James G. McGann (Director) (January 31, 2018). "2017 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report" . Retrieved June 28, 2018.
  9. "Articles of Incorporation Charles Koch Foundation and Restated Articles of Incorporation". December 19, 1974. Archived from the original on March 15, 2012. Retrieved February 28, 2012.
  10. 1 2 Burris, Charles (February 4, 2011). "Kochs v. Soros: A Partial Backstory". LewRockwell.com . Retrieved August 14, 2013.
  11. The essays, named after Cato the Younger, the defender of republican institutions in Rome, expounded on the political views of philosopher John Locke, that had a strong influence on the American Revolution's intellectual environment. See: Mitchell, Annie (July 2004). "A Liberal Republican "Cato"". American Journal of Political Science. 48 (3): 588. doi:10.1111/j.0092-5853.2004.00089.x.
  12. Rossiter, Clinton (1953). Seedtime of the Republic: the origin of the American tradition of political liberty . New York: Harcourt, Brace. pp.  141. No one can spend any time the newspapers, library inventories, and pamphlets of colonial America without realizing that Cato's Letters rather than John Locke's Civil Government was the most popular, quotable, esteemed source for political ideas in the colonial period.
  13. 1 2 Doherty, Brian (2007). Radicals for Capitalism: A Freewheeling History of the Modern American Libertarian Movement. New York: PublicAffairs. p. 741. ISBN   978-1-58648-350-0. OCLC   76141517.
  14. "The Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program 2009" (PDF). University of Pennsylvania. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 7, 2011. Retrieved November 20, 2010.
  15. ISSN   0273-3072
  16. Academic Search Complete: Journals & Magazines Only, EBSCO
  17. ProQuest Database: ProQuest 5000 International Archived November 26, 2009, at the Wayback Machine , ProQuest
  18. ISSN   0147-0590
  19. Business Source Complete: Journals & Magazines Only, EBSCO
  20. ProQuest Database: ProQuest 5000 International Archived November 26, 2009, at the Wayback Machine , ProQuest
  21. OCLC   464445035 , 51687065
  22. ISSN   1936-0398
  23. ISSN   0743-605X
  24. ISSN   0148-5008; OCLC   3456688
  25. ISSN   0161-7303; OCLC   4007467 (Literature of Liberty ended publication in 1982.)
  26. "elcato.org". elcato.org.
  27. "Downsizing the Federal Government". downsizinggovernment.org.
  28. "PoliceMisconduct.net – The Cato Institute's National Police Misconduct Reporting Project". policemisconduct.net.
  29. "Public Schooling Battle Map". cato.org.
  30. "Unlawful Shield – A Cato Institute Website Dedicated to Abolishing Qualified Immunity".
  31. "Freedom in the 50 States 2017–2018 – Cato Institute".
  32. "Multimedia: Cato Daily Podcast". cato.org.
  33. Bleier, Karen (October 27, 2008). "International Monetary Fund (IMF) Managing Director Rodrigo de Rato". Getty Images. Archived from the original on June 10, 2014. Retrieved August 18, 2013. file photo taken on November 30, 2006
  34. Wilson, Mark (November 20, 2003). "Alan Greenspan Speaks About Euro in Washington". Getty Images. Archived from the original on June 10, 2014. Retrieved August 18, 2013.
  35. Jones, Caleb. "Bernanke". AP Images. Archived from the original on June 10, 2014. Retrieved August 18, 2013. Federal Reserve Board Chairman Ben Bernanke speaks at the Cato Institute's annual Monetary Conference ...
  36. "President of the Czech Republic Václav Klaus Delivers Remarks at the Cato Institute". Federal Document Clearing House, Inc. Washington Transcript Service. September 19, 2009. Archived from the original on June 10, 2014. Retrieved August 18, 2013.
  37. 1 2 Shapiro, Ilya. "One Cheer for Obama's New Immigration Policy". Cato@Liberty. Retrieved July 12, 2012.
  38. 1 2 Hidalgo, Juan Carlos. "Barack Obama: The Enthusiastic Drug Warrior" . Retrieved July 5, 2012.
  39. Pilon, Roger. "Government Shouldn't Police Morals – or Sexual Practices". Cato Institute. Retrieved November 20, 2010.
  40. 1 2 Preble, Christopher. "Obama Right on "Don't Ask, Don't Tell"". Cato@Liberty. Retrieved July 12, 2012.
  41. "Cato's Mission". The Cato Institute (accessed August 22, 2013)
  42. Lindsey, Brink. "Liberaltarians". December 4, 2006.
  43. "Cato on "How to Label Cato"". The Cato Institute. Cato Institute. Archived from the original on August 22, 2007. Retrieved February 29, 2008.
  44. Lindsey, Brink. "Should We Invade Iraq?". Reason Magazine (January 2003). Reason Magazine. Retrieved July 5, 2012.
  45. Jane Mayer, The Kochs v. Cato: Winners and Losers, The New Yorker, July 3, 2012.
  46. "Peter Goettler named new head of libertarian think tank Cato Institute". washingtonexaminer.com.
  47. Klein, Ezra (March 7, 2012). "Why Do the Kochs Want to Kill the Cato Institute?". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved July 12, 2012.
  48. 1 2 Lichtblau, Eric (March 6, 2012). "Cato Institute Is Caught in a Rift Over Its Direction". The New York Times . Retrieved March 6, 2012.
  49. Easton, Nina J. (July 9, 1995). "Making America Work : RED WHITE AND SMALL : Ed Crane's Cato Institute Is a Think Tank That Believes the Country Would Work Better if There Was Less Government". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 9, 2017.
  50. "Fixing Transit: The Case for Privatization". cato.org. November 10, 2010.
  51. "Privatizing Social Security: A Big Boost for the Poor". cato.org. July 26, 1996.
  52. "Top Ten Reasons to Privatize Public Broadcasting". cato.org. July 25, 2005.
  53. "Privatize Almost Everything". cato.org. April 30, 2013.
  54. "Postal Service Privatization". cato.org. April 30, 1996.
  55. "After Another Failure, Time to Privatize TSA". cato.org. June 2, 2015.
  56. "Time to Privatize NASA". cato.org. January 26, 1998.
  57. "Privatize the FAA!". cato.org. April 24, 2013.
  58. "The Minimum Wage Is Cruelest to Those Who Can't Find a Job". cato.org. July 22, 2013.
  59. William Niskanen, "House Faces the Dumbest Bill of the Year (So Far): A $2.10 Increase in the Minimum Wage", Cato@Libery, June 14, 2006
  60. "Overtime Regulation". cato.org. July 2, 2015.
  61. "Obama's Overtime Edict: Anything But a Free Lunch". cato.org. March 13, 2014.
  62. "A Case against Child Labor Prohibitions". cato.org. July 29, 2014.
  63. "Child Labor or Child Prostitution?". cato.org. October 8, 2002.
  64. "Bans on Child Labor". cato.org. November 18, 2013.
  65. "Labor Unions Against the Public Interest". cato.org. July 2, 2013.
  66. Vedder, Richard. "171 Right-to-Work Laws: Liberty, Prosperity, and Quality of Life" (PDF). Cato Institute. Retrieved March 9, 2019.
  67. "Universal Health Care". cato.org.
  68. "Universal Health Care Not Best Option". cato.org. February 23, 2009.
  69. Gryphon, Marie. "The Affirmative Action Myth". Cato Institute. Retrieved November 20, 2010.
  70. "Welfare and Private Charity". cato.org. April 13, 2012.
  71. "The Welfare State Needs Abolition, Not "Reform"". cato.org. May 5, 2015.
  72. "The Case Against Antitrust". cato.org. November 17, 2004.
  73. "It's Time To Reexamine Antitrust Legislation". cato.org. November 13, 1997.
  74. "Why Campaign Finance Reform Never Works". cato.org. March 20, 1997.
  75. "Campaign Finance". cato.org.
  76. Thomas C. O'Brien, "Constitutional and Antitrust Violations of the Multistate Tobacco Settlement" Archived December 3, 2003, at the Wayback Machine , Policy Analysis no. 371, Cato Institute, May 18, 2000
  77. 1 2 Griswold, Daniel (December 3, 2004). "Beyond the Barbed Wire: Bush won a mandate for immigration reform". Reason.com. Retrieved August 21, 2013. Cato's link
  78. Anthony Hawks, "The Balanced Budget Veto: A New Mechanism to Limit Federal Spending" Archived June 22, 2006, at the Wayback Machine , Policy Analysis no. 487, Cato Institute, September 4, 2003
  79. "539 U.S. 558 LAWRENCE et al. v. TEXAS No. 02-102. Supreme Court of United". bulk.resource.org. Archived from the original on October 31, 2010. Retrieved November 20, 2010.
  80. Carpenter, Dale (June 1, 2006). "The Federal Marriage Amendment: Unnecessary, Anti-Federalist, and Anti-Democratic". Cato Institute. Retrieved November 20, 2010.
  81. Balko, Radley (July 17, 2006). "Overkill: The Rise of Paramilitary Police Raids in America". Cato Institute. Archived from the original on April 9, 2010. Retrieved September 28, 2006.
  82. "Drug Reimportation: The Free Market Solution", Policy Analysis no. 521, Cato Institute, August 4, 2004
  83. James Bovard, "Archer Daniels Midland: A Case Study In Corporate Welfare" Archived July 11, 2007, at the Wayback Machine , Policy Analysis no. 241, September 26, 1995
  84. Stephen Moore and Dean Stansel, "Ending Corporate Welfare As We Know It", Policy Analysis no. 225, May 12, 1995
  85. Stephen Slivinski, "The Corporate Welfare Budget: Bigger Than Ever", Policy Analysis no. 415, October 10, 2001
  86. Stephen Slivinski, "The Corporate Welfare State: How the Federal Government Subsidizes U.S. Businesses", Policy Analysis no. 592, May 14, 2007
  87. Pope, Carl; Crane, Ed (July 30, 2002). "Fueled by Pork". The Washington Post. p. A.17. Retrieved August 21, 2013.(subscription required). Cato's link
  88. Jerry Taylor and Daniel Becker, "Energy Bill Blues", July 2, 2005
  89. Gigi Sohn, "A Welcome Voice on the Right" Archived May 11, 2007, at the Wayback Machine , Public Knowledge, March 21, 2006
  90. 1 2 "GOP's Foreign Policy Goes from Bad to Ugly as Marco Rubio Pushes Intervention for Fun and Profit". Cato Institute. August 12, 2015.
  91. Malou Innocent and Ted Galen Carpenter (September 14, 2009). "Escaping the 'Graveyard of Empires': A Strategy to Exit Afghanistan". Cato Institute. Retrieved November 20, 2010.
  92. 1 2 Carpenter, Ted Galen. "Overthrow Saddam? Be Careful What You Wish For". Cato Institute. Retrieved November 20, 2010.
  93. Carpenter, Ted Galen. "Take the War on Terrorism to Pakistan". Cato Institute. Archived from the original on June 1, 2002. Retrieved November 9, 2017.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  94. Peña, Charles V. "Waging an Effective War" (PDF). Cato Handbook for Congress: Policy Recommendations for the 108th Congress. p. 53. Retrieved November 9, 2017.
  95. Lozada, Carlos (May 3, 2009). "The Big Idea – The Power Problem". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 28, 2010.
  96. "Defense Execs Say Deeper DoD Budget Cuts, Higher Taxes OK". breakingdefense.com.
  97. PolitiFact.com: Cato Institutes claim on global warming disputed by most experts. April 1, 2009.
  98. Cato was criticized for publishing an alleged misleading Addendum: Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States. See: Fischer, Douglas; The Daily Climate (October 22, 2012). "Fake Addendum by Contrarian Group Tries to Undo U.S. Government Climate Report". Scientific American. Retrieved February 5, 2018.
  99. 1 2 Michaels, Patrick J. "Global Warming" (PDF). Cato Handbook for Congress: Policy Recommendations for the 108th Congress. p. 474. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 6, 2012. Retrieved July 4, 2012.
  100. Taylor, Jerry; Peter Van Doren (November 19, 2003). "Mighty Porking Power Rangers: Scanning the energy bill". National Review Online. Retrieved May 27, 2008.
  101. Taylor, Jerry; Peter Van Doren (January 27, 2007). "Ethanol Makes Gasoline Costlier, Dirtier". Chicago Sun-Times.
  102. Ball, Terence (2003). "Takings". Environmental Encyclopedia. Gale. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved August 18, 2013.
  103. McCluskey, Neal. "Feds in the Classroom". Cato Institute. Archived from the original on December 11, 2012. Retrieved December 16, 2010.
  104. "Downsizing the Federal Government" . Retrieved December 16, 2010.
  105. Cannon, Michael F (October 21, 2009). "Yes, Mr. President, A Free Market Can Fix Health Care" (PDF). Cato Institute. Retrieved November 20, 2010.
  106. Allen, Mike (January 23, 2005). "Semantics Shape Social Security Debate: Democrats Assail 'Crisis' While GOP Gives 'Privatization' a 'Personal' Twist". The Washington Post . p. A04.
  107. Biggs, Andrew; Macguineas, Maya (January 6, 2003). "Cutting Corporate Welfare Could Fund a Bush Social Security Plan". CATO Institute. Archived from the original on November 17, 2007. Retrieved October 25, 2007.
  108. Moore, Stephen; Kerpen, Phil (October 12, 2004). "Show Me the Money! Dividend Payouts after the Bush Tax Cut". Cato Institute. Retrieved July 4, 2012.
  109. Griswold, Daniel (May 18, 2006). "America Needs Real Immigration Reform". Cato Institute. Retrieved July 4, 2012.
  110. Griswold, Daniel. "Illegal Immigration: Will Congress Finally Solve It?". Cato Institute. Retrieved July 4, 2012.
  111. Griswold, Daniel. "Immigration Reform Must Include a Temporary Worker Program". Cato Institute. Retrieved July 4, 2012.
  112. Samples, John (January 15, 2008). "McCain vs. Madison". The American Spectator . The American Spectator Foundation. Archived from the original on July 28, 2013. Retrieved August 20, 2013. Cato's link
  113. Carpenter, Ted Galen (July 7, 2008). "John McCain on Foreign Policy: Even Worse Than Bush". Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture. Rockford Institute. Archived from the original on September 4, 2012. Retrieved August 21, 2013. Cato's link
  114. Mitchell, Dan. "Obama's New Stimulus Schemes: Same Song, Umpteenth Verse". Cato @ Liberty. Retrieved July 5, 2012.
  115. Healy, Gene (November 24, 2009). "Obamacare is unconstitutional". Washington Examiner. Retrieved August 20, 2013., Cato's link
  116. "Obama's War Without Policy in Libya" . Retrieved July 5, 2012.
  117. Greenwald, Glenn (January 28, 2017). "Trump's Muslim Ban Is Culmination of War on Terror Mentality but Still Uniquely Shameful". The Intercept . Retrieved January 31, 2017.
  118. "About Cato". Cato Institute. Retrieved January 24, 2019.
  119. Bennett, Laurie (March 13, 2012). "The Kochs Aren't the Only Funders of Cato". Forbes. Retrieved December 22, 2015.
  120. Ames, Mark (April 20, 2012). "Independent and Principled? Behind the Cato Myth". The Nation . The Nation Company, L.P. Retrieved December 9, 2014.
  121. 1 2 Koch Brothers File Lawsuit Over The Ownership Of the Cato Institute, March 1, 2012, AP via The Huffington Post, retrieved March 1, 2012
  122. 1 2 Kochs launch court fight over Cato, Mike Allen, POLITICO, March 1, 2012, retrieved March 1, 2012
  123. Battle for control of Cato Institute highlights unusual structure, March 3, 2012, The Washington Post, Retrieved December 3, 2012.
  124. Yadron, Danny (June 25, 2012). "Koch Brothers, Cato Institute Settle Dispute". The Wall Street Journal . Retrieved June 25, 2012.
  125. Cato Institute and Shareholders Reach Agreement in Principle Archived August 28, 2012, at the Wayback Machine , Cato Institute press release, June 25, 2012.
  126. Lichtblau, Eric (June 25, 2012). "Cato Institute and Koch Brothers Reach Agreement". The New York Times. Retrieved July 8, 2012.
  127. "Former Cato employees describe years of harassment". POLITICO. February 8, 2018. Retrieved February 8, 2018.
  128. Greenhouse, Linda (November 12, 2007). "Supreme Court May Take Gun Case – New York Times". The New York Times. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
  129. Armentano, Dom (February 8, 2008). "Intelligent extraterrestrial life: The other inconvenient truth?". TC Palm. Stuart, FL. Retrieved August 20, 2013.
  130. Cox, Billy (January 30, 2008). "Cato caves on UFOs". Herald-Tribune. Sarasota, FL. Retrieved August 20, 2013.
  131. "Nobel Laureates at Cato".
  132. Ronall, Joachim O.; Saxena, Rohan; Beloff, Ruth (2007). "Friedman, Milton". Encyclopaedia Judica (2nd ed.). Thomson Gale. Archived from the original on March 29, 2015. Retrieved August 18, 2013.
  133. "The Milton Friedman Prize". Cato Institute. Retrieved April 13, 2015.
  134. "Peter Bauer, 86; Economist Fought Foreign Aid". Los Angeles Times. Tribune Company. May 19, 2002. Retrieved December 23, 2010.
  135. Konrad, Rachel (May 6, 2004). "Peruvian economist Hernando de Soto receives Friedman Prize". Associated Press. Archived from the original on November 5, 2012. Retrieved December 23, 2010
  136. "Mart Laar Receives Milton Friedman Prize". Cato Policy Report. Cato Institute. July–August 2006. Archived from the original on July 26, 2006. Retrieved December 23, 2010.
  137. "Student wins $500,000 for challenging Chavez". NBC News. Associated Press. April 23, 2008.
  138. "Iranian writer Akbar Ganji wins Milton Friedman Prize". Arabianbusiness.com. April 13, 2010. Archived from the original on July 2, 2012. Retrieved April 14, 2010.
  139. 联合早报网 (2012). "茅于轼获美国傅利曼自由奖". realtime.zaobao.com. Archived from the original on May 2, 2012. Retrieved April 21, 2012.
  140. Dorn, James (2014). "Leszek Balcerowicz Transformed Poland Through An Embrace Of Economic Freedom". Forbes. Retrieved May 22, 2014.
  141. "Cato Institute Honors Free Speech Advocate Flemming Rose with 2016 Milton Friedman Prize". 2016. Retrieved May 11, 2016.
  142. "Las Damas de Blanco: Winner of the 2018 Milton Friedman Prize for Advancing Liberty". 2018. Retrieved January 11, 2019.
  143. "Policy Scholars". cato.org.
  144. Kopan, Tal (November 13, 2013). "Report: Think tanks tied to Kochs". Politico . Retrieved February 24, 2015.
  145. "Directory SPN Members". State Policy Network. Archived from the original on March 18, 2015. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
  146. Gelb, Alan; Diofasi, Anna; Hashmi, Nabil; Post, Lauren (March 17, 2015). "CGD's Think Tank Public Profile Rankings Are Back". Center for Global Development . cgdev.org. Retrieved July 17, 2015.