This article relies extensively on quotations that were previously collated by an advocacy or lobbying group.February 2011)(
A continuation high school is an alternative to a comprehensive high school. In some countries it is primarily for students who are considered at risk of not graduating at the normal pace. The requirements to graduate are the same, but the scheduling is more flexible to allow students to earn their credits at a slower pace.
The Danish continuation schools (Danish: Efterskole ) cover 8th to 10th forms and comprise a broad range of school types. The schools specialize in different educational themes or specific youth-groups. Typical examples are sports, outdoor activities and various creative arts productions. Many continuation schools in Denmark are boarding schools and a stay is normally privately funded by school-fees.
The majority of attending pupils have chosen a continuation school after having finished their elementary school programs at the 9th form. The admission to continuation schools has increased in the 2000s and the association of Danish Industry has criticized this new development as too costly for society, and a waste of a full year during a labor shortage.
A few continuation schools in Denmark deal specifically with young people with a troubled or criminal history. Disciplinary precautions are somewhat limited, with restraints and physical interactions not allowed. In some cases this has resulted in up to between 25 and 33 percent of the youth being expelled during a year at some schools.A single incident (January 2000) led one school to expel 23 percent of its students at once. Most of these continuation schools incorporate therapy and are similar to therapeutic boarding schools, but this concept is not known in Denmark.
Lately, some families who have immigrated to Denmark and have little understanding for the highly developed Danish youth culture are seeking strict orthodox Christian continuation schools for their children.The number of teenagers placed at these schools seemed to have been increasing since the Danish government took action against re-educational stays in the originally homeland. For a number of years Efterskoleforeningen (the association of Continuation Schools) have tried to target this parent-group with an offer to detain their children and keep them "safe" from the challenging parts of the regular youth culture. In 2010 the Danish government announced, that they would reduce the grants for students so the parents would have to pay a larger percentage of the cost for having a child attending the schools. A massive press campaign launched by Efterskoleforeningen inspired the government to adjust the grant-cuts slightly.
In October 2008, there were 525 continuation high schools in California with an estimated enrollment of 70,937.
Counselors, site administration, and/or district administration can determine candidates for continuation high school; most candidates are recommended by on-site school counselors. Baseline qualifications for continuation high school vary district to district but all qualified candidates must undergo an academic review process. Schools that receive additional counselor funding under California AB 1802 state legislation are required to follow the bill stipulations for students who are at risk. First, the stipulations include using an academic review process for all students and thus identifying students who are at risk of not graduating on time. Qualifications for being classified as at risk include, but are not limited to, credit deficiencies, poor attendance, drug users, and/or behavior issues. Second, stipulations require counselors to develop a list of coursework for continuing his or her education if he or she fails to meet graduation requirements. As a result, in many cases continuation high school fits the needs of those students who were identified as at risk.
Continuation high schools in California were created with the objective of meeting the needs of high school students. For such purpose, students from sixteen to eighteen years of age attend these schools. In order to graduate, students must complete the requirements set by the Department of Education in California. Continuation high schools require students to take the California High School Exit Exam (CAHSEE), which measures student growth in mathematics, reading, and writing. However, students still receive a high school diploma once they have completed the required credits.
Continuation high schools are required, by law, to provide classes for students for a minimum of fifteen hours per week or 180 minutes per day. However, some schools choose to run the school day for a longer period of time. A unique feature of continuation high schools in California is the variety of programs offered to students. Such programs include career orientation and counseling, work study assistance, job placement, etc.
Efterskolen i Kragholm ved Rudkøbing har sat en tragisk rekord i dansk efterskole-historie: Man har måttet bortvise ikke færre end 18 elever på en gang for at sniffe lightergas - næsten en fjerdedel af skolens elever. ROUGH TRANSLATION: The continuation school in Kragholm, near Rudkøbing, set a tragic record in the history of Danish continuation schools. It became necessary to expel no fewer than eighteen pupils at once for sniffing butane lighter fuel, nearly a quarter of the school's enrollment.revised 21 November 2006 by Erling Andersen
In the United Kingdom, independent schools are fee-charging schools, typically governed by an elected board of governors and independent of many of the regulations and conditions that apply to state-funded schools. For example, pupils do not have to follow the National Curriculum. Historically, the term 'private school' referred to a school in private ownership, in contrast to an endowed school subject to a trust or of charitable status. Many of the older and more exclusive independent schools catering for the 13–18 age range in England and Wales are known as public schools, seven of which were the subject of the Public Schools Act 1868. The term 'public school' derived from the fact that they were then open to pupils regardless of where they lived or their religion. Prep (preparatory) schools educate younger children up to the age of 13 to 'prepare' them for entry to the public schools and other independent schools. Some former grammar schools converted to an independent fee-paying model following the 1965 Circular 10/65, which marked the end of their state funding; others converted into comprehensive schools.
Truancy is any intentional, unjustified, unauthorized, or illegal absence from compulsory education. It is a deliberate absence by a student's own free will and usually does not refer to legitimate excused absences, such as ones related to medical conditions. Truancy is usually explicitly defined in the school's handbook of policies and procedures. Some children whose parents claim to homeschool have also been found truant in the United States. Other terms for truancy include playing hooky, skiving off, wagging and bunking. Attending school but not going to class is called skipping class, cutting class, flapping or, more formally, internal truancy. In 2017, estimates in the United States suggested that approximately 11% of adolescents had skipped school during the past month.
A gap year, also known as a sabbatical year, is typically a year-long break before or after college/university during which students engage in various educational and developmental activities, such as travel or some type of regular work. Students who take gap years typically achieve a growth in maturity and are better prepared to benefit from higher education or decide the form of education they wish to pursue. Gap years usually occur between high school and university; or after graduating from university and before entry into graduate school. These students might take advanced courses in math or language studies, learn a trade, study art, volunteer, travel, take internships, play sports, or get involved in cultural exchanges. Studies indicate that students who take a gap year perform better academically than those who do not. However, many parents also worry that their children will defer continuation of their education.
The Danish Gymnasium offers a 3-year general academically-oriented upper secondary programme which builds on the 9th-10th form of the Folkeskole and leads to the upper secondary school exit examination. This qualifies a student for admission to higher education Preparatory, subject to the special entrance regulations applying to the individual higher education programmes. Colloquially, gymnasium refers to what is formally called STX.
The Higher Preparatory Examination is a 2-year general upper secondary programme building on to the 10th form of the Folkeskole and leading to the higher preparatory examination, which qualifies for admission to higher education, subject to the special entrance regulations applying to the individual higher education programmes.
A reform school was a penal institution, generally for teenagers mainly operating between 1830 and 1900. In the United Kingdom and its colonies reformatories commonly called reform schools were set up from 1854 onwards for youngsters who were convicted of a crime as an alternative to an adult prison. In parallel, "Industrial schools" were set up for vagrants and children needing protection. Both were 'certified' by the government from 1857, and in 1932 the systems merged and both were 'approved' and became approved schools.
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Expulsion, also known as dismissal, withdrawal, or permanent exclusion, refers to the removal or banning of a student from a school system or university due to persistent violation of that institution's rules, or in extreme cases, for a single offense of marked severity. Laws and procedures regarding expulsion vary between countries and states.
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An efterskole is a unique type of Danish voluntary independent residential school for young people between the age of 14 to 18. At an efterskole, students can choose to spend one, two or three years finishing their primary education, and currently some 28,500 students attend one of approximately 260 such schools throughout Denmark. The schools are open to students from abroad.
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