Luhansk Oblast

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Luhansk Oblast

Луганська область
Luhans’ka oblast’
Coat of Arms Luhansk Oblast.svg
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): 
Eastern gate of Ukraine, [1] [2] dawn of Ukraine, [3] [4] [5] Luhanshchyna, Luhan'
Luhansk in Ukraine (claims hatched).svg
Coordinates: { 48°55′N39°01′E / 48.92°N 39.02°E / 48.92; 39.02 Coordinates: 48°55′N39°01′E / 48.92°N 39.02°E / 48.92; 39.02
Country Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine
EstablishedJune 3, 1938
Administrative center Luhansk
Government
   Governor Vitaliy Komarnytskyi [6]
   Oblast council 124 seats
  ChairpersonValerij Holenko (Party of Regions [7] )
Area
  Total26,684 km2 (10,303 sq mi)
Population
 (September 1, 2014 [8] )
  TotalDecrease2.svg 2,239,500
  Rank Ranked 7th
Demographics
   Official language(s) Ukrainian
Time zone UTC+2 (EET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+3 (EEST)
Postal code
?
Area code +380-64
ISO 3166 code UA-09
Vehicle registration BB
Raions 18
Cities (total)37
  Regional cities 14
Urban-type settlements 109
Villages792
FIPS 10-4 UP14
Website loga.gov.ua

Luhansk Oblast (Ukrainian : Луганська область, translit. Luhanśka oblastj, Russian : Луганская область, translit. Luganskaja oblastj; also referred to as Luhanshchyna, Ukrainian : Луганщина, romanized: Luhanščyna) is the easternmost oblast (province) of Ukraine. Its administrative center is Luhansk. The oblast was established in 1938 and bore the name Voroshilovgrad Oblast (until 1958 and again 1970 to 1990) in honor of Kliment Voroshilov. Its population is 2,239,500 (as of September 1, 2014). [8]

Ukrainian language language member of the East Slavic subgroup of the Slavic languages

Ukrainian is an East Slavic language. It is the official state language of Ukraine and one of the three official languages in the unrecognized state of Transnistria, the other two being Romanian and Russian. Written Ukrainian uses a variant of the Cyrillic script.

The romanization or Latinization of Ukrainian is the representation of the Ukrainian language using Latin letters. Ukrainian is natively written in its own Ukrainian alphabet, which is based on the Cyrillic script. Romanization may be employed to represent Ukrainian text or pronunciation for non-Ukrainian readers, on computer systems that cannot reproduce Cyrillic characters, or for typists who are not familiar with the Ukrainian keyboard layout. Methods of romanization include transliteration, representing written text, and transcription, representing the spoken word.

Russian language East Slavic language

Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although nearly three decades have passed since the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia.

Contents

Important cities within the oblast include Alchevsk, Antratsyt, Brianka, Kirovsk, Krasnyi Luch, Krasnodon, Lysychansk, Luhansk, Pervomaisk, Rovenky, Rubizhne, Sverdlovsk, Sievierodonetsk, Stakhanov.

Alchevsk Place in Luhansk Oblast, Ukraine

Alchevsk is a city of oblast significance of Luhansk Oblast (province) of eastern Ukraine. It is located approximately 45 kilometres from the oblast capital, Luhansk. Population: 109,377 (2016 est.).

Antratsyt Regional City in Luhansk Oblast, Ukraine

Antratsyt or Antratsit is a city in Eastern Ukraine. Until 1962 it was known as Bokove-Antratsyt.

Brianka City

Brianka is a city in Luhansk Oblast (region) of Ukraine. It is incorporated as a city of oblast significance. Population: 47,512 (2013 est.).

The War in Donbass caused the administrative center of the oblast to be relocated to Sievierodonetsk. [9]

War in Donbass Armed conflict in the Donbass region of Ukraine

The War in Donbass is an armed conflict in the Donbass region of Ukraine. From the beginning of March 2014, protests by pro-Russian and anti-government groups took place in the Donetsk and Luhansk oblasts of Ukraine, commonly collectively called the "Donbass", in the aftermath of the 2014 Ukrainian revolution and the Euromaidan movement. These demonstrations, which followed the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation, and which were part of a wider group of concurrent pro-Russian protests across southern and eastern Ukraine, escalated into an armed conflict between the separatist forces of the self-declared Donetsk and Luhansk People's Republics, and the Ukrainian government. In the Donetsk People's Republic, from May 2014 until a change of the top leadership in August 2014, some of the top leaders were Russian citizens. According to the Ukrainian government, at the height of the conflict in mid-2014, Russian paramilitaries were reported to make up between 15% to 80% of the combatants.

Sievierodonetsk City of regional significance in Luhansk Oblast, Ukraine

Sievierodonetsk or Sieverodonetsk or Severodonetsk is a city in the Luhansk Oblast of Ukraine. Sievierodonetsk has the status of a city of regional significance, It is located nearby the Seversky Donets River, approximately 110 km (68 mi) to the north north west from the Oblast capital, Luhansk. Severodonetsk is the acting administrative centre of Luhansk Oblast due to Luhansk being temporarily controlled by self-proclaimed pro-Russian separatist organization, not under control of the Ukrainian authorities, similarly to Mariupol acting as the administrative center of Donetsk Oblast during the Russian military intervention in Ukraine (2014–present). Its population is approximately 106,188 (2017 est.).

Geography

Geographic map Lugansk province physical map.svg
Geographic map

Luhansk Oblast is located in eastern Ukraine. The area of the oblast (26,700 km²), comprises about 4.42% of the total area of the country.

Eastern Ukraine geographic region

Eastern Ukraine or East Ukraine generally refers to territories of Ukraine east of the Dnieper river, particularly Kharkiv, Luhansk and Donetsk oblasts. Dnipropetrovsk and Zaporizhia Oblasts sometimes are also regarded as Eastern Ukraine. In regard to traditional territories the area encompasses portions of the southern Sloboda Ukraine, Donbas, the western Azov Littoral (Pryazovia).

Its longitude from north to south is 250 km, from east to west – 190 km. The oblast has the longest segment of the Ukrainian international border with Russia among other regions (see State Border of Ukraine) consisting of 746 km (464 mi). It borders the Belgorod and Voronezh Oblasts of Russia on the north, while the Rostov Oblast is located to the east and the south. Among Ukrainian regions, the oblast borders the Kharkiv and Donetsk Oblasts to its west.

State Border of Ukraine

State Border of Ukraine is an international boundary of the state territory of Ukraine. According to the Article 1 of the Law of Ukraine on the State Border it is a line and a vertical surface that stretches along that line, which define the boundary of territory of Ukraine over the land, water, and air space.

Belgorod Oblast First-level administrative division of Russia

Belgorod Oblast is a federal subject of Russia. Its administrative center is the city of Belgorod. Population: 1,532,526.

Voronezh Oblast First-level administrative division of Russia

Voronezh Oblast is a federal subject of Russia. Its administrative center is the city of Voronezh. Its population was 2,335,380 as of the 2010 Census.

The region is located in the valley of Siversky Donets which splits the region approximately in half. The southern portion of the region is elevated by the Donetsk Ridge which is located closer to the southern border. The highest point is Mohyla Mechetna (367 m (1,204 ft)) which is the highest point of Donetsk Ridge.

The left bank of Siversky Donets is part of the Starobilsk Plain which to the north transforms into the Central Russian Upland.

History

A monument to Don Cossacks in Luhansk. "To the sons of glory and freedom" Don Cossacks monument Luhansk.JPG
A monument to Don Cossacks in Luhansk. "To the sons of glory and freedom"

The oblast originated in 1938 as Voroshylovhrad (Russian: Voroshilovgrad) Oblast after the Donetsk Oblast was split between Voroshylovhrad and Stalino (today Donetsk Oblast) oblasts. After the invasion by Nazi Germany in 1941 the region came under a German military administration, due to its proximity to frontlines. It was occupied at the end of 1942 as part of Case Blue German offensive directed towards Stalingrad. However soon after the battle of Stalingrad, in the spring of 1943 Luhansk region (at that time Voroshilovgrad) once again became center of military operations during the Soviet counter-offensive operation Little Saturn. By the summer of 1943 the region was liberated from the Nazi Germany Armed Forces. During the Soviet times the Oblast bore its current name between 1958 and 1970.

During the fateful March Referendum of 1991, 70.16% of all Ukrainians voted to remain a part of the Soviet Union as a sovereign republic, while only 27.99% voted 'no'. [10] In the December 1991 referendum, (after the August coup ended all hope of a restored Union,) 83.86% of votes in the oblast were in favor of the Declaration of Independence of Ukraine.

In 1994 a referendum took place in the Donetsk Oblast and the Luhansk Oblast, with around 90% supporting the Russian language gaining status of an official language alongside Ukrainian, and for the Russian language to be an official language on a regional level; however, the referendum was annulled by the Kiev government. [11] [12]

On April 8, 2014, following the annexation of Crimea by Russia, pro-Russian separatists occupying the Luhansk Oblast administrative building planned to declare the independence of the region as the Luhansk Parliamentary Republic, after other pro-Russian separatists declared Donetsk People's Republic in the Donetsk Oblast (April 7, 2014). When the Luhansk Parliamentary Republic ceased to exist, the separatists declared the Luhansk People's Republic (April 27, 2014) and held a disputed referendum on separating from Ukraine on May 11, 2014. The legitimacy of the referendums was not recognized by any government. [13] Ukraine does not recognize the referendum, while the EU and US said the polls were illegal. [14] Subsequently, the War in Donbass started.

As a result of the War in Donbass, Luhansk insurgents control the southern third of the oblast, which includes the city of Luhansk, the region's most populous city as well as the capital of the oblast. Due to this, most oblast government functions have moved to Severodonetsk, which forces of the Government of Ukraine recaptured in July 2014. Many universities located in the occupied areas have moved to government-controlled cities such as Severodonetsk, Starobelsk or Rubizhne. [15] [16] A survey conducted in December 2014 by the Kyiv International Institute of Sociology found 5.7% of the oblast's population supported their region joining Russia, 84.1% did not support the idea, and the rest were undecided or did not respond; insurgent-controlled areas were not polled. [17]

Administrative subdivisions

Map of the administrative subdivisions of the Luhansk Oblast. Luhansk Oblast Map.jpg
Map of the administrative subdivisions of the Luhansk Oblast.
English NameLocal NameTypeArea
(km2)
Population
Census 2001
Population
Estimate
1 Jan 2012
Admin.ctr
Alchevsk Алчевськ city of regional significance 49119,193112,071Alchevsk
Antratsit Антрацитcity of regional significance6190,83578,482Antratsit
Antratsitivsky Антрацитівський (район)raion1,66236,97131,454Antratsit
Bilokurakynsky Білокуракинський (район)raion1,43623,80719,858Bilokurakyne
Bilovodsky Біловодський (район)raion1,59727,55924,459Bilovodsk
Brianka Брянкаcity of regional significance6461,35754,085Brianca
Kirovsk Кіровськcity of regional significance3545,01236,708Kirovsk
Krasnodon Краснодонcity of regional significance77118,168104,640Krasnodon
Krasnodonsky Краснодонський (район)raion1,38632,84629,983Krasnodon
Krasnyi Luch Красний Лучcity of regional significance154145,129125,166Krasnyi Luch
Kreminsky Кремінський (район)raion1,62751,92742,357Kreminna
Luhansk Луганськcity of regional significance286503,248466,627Luhansk
Lutuhynsky Лутугинський (район)raion1,05773,91467,977Lutuhyne
Lysychansk Лисичанськcity of regional significance96133,258120,785Lysychansk
Markivsky Марківський (район)raion1,16619,00215,991Markivka
Milovsky Міловський (район)raion97117,41515,696Milove
Novoaidarsky Новоайдарський (район)raion1,53628,45125,618Novoaidar
Novopskovsky Новопсковський (район)raion1,62338,32235,271Novopskov
Perevalsky Перевальський (район)raion80787,38372,387Perevalsk
Pervomaisk Первомайськ (Міськрада)city of regional significance8980,62270,581Pervomaisk
Popasniansky Попаснянський (район)raion1,32550,55941,232Popasna
Rovenky Ровенькиcity of regional significance21791,71284,366Rovenky
Rubizhne Рубіжнеcity of regional significance3465,32260,750Rubizhne
Sievierodonetsk Северодонецькcity of regional significance58129,752120,264Sieverodonetsk
Slovianoserbsky (raion)Слов'яносербський (район)raion1,11362,12555,462Slovianoserbsk
Stakhanov Стахановcity of regional significance92108,26692,818Stakhanov
Stanychno-Luhansy Станично-Луганський (район)raion1,89652,76249,732Stanychno-Luhanske
Starobilsky Старобільський (район)raion1,58257,75547,765Starobilsk
Svativsky Сватівський (район)raion1,73943,06937,652Svatove
Sverdlovsk Свердловськcity of regional significance84110,15999,024Sverdlovsk
Sverdlovsky Свердловський (район)raion1,13214,57412,210Sverdlovsk
Troitsky Троїцький (район)raion1,63325,70421,205Troitske
Total OblastЛуганська (Область)oblast26,6832,546,1782,272,676Luhansk

Like the rest of the provinces in Ukraine, Luhansk Oblast has double jurisdiction. The oblast is predominantly administrated by the Luhansk Oblast State Administration headed by the governor of the oblast and appointed by the President of Ukraine. The province also has a representative body, the provincial council, which is headed by its chairman and elected by popular vote.

The province is primarily divided into 18 raions (districts), and 37 cities, including 14 cities of regional significance. The administrative center is Luhansk. These are listed below with their areas and populations. [18]

The province's secondary division consists of various municipalities. Those municipalities may consist of one or more populated places. The municipalities are administratively subordinate to the raion in which they are located, with the exception of 14 cities subordinated directly to the oblast. In addition, the city of Luhansk is subdivided into its own four city-districts (boroughs).

All subdivisions are governed by their respective councils (radas).

Cities

Demographics

City Day in Lysychansk City Day Lisichansk.JPG
City Day in Lysychansk
Map of Luhansk Oblast and former Slavo-Serbia (1753-64). New serbia slavo serbia.png
Map of Luhansk Oblast and former Slavo-Serbia (1753–64).

The population is largely Russian-speaking, although ethnic Ukrainians constitute a majority (58.0%). Among the minorities are native Russians (39.1%), Belarusians (0.8%), and others (1.4%). Ukrainians constitute the majority in all raions except for Stanytsia-Luhanska Raion and Krasnodon Raion, both of which are east of Luhansk. Ethnic Russians also constitute the majority in regionally significant cities, such as Krasnodon, Sverdlovsk, Krasnyi Luch and Stakhanov.

According to the 2001 Ukrainian Census, more than 68.8% of the population consider themselves Russian speakers, while 30.0% consider themselves Ukrainian speakers. The Russophone population predominates in the southern portion of the region and around the city of Luhansk, while the northern region is less populated, mostly agricultural and Ukrainophone.

Its population (as of 2004) of 2,461,506 constitutes 5.13% of the overall Ukrainian population. The Luhansk Oblast rates fifth in Ukraine by the number of its inhabitants, having an average population density of 90.28/km². About 87% of the population lives in urban areas, while the remaining 13% reside in agricultural areas. According to the national census, 54% of the population are Ukrainians and 42% are Russians.

Age structure

0-14 years: 12.3% Increase2.svg (male 143,272/female 134,803)
15-64 years: 71.4% Decrease2.svg (male 768,544/female 838,639)
65 years and over: 16.3% Steady2.svg (male 117,782/female 248,914) (2013 official)

Median age

total: 42.1 years Increase2.svg
male: 38.2 years Increase2.svg
female: 45.9 years Increase2.svg (2013 official)

Economy

Economically the region is connected with the Donets Basin.

Extracting industry

Machine building

Luhanskteplovoz SO17-1000.JPG
Luhanskteplovoz

Metallurgy

Chemical and oil refinery

Agriculture

Power generation

Transport

Through the region pass two major European routes Tabliczka E50.svg E50 and Tabliczka E40.svg E40 . There are 24 Russo-Ukrainian international border checkpoints of various entry.

Rail transportation is administered by the Donetsk Railway.

There is also its regional airport Luhansk International Airport with its own carrier.

Education

Specialized

Points of interest

Dal's house in Luhansk Vladimir Dal's house in Luhansk.jpg
Dal's house in Luhansk
Mscichowski Palace (remnants) Seleznivka.jpg
Mścichowski Palace (remnants)

The following sites were nominated for the Seven Wonders of Ukraine.

See also

Related Research Articles

Donetsk Oblast Oblast in Ukraine

The Donetsk Oblast, also referred to as Donechyna, is an oblast (province) of eastern Ukraine. It is the most populated oblast, with around 4.5 million residents. Its administrative center is Donetsk; however, its Regional State Administration has been temporarily relocated to Kramatorsk because of the ongoing crisis in Donetsk. Historically, the region is an important part of the Donbas region. Until November 1961, it bore the name Stalino Oblast as Donetsk was then named "Stalino", in honour of Joseph Stalin. As part of the De-Stalinization process, it was renamed as its administrative center after Siversky Donets, the main artery of East Ukraine.

Donbass region in eastern Ukraine

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Luhansk City of regional significance in Luhansk Oblast, Ukraine

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Krasnodon City of regional significance

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Pervomaisk, Luhansk Oblast City in Luhansk Oblast, Ukraine

Pervomaisk is a city in Luhansk Oblast, Ukraine, on the left bank of the Luhan river. Since 2014, the city is controlled by the self-proclaimed Luhansk People's Republic. Population: 38,435 (2013 est.). As of 2001, the population was 38,800. Northeast of Pervomaisk, there is the static inverter plant of HVDC Volgograd-Donbass.

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Hirske is a city in Popasna Raion, Luhansk Oblast (region) of Ukraine. Population: 10,131 (2013 est.).

Highway M04 (Ukraine) road

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Popasna Raion Raion in Luhansk Oblast, Ukraine

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2014 Donbass status referendums Donetsk and Luhansk status referendums, 2014

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Luhansk Peoples Republic political entity without international recognition

The Luhansk People's Republic, also known as Lugansk People's Republic, usually abbreviated as LPR or LNR, is a landlocked proto-state in the Luhansk Oblast in the Donbass region, in eastern Ukraine. Along with the Donetsk People's Republic (DPR), the LPR declared independence from Ukraine in the aftermath of the 2014 Ukrainian revolution. An armed conflict with Ukraine followed its declaration of independence, during which the LPR and DPR received military and humanitarian assistance from Russia. This conflict is still ongoing as of April 2019. LPR remains unrecognised by any UN member state, including Russia – although Russia recognises documents issued by the LPR government, such as identity documents, diplomas, birth and marriage certificates and vehicle registration plates.

Stanytsia Luhanska Urban-type settlement in Luhansk Oblast, Ukraine

Stanytsia Luhanska is an urban-type settlement on the banks of the Seversky Donets River in Luhansk Oblast in eastern Ukraine. Population: 13,734 (2013 est.). Stanytsia Luhanska is one of two local foundations of the Don Cossacks in today's Ukraine and the administrative center of the Stanytsia-Luhanska Raion 20 km northeast of Luhansk.

Governor of Luhansk Oblast

The Governor of Luhansk Oblast is the head of executive branch for the Luhansk Oblast. Due to the current War in Donbass Luhansk Oblast is since 5 March 2015 assigned as a civil–military administration. Hence the Governor of the Oblast is officially called Head of the Regional Military Civil Administration.

Izvaryne-Donetsk is a land border crossing between Ukraine and Russia, on autoroute E40 in the Donbass region.

Highway H21 (Ukraine)

H21 is an important Ukraine national highway (H-highway) in the Donetsk Oblast and Luhansk Oblast of Donbass, Ukraine. It connects Donetsk through Luhansk with Starobilsk. The highway runs both, west-east between Donetsk and Luhansk, and south-north between Luhansk and Starobilsk. It passes either through or near Makiivka, Kolosnykove, Khartsyzk, Zuhres; Serdyte, Molodetske, and Shakhtarsk in Shakhtarsky; Torez, Snizhne, Miusynsk, Krasnyi Luch; Ivanivka and Malomykolaivka in Antratsitivsky; Myrne, Uspenka, Lutuhyne, and Heorhiivka in Lutuhynsky; Luhansk; Metalisk, Stukalova Balka, and Lyman-Tsvitni Pisky-Svitle in Slovianoserbsky; Shchastya; Mykhailivka in Troitsky; Novoaidar, Denezhnykove, and Peremorzhne-Shtormove in Novoaidarsky; Shul'hynka in Markivsky, Baidivke, and Polovynkyne in Starobilsky.

Administrative divisions of Luhansk Oblast

Luhansk Oblast is subdivided into 32 regions: 18 districts (raions) and 14 city municipalities, officially known as territories governed by city councils.

Uralo-Kavkaz Urban-type settlement in Luhansk Oblast, Ukraine

Uralo-Kavkaz is an urban-type settlement in Krasnodon Municipality in the southeastern part of Luhansk Oblast, Ukraine. Population: 2,555 (2013 est.).

Krasnyi Yar (Luhansk Oblast) Village in Luhansk Oblast, Ukraine

Krasnyi Yar is a village in Krasnodon Raion of Luhansk Oblast of eastern Ukraine, at about 30 km SE from the centre of Luhansk city.

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