|• Mayor||Oleksandr Tretyak (European Solidarity )|
|• Total||63.00 km2 (24.32 sq mi)|
|• Density||3,900/km2 (10,000/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+2 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+3 (CEST)|
Rivne ( // ; Ukrainian : Рівне [ˈr⁽ʲ⁾iu̯ne] ; Polish : Równe) is a city in western Ukraine. Known under Soviet control as Rovno, the city is the administrative centre of Rivne Oblast (province), as well as the surrounding Rivne Raion (district) within the oblast. Administratively, Rivne is incorporated as a city of oblast significance and does not belong to the raion. Population: 245,289 (2021 est.)
Between World War I and World War II, the city was located in Poland as a district-level (county) seat in Wolyn Voivodeship. At the start of World War II in 1939, Rivne was occupied by the Soviet Red Army and received its current status by becoming a seat of regional government of the Rivne Oblast which was created out of the eastern portion of the voivodeship. During the German occupation of 1941–44 the city was designated as a capital of German Ukraine (Reichskommissariat Ukraine). In the spring of 1919, it also served as a provisional seat of the Ukrainian government throughout the ongoing war with Soviet Russia.
Rivne is an important transportation hub, with the international Rivne Airport, and rail links to Zdolbuniv, Sarny, and Kovel, as well as highways linking it with Brest, Kyiv and Lviv. Among other leading companies there is a chemical factory of Rivne-Azot (part of Ostchem Holding).
Rivne was first mentioned in 1283 in the Polish annals "Rocznik kapituły krakowskiej"as one of the inhabited places of Halych-Volhynia near which Leszek II the Black was victorious over a part of the Grand Ducal Lithuanian Army. Following the Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia's partition after Galicia–Volhynia Wars in the late 14th century, it was under the rule of Grand Duchy of Lithuania and in 1434 the Grand Duke of Lithuania Švitrigaila awarded the settlement to a Lutsk nobleman Dychko. In 1461 Dychko sold his settlement to Prince Semen Nesvizh. In 1479 Semen Nesvizh died and his settlement was passed to his wife Maria who started to call herself princess of Rovno. She turned the settlement into a princely residence by building in 1481 a castle on one of local river islands and managed to obtain Magdeburg rights for the settlement in 1492 from the King of Poland Casimir IV Jagiellon. Following her death in 1518, the city was passed on to the princes of Ostrog and declined by losing its status as a princely residency.
In 1566 the town of Rovno became part of newly established Volhynian Voivodeship. Following the Union of Lublin in 1569, it was transferred from the realm of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania to the Crown of Poland.The city had a status of privately held by nobles (Ostrogski and Lubomirski families). Following the Second Partition of Poland in 1793 Rivne became a part of the Russian Empire, and in 1797 it was declared to be a county level (uyezd) town of the Volhynian Governorate.
During World War I and the period of chaos shortly after, it was briefly under German, Ukrainian, Bolshevik and Polish rule. During April–May 1919 Rivne served as the temporary capital[ citation needed ] of the Ukrainian People's Republic. In late April 1919 one of the Ukrainian military leaders Volodymyr Oskilko attempted to organize a coup-d'état against the Petliura's-led Directory and cabinet of Borys Martos and replace them with Yevhen Petrushevych as president of Ukraine. In Rivne, Oskilko managed to arrest most of the cabinet ministers including Martos himself, but Petliura at that time was in neighbouring Zdolbuniv and managed to stop Oskilko's efforts. At the conclusion of the conflict, in accordance with the Riga Peace Treaty of 1921 it became a part of Polish Volhynian Voivodeship, a situation which would last until the Second World War.
In 1939, as a result of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact and the partition of Poland, Rivne was occupied by the Soviet Union. From December of the same year Rivne became the centre of the newly established Rivne Oblast, within the Ukrainian SSR.
On 28 June 1941 Rivne was invaded by the 6th army of Nazi Germany, which later established the city as the administrative centre of Reichskommissariat Ukraine on 20 August. A prison for the Gestapo was created on Belaia Street. 70 km (43 mi) north to Kostopil where they were killed; the ghetto was subsequently liquidated.At the time, roughly half of Rivne's inhabitants were Jewish; of these, about 23,000 were taken to a pine grove in Sosenki and killed between 6-8 November. At the same period the well known German actor Olaf Bach was flown over to the city to perform for the German forces, for morale and to support the troops. He remained in Rivne from 8-13 November. A ghetto was established for the remaining 5,000 Jews. In July 1942, its population was sent
On 2 February 1944, the city was captured by the Red Army in the Battle of Rovno, and remained under Soviet control until Ukraine regained its independence on the break-up of the USSR in 1991.
In 1958, a TV tower began broadcasting in the city; in 1969, the first trolley ran through the city; in 1969, Rivne airport was opened. In 1983, the city celebrated its 700th anniversary.
On 11 June 1991, the Ukrainian parliament officially renamed the city Rivne according to the rules of Ukrainian orthography, whereas it had previously been known as Rovno.
In 1992, a memorial complex of 20 thousand square metres was established at the site of the World War II massacre to commemorate the killing of 17,500 Jews there in November 1941 during the Holocaust, commemorating the mass grave with an obelisk inscribed in Yiddish, Hebrew and Ukrainian.
On 6 June 2012, the World War II Jewish burial site was vandalised, allegedly as part of an antisemitic act.
Rivne has a moderate continental climate with cold, snowy winters and warm summers. Snow cover usually lasts from November until March. 598 mm (24 in) June and July being the wettest months and January and February the driest.The average annual precipitation is
|Climate data for Rivne, Ukraine (1981–2010, extremes 1951–present)|
|Record high °C (°F)||11.2|
|Average high °C (°F)||−1.0|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−3.5|
|Average low °C (°F)||−6.2|
|Record low °C (°F)||−34.5|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||28.6|
|Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)||7.1||7.7||8.3||7.1||8.4||9.9||10.3||7.9||8.2||7.5||8.6||9.5||100.5|
|Average relative humidity (%)||85.6||84.1||79.3||69.3||68.8||73.7||74.8||73.9||78.8||81.5||86.4||87.8||78.7|
|Source 1: World Meteorological Organization|
|Source 2: Pogoda.ru|
During Soviet times the provincial town was transformed into an industrial centre of the republic. There were two significant factories built. The first was a machine building and metal processing factory capable of producing high-voltage apparatus, tractor spare parts and others. The other was a chemical factory and synthetic materials fabrication plant. Light industry, including a linen plant and a textile mill, as well as food industries, including milk and meat processing plants and a vegetable preservation plant, have also been built. In addition the city became a production centre for furniture and other building materials. [ citation needed ]
As an important cultural centre, Rivne hosts a humanities and a hydro-engineering university, as well as a faculty of the Kyiv State Institute of Culture,[ citation needed ] and medical and musical as well as automobile-construction, commercial, textile, agricultural and cooperative polytechnic colleges. The city has a historical museum.
Following the fall of the Soviet Union, the monument for the Soviet hero D.N.Medvedev was removed, and the N.I.Kuznetsov monument was moved to another location within the city. Instead, in order to reflect the controversial history of the region the monuments for "People who died in the honour of Ukraine", and "Soldiers who died in local military battles" were installed.
Rivne is twinned with:
Volhynia, is a historic region in Central and Eastern Europe, between south-eastern Poland, south-western Belarus, and western Ukraine. The borders of the region are not clearly defined, but the territory that still carries the name is Volyn Oblast, in western Ukraine. Volhynia has changed hands numerous times throughout history and been divided among competing powers. At one time all of Volhynia was part of the Pale of Settlement designated by Imperial Russia on its southwesternmost border.
Rivne Oblast is an oblast (province) of Ukraine. Its administrative center is Rivne. The area of the region is 20,100 km²; population: 1,148,456 . Previously part of the Second Republic of Poland's Wojewódstwo Wołyńskie and earlier the Ukrainian People's Republic's Volhynian Governorate, the Rivne Oblast was created as part of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic on December 4, 1939 after the Soviet invasion and occupation of eastern Poland on 17 September 1939.
Kovel is a city in Volyn Oblast (province), in northwestern Ukraine. Serving as the administrative center of Kovel Raion (district), the town itself is designated as a town of oblast significance and is not part of the raion. Population: 67,991
Volodymyr-Volynskyi is a small city located in Volyn Oblast, in north-western Ukraine. Serving as the administrative centre of the Volodymyr-Volynskyi Raion, the city itself is also designated as a separate municipality within the oblast as the city of regional significance. The city is the historic centre of the region of Volhynia and the historic capital of the Principality of Volhynia. Population: 38,070
Ostroh is a historic city located in Rivne Oblast (province) of western Ukraine, on the Horyn River. Ostroh is the administrative center of the Ostroh Raion (district). Administratively, Ostroh is incorporated as a city of oblast significance and does not belong to the raion. Population: 15,195
Sarny, translated as Does, is a small city in Rivne Oblast (province) of western Ukraine. It is the administrative center of Sarny Raion (district), and is a major railway node on the Sluch River. Population: 28,865
Radyvýliv is a small city in Rivne Oblast (region) of western Ukraine. It is the administrative center of Radyvyliv Raion (district), and is located south-west of the oblast capital, Rivne, near European route E40. The nearest larger cities are Dubno, and Brody; the latter being 10 km (6 mi) away. In Soviet times, from 1939 to 1992, the city was known as Chervonoarmiysk. 10,472
Izmail is a historic city on the Danube river in Odessa Oblast in south-western Ukraine. Administratively, Izmail is incorporated as a city of oblast significance. It also serves as the administrative center of Izmail Raion, one of seven districts of Odessa Oblast, though it is not a part of the district.
Kremenets is a city in Ternopil Oblast (province) of western Ukraine. It is the administrative center of the Kremenets Raion (district), and lies 18 km north-east of the great Pochayiv Monastery. The city is situated in the historic region of Volhynia. It hosts the administration of Kremenets urban hromada, one of the hromadas of Ukraine. Population: 20,827
Zdolbúniv is a small city in Rivne Oblast (province) of western Ukraine. It is the administrative center of Zdolbuniv Raion (district), and has an important railway station and cement plant. Population: 24,642
Dubno is a city located on the Ikva River in Rivne Oblast (province) of western Ukraine. Serving as the administrative center of Dubno Raion (district), Dubno is incorporated as a city of oblast significance and does not belong to the raion. The city is located on intersection of two major European routes, E40 and E85. The city is estimated to have a population of 37,257 . It is located within the historic region of Volhynia.
Sosnove is an urban-type settlement in Berezne Raion of Rivne Oblast, Ukraine, located in the historic region of Volhynia. Population: 1,945
Berézne is a city in Rivne Oblast, Ukraine, located on the Sluch River north of Rivne. It is the administrative centre of the Berezne Raion. Population: 13,280
Kostopil is a small city, originally named Ostlec Wielki or Ostaltsi, on the Zamchysko river in Rivne Oblast of western Ukraine. It was the administrative center of the Kostopil Raion up to 2020, but is now within the Rivne Raion. Population: 31,060
Mizoch is an urban-type settlement in Zdolbuniv Raion, Rivne Oblast, Ukraine, 30 km far from Rivne. Its population was 3,365 .
Volodymyr Panteleimonovych Oskilko was a Ukrainian military activist and administrator. He became famous for the historical Oskilko's Affair.
Novohrad-Volynskyi is a city in the Zhytomyr Oblast (province) of northern Ukraine. Originally known as Zvyahel, the city was renamed in 1795 after annexation of territories of Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth by the Russian Empire soon after the third Partition of Poland.
The Volhynia Experiment was a cultural and political program by the interwar Polish government in the province of Volhynia whose purpose was to create a Ukrainian identity that was also loyal to the Polish state. It was hoped that this program would furthermore lead to pro-Polish sympathies in Soviet Ukraine and serve as a potential aid to Polish plans concerning the Soviet Union. The Volhynia Experiment was opposed both by Ukrainian nationalists from neighboring Galicia and by pro-Soviet communists.
Mlyniv is an urban-type settlement in Rivne Oblast (province) in western Ukraine. Mlyniv is also the administrative center of Mlyniv Raion (district), housing the district's local administration buildings. Its population was 8,446 as of the 2001 Ukrainian Census. Current population: 8,140
The Rovno Ghetto was a World War II Nazi ghetto established in December 1941 in the city of Rovno, western Ukraine, in the territory of German-administered Reichskommissariat Ukraine. On 6 November 1941, about 21,000 Jews were massacred by Einsatzgruppe C and their Ukrainian collaborators. The remaining Jews were imprisoned in the ghetto. In July 1942, all remaining 5,000 Jews were trucked to a stone quarry near Kostopol and murdered there.
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