Yevpatoria

Last updated
Yevpatoria

Євпаторія (Ukrainian)
Евпатория (Russian)
Kezlev  (Crimean Tatar)
Кезлев (Crimean Tatar)
Yevpatoria panorama.jpeg
Yevpatoria panorama
Flag Eupatoria.svg
Flag
COA Yevpatoriia, Crimea, Ukraine.svg
Coat of arms
Outline Map of Crimea (disputed status).svg
Red pog.svg
Yevpatoria
Location of Yevpatoria within Crimea
Coordinates: 45°11′38″N33°22′5″E / 45.19389°N 33.36806°E / 45.19389; 33.36806 Coordinates: 45°11′38″N33°22′5″E / 45.19389°N 33.36806°E / 45.19389; 33.36806
Country Russia (de facto) Ukraine (de jure)
Region Crimea
Area
  Total120 km2 (50 sq mi)
Elevation
10 m (30 ft)
Population
 (2014)
105,719
  Density1,618.37/km2 (4,191.6/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+3 (MSK)
Postal code
97400 — 97490
Area code(s) +7-36569
Climate Cfa
Website www.kalamit.info

Yevpatoria (Ukrainian : Євпаторія, romanized: Yevpatoriya; Russian : Евпатория, romanized: Yevpatoriya; Crimean Tatar : Kezlev, Кезлев) is a city of regional significance in Western Crimea, north of Kalamita Bay. Yevpatoria serves as the administrative center of Yevpatoria Municipality, one of the districts (raions) into which Crimea is divided. Population: 105,719 (2014 Census). [1]

Contents

History

Greek settlement

The first recorded settlement in the area, called Kerkinitis (Κερκινίτις), was built by Greek colonists around 500 BC. Along with the rest of Crimea, Kerkinitis was part of the dominions of Mithridates VI, King of Pontus, from whose nickname, Eupator ("of noble father"), the city's modern name derives.

Khanate period

From roughly the 7th through the 10th centuries AD, Yevpatoria was a Khazar settlement; its name in Khazar language was probably Güzliev (literally "beautiful house"). [2] It was later subject to the Cumans (Kipchaks), the Mongols and the Crimean Khanate. During this period the city was called Kezlev by Crimean Tatars and Gözleve by Ottomans. The Russian medieval name Kozlov is a Russification of the Crimean Tatar name. For a short period between 1478 and 1485, the city was administrated by the Ottoman Empire. Afterwards, it became an important urban center of the Crimean Khanate.

The 400-year-old Juma Jami mosque is one of the many designed by the Ottoman architect Mimar Sinan. It was built from 1552 until 1564. 35-metre minarets rose on the flanks of the building. The mosque was of great state significance. It was here that a ceremony of the declaration of rights of the Crimean Khans was held at their enthronement. Only after that they went to their capital, the city of Bakhchisarai.

Entrance to the Karaite Kenassa in Yevpatoria Eupatoria 04-14 img16 Karaimskaya Street.jpg
Entrance to the Karaite Kenassa in Yevpatoria

Yevpatoria became a residence of the spiritual ruler of the Karaites, the Gakham. In this connection here, a complex of two praying houses was built under the supervision of the Rabovich brothers, in which forms of the Renaissance and Muslim architecture entwined in a most unusual manner. The ensemble organically incorporates three courtyards. The entrance to it is marked by the gates, built in 1900, which look like a refined triumphal arch.

Russian rule

USSR road sign on P25 road in Crimea Evpatoriyskoye shosse.jpg
USSR road sign on P25 road in Crimea

In 1783, along with the rest of the Crimea, Kezlev was captured by the Russian Empire. Its name was officially changed to Yevpatoriya in 1784. The name comes from the Greek Eupatoria (transliteration from Greek to Russian is Евпатория) in honor of Eupator Dionysius, king of Pontus. This spelling of the city name came to the French, German, Spanish and English languages at the end of the 18th сentury. The spelling Yevpatoriya came to English from the Ukrainian name Євпаторія, in the second half of the 20th century.

Adam Mickiewicz visited the town in 1825 and wrote one of his Crimean Sonnets here; it was later translated into Russian by Mikhail Lermontov.

The city was occupied in September 1854 by British, French and Turkish troops during the Crimean War prior to the Allied landing in Kalamita Bay, after which the Battle of the Alma south of the bay followed. It became a garrison of Ottoman troops later during the war and was the site of the Battle of Eupatoria in February 1855, which was the largest military clash in the Crimean theatre outside the Sevastopol area.

Modern Yevpatoria

USSR

Hydro-massage on Lake Moynaki Jugaduss (sarko) Moinaki limaani korgsoolase veega..jpg
Hydro-massage on Lake Moynaki

In 1930s it was a question about the medical profile resort of Yevpatoria. Natural factors create excellent conditions for the treatment of osteo-articular tuberculosis and other children's diseases. In 1933, at a scientific conference in Yalta, it was agreed that among the Soviet resort towns Yevpatoria, Odessa, Anapa, or one of the South Coast of Crimea - the most suitable for the organization of children's resort is Yevpatoria. In Yevpatoria there is a perfect combination of climatic and balneological factors contributing to the healing of the most serious diseases of this time like tuberculosis  [ citation needed ]. An additional positive factor is the lack of mosquitoes in Yevpatoria, as on the southern coast of Crimea, or mosquitoes as in Anapa.

In 1936, the government decided to determine the place of construction of the All-Union children's resort in Yevpatoria. In 1938, the approved plan of general reconstruction of the city. During World War II, sanatoriums were used as military hospitals. By July 1, 1945 in Yevpatoria operated 14 sanatoriums, have taken 2,885 people. By 1980s, in city operated 78 sanatoriums for 33 thousand people. About one million vacationers visited Yevpatoria in summer time without the purpose of treatment.

Ukraine

Today Yevpatoria is a major Black Sea port, a rail hub, and resort town. The population swells greatly during the summer months, with many residents of northern cities visiting for beach recreation. As such, local residents are heavily employed during summer months but are often underemployed during the winter. The main industries include fishing, food processing, wine making, limestone quarrying, weaving, and the manufacture of building materials, machinery, furniture manufacturing and tourism.

Yevpatoria has spas of mineral water, salt and mud lakes. These resorts belong to a vast area with curative facilities where the main health-improving factors are the sunshine and sea, air and sand, brine and mud of the salt lakes, as well as the mineral water of the hot springs. The population of the town is sure to have known about the curative qualities of the local mud that can be found here from time immemorial, which is witnessed by the manuscripts of Pliny the Elder, a Roman scholar (ca 80 BC).

On December 24, 2008 a blast destroyed a five-story building in the town. 27 people were killed. President Viktor Yushchenko declared December 26 to be a day of national mourning. [3] [4] [5] [6] [7]

Two beaches in Yevpatoria have been Blue Flag beaches since May 2010, these were the first beaches (with two beaches in Yalta) to be awarded a Blue Flag in a CIS memberstate. [8]

2014 Russian annexation

Crimea was annexed by Russia in early 2014 and the peninsula, Ukrainian territory since 1991, is now administered as two Russian federal subjects – the Republic of Crimea and the federal city of Sevastopol. The international community has overwhelmingly condemned the Russian Federation's acts in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol. Seven United Nations General Assembly Resolutions 68/262 of 27 March 2014 , 71/205 of 19 December 2016 , 72/190 of 19 December 2017 , 73/194 of 17 December 2018 , 73/263 of 22 December 2018 , 74/17 of 9 December 2019 and 74/168 of 18 December 2019 confirmed the status of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol as part of the territory of Ukraine, condemned the occupation of Crimea by the Russian Federation and reaffirmed the non-recognition of the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation. The United Nations also called upon all States, international organizations and specialized agencies not to recognize any alteration of the status of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol and to refrain from any action or dealing that might be interpreted as recognizing any such altered status.

Economy and Industry

Education

Demographics

Ethnic composition of Yevpatoria in 2001 according to the Ukrainian census:

  1. Russians: 64,9%
  2. Ukrainians: 23,3%
  3. Crimean Tatars: 6,9%
  4. Belarusians: 1,5%
  5. Armenians: 0,5%
  6. Jews: 0,4%
  7. Tatars (excluding Crimean Tatars): 0,2%
  8. Poles: 0,2%
  9. Moldovans: 0,2%
  10. Azerbaijanis: 0,2%

Climate

Yevpatoria has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa) under the Köppen climate classification with cool winters and warm to hot summers.

Climate data for Eupatoria
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)5.0
(41.0)
5.4
(41.7)
10.2
(50.4)
16.1
(61.0)
22.6
(72.7)
28.1
(82.6)
30.3
(86.5)
31.0
(87.8)
24.5
(76.1)
17.6
(63.7)
11.7
(53.1)
7.7
(45.9)
16.3
(61.3)
Daily mean °C (°F)1.7
(35.1)
2.0
(35.6)
6.1
(43.0)
11.2
(52.2)
17.5
(63.5)
22.8
(73.0)
25.0
(77.0)
25.4
(77.7)
19.4
(66.9)
13.3
(55.9)
8.1
(46.6)
4.6
(40.3)
13.1
(55.6)
Average low °C (°F)−1.1
(30.0)
−0.7
(30.7)
2.8
(37.0)
7.2
(45.0)
13.4
(56.1)
18.4
(65.1)
20.5
(68.9)
20.4
(68.7)
14.9
(58.8)
9.6
(49.3)
4.9
(40.8)
2.0
(35.6)
9.4
(48.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches)39
(1.5)
26
(1.0)
31
(1.2)
24
(0.9)
26
(1.0)
48
(1.9)
33
(1.3)
24
(0.9)
46
(1.8)
36
(1.4)
31
(1.2)
38
(1.5)
402
(15.6)
Average precipitation days42412310122426
Source: pogodaiklimat.ru [9]

Area attractions

Famous attractions within or near Yevpatoria are:

The garden at the Karaite Kenasa in Yevpatoria Dvorik v Evpatoriiskikh Kenassakh.jpg
The garden at the Karaite Kenasa in Yevpatoria

Famous people from Yevpatoria

Names of asteroid number 6489 and number 24648

Asteroid number 6489 has a name Golevka, which has a complicated origin. In 1995, Golevka was studied simultaneously by three radar observatories across the world: Goldstone in California, Eupatoria RT-70 radio telescope (Yevpatoriya is sometimes romanized as Evpatoria or Eupatoria (Russian origin)) and Kashima in Japan. 'Gol-Ev-Ka' comes from the first few letters of each observatory's name; it was proposed by the discoverer following a suggestion by Alexander L. Zaitsev.

Asteroid 24648 Evpatoria was discovered 1985 Sept. 19 by Nikolai Chernykh and Lyudmila Chernykh at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, and named in honor of Evpatoria (transliteration from Russian to English, thus Yevpatoriya). The minor planet marked the occasion of the 2500th anniversary of the town in 2003. [11]

Twin towns – sister cities

ArmsCityNationSince
Ioannina Flag of Greece.svg  Greece 1989
FIG.png Figueira da Foz Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal 1989
Wappen Ludwigsburg.svg Ludwigsburg Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 1992
Zakynthos Flag of Greece.svg  Greece 2002
POL Ostrowiec Swietokrzyski COA.svg Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski Flag of Poland.svg  Poland 2004
Coat of arms of Krasnogorsky rayon (Moscow oblast).png Krasnogorsky District Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 2006
Lambie Flag of Greece.svg  Greece 2009
Coat of Arms of Belgorod.png Belgorod Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 2010

See also

Related Research Articles

Crimea Peninsula in the Black Sea

Crimea is a peninsula located on the northern coast of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe that is almost completely surrounded by both the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov to the northeast. It is located south of the Ukrainian region of Kherson, to which it is connected by the Isthmus of Perekop, and west of the Russian region of Kuban, from which it is separated by the Strait of Kerch though linked by the Crimean Bridge since 2018. The Arabat Spit is located to the northeast, a narrow strip of land that separates a system of lagoons named Sivash from the Sea of Azov. Across the Black Sea to its west is Romania and to its south Turkey.

Yalta City on the Crimean peninsula

Yalta is a resort city on the south coast of the Crimean Peninsula surrounded by the Black Sea. It serves as the administrative center of Yalta Municipality, one of the regions within Crimea. Population: 76,746 .

Simferopol City on the Crimean Peninsula

Simferopol is the second-largest city on the Crimean Peninsula, and the capital of the (Autonomous) Republic of Crimea. Simferopol is an important political, economic and transport hub of the peninsula, and serves as the administrative centre of both Simferopol Municipality and the surrounding Simferopol District. Founded on the site of a Crimean Tatar town Aqmescit, the city adopted its current name after the annexation of the Crimean Khanate to the Russian Empire. The population was 332,317 .

Bakhchysarai City in Crimea, Disputed:

Bakhchysarai is a town in central Crimea, a territory recognized by a majority of countries as part of Ukraine and annexed by Russia as the Republic of Crimea. It is the administrative center of the Bakhchysarai Raion (district), as well as the former capital of the Crimean Khanate. Its main landmark is Hansaray, the only extant palace of the Crimean Khans, currently opened to tourists as a museum. Population: 27,448 .

Inkerman Place in Sevastopol, Disputed:

Inkerman is a city in the Crimean peninsula, de facto within the federal city of Sevastopol within the Russian Federation, but de jure within Ukraine. It lies 5 kilometres east of Sevastopol, at the mouth of the Chernaya River which flows into Sevastopol Inlet. Administratively, Inkerman is subordinate to the municipality of Sevastopol which does not constitute part of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea. Population: 10,348 .

Alushta City in Crimea, Disputed:

Alushta is a city of regional significance on the southern coast of the Crimean peninsula which, de facto, is within the Republic of Crimea, a federal subject of the Russian Federation but, de jure, is within the Autonomous Republic of Crimea within Ukraine. The status of Crimea is disputed between Russia and Ukraine as a result of the 2014 vote to join Russia which was held during Russian military intervention, and the subsequent annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation. It serves as the administrative center of Alushta Municipality, one of the regions Crimea is divided into. Founded in the 6th century AD by Emperor Justinian, today it is a resort town. It is situated at the Black Sea beach line on the road from Hurzuf to Sudak, as well as on the Crimean Trolleybus line. Population: 29,078 .

Novyi Svit Urban-type settlement in Crimea, Disputed between Russia and Ukraine

Novyi Svit is a resort, an urban-type settlement in Sudak Municipality in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, a territory recognized by a majority of countries as part of Ukraine and incorporated by Russia as the Republic of Crimea. It is known for Novyi Svit sparkling wine produced there. Champagne production was introduced into Novyi Svit by a local landowner, Prince Lev Golitsyn, in the late 19th century. Population: 1,248 .

Yalta City Municipality, officially "the territory governed by the Yalta city council", also known as Greater Yalta is one of the 25 regions of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, a territory recognized by a majority of countries as part of Ukraine and incorporated by Russia as the Republic of Crimea.

The Yevpatoria City Municipality is one of the 25 regions of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, a territory recognized by a majority of countries as part of Ukraine and incorporated by Russia as the Republic of Crimea. The region is located on the western coast of Crimea on the Black Sea's shore. Its administrative center is the city of Yevpatoria. Population: 119,258 .

Partenit Urban-type settlement in Crimea, Disputed between Russia and Ukraine

Partenit is a seaside urban-type settlement under the administrative jurisdiction of the town of regional significance of Alushta in the southern part of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, a territory recognized by a majority of countries as part of Ukraine and incorporated by Russia as the Republic of Crimea. Population: 6,193 .

Yevpatoria RT-70 radio telescope

The Yevpatoria RT-70 radio telescope is an RT-70 radio telescope and planetary radar at the Center for Deep Space Communications, Yevpatoria, Crimea. In the scientific literature is often called Evpatoria Planetary Radar (EPR).

Juma-Jami Mosque

The Juma-Jami Mosque, also known as the Friday Mosque, is located in Yevpatoria, Crimea. Built between 1552 and 1564, and designed by the Ottoman architect Mimar Sinan.

Mufti-Jami Mosque church building in Feodosiya, Ukraine

The Mufti-Jami Mosque, is located in Feodosiya, Disputed between Russia and Ukraine.

Kebir-Jami Mosque, Simferopol

The Kebir-Jami Mosque is located in Simferopol, Crimea. Kebir-Jami mosque is a prominent architectural monument in Simferopol and the oldest building in the city.

Ozbek Han Mosque

The Ozbek Han Mosque is a mosque in Stary Krym, Crimea. The Ozbek Han Mosque is the oldest mosque in Crimea, built during the reign of Uzbeg Khan in 1314.

Tahtali-Jami Mosque

The Tahtali-Jami Mosque, Crimean Tatar: Tahtalı Cami) is located in Bakhchisaray, Crimea. In Crimean Tatar: Tahtalı Cami means "wooden mosque".

Orta Cami Mosque

Orta Cami Mosque is one of the oldest mosques in Crimea. It is situated on the modern day Lenina street in the old town of Bakhchisaray.

Yevpatoria Bay

Yevpatoria Bay is a bay in the Black Sea near Yevpatoria, Crimea.

Yevpatoria railway station Railway station in Crimea

Yevpatoria-Kurort is a railway station in Yevpatoria, Crimea, a territory recognized by a majority of countries as part of Ukraine, but de facto under control and administration of Russia.

Crimean Directorate of Railway Transportation – directorate of Near-Dnipro Railways. Management services to the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol. By March 2014 also south-eastern part of Kherson and south-western parts of Zaporozhye region. In the management of living about 2.5 million people.

References

  1. Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2014). "Таблица 1.3. Численность населения Крымского федерального округа, городских округов, муниципальных районов, городских и сельских поселений" [Table 1.3. Population of Crimean Federal District, Its Urban Okrugs, Municipal Districts, Urban and Rural Settlements]. Федеральное статистическое наблюдение «Перепись населения в Крымском федеральном округе». ("Population Census in Crimean Federal District" Federal Statistical Examination) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service . Retrieved January 4, 2016.
  2. Brutzkus, Julius (1944). "The Khazar Origin of Ancient Kiev", Slavonic and East European Review, p. 118
  3. UPDATE: 26 Killed, 5 Hospitalized After Crimea House Blast, Ukrainian News Agency (December 26, 2008)
  4. Death toll of Crimean blast reaches 27, says Emergencies Ministry, Interfax-Ukraine (December 26, 2008)
  5. Friday Declared Mourning Day In Ukraine For Victims Of Yevpatoriya Gas Explosion Archived 2012-09-13 at Archive.today , Ukrainian News Agency (December 26, 2008)
  6. Ukraine mourns Crimea blast dead, BBC News (December 26, 2008)
  7. 27 dead after Ukrainian apartment blast, CNN (December 26, 2008)
  8. Four beaches in Crimea receive international certificates of cleanliness, Kyiv Post (May 12, 2010)
  9. "Evpatoria Climate Summary". pogodaiklimat.ru. Retrieved 14 February 2020.
  10. fr:Sémion Ezrovitch Douvan
  11. JPL Small-Body Database, NASA