Wei Shou (Chinese :魏收; pinyin :Wèi Shōu) (506–572), born in Xingtai, Hebei, was a Chinese author. He wrote the Book of Wei , composed in 554, an important Chinese historical text.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases not mutually intelligible, language varieties, forming the Sinitic branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family. Chinese is spoken by the ethnic Chinese majority and many minority ethnic groups in China. About 1.2 billion people speak some form of Chinese as their first language.
Hanyu Pinyin, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters.
Xingtai is a prefecture-level city in southern Hebei province, People's Republic of China. It has a total area of 12,486 square kilometres (4,821 sq mi) and administers 2 districts, 2 county-level cities and 15 counties. At the 2010 census, its population was 7,104,103 inhabitants whom 1,461,809 lived in the built-up area made of 2 urban districts and Xingtai and Nanhe Counties largely being conurbated now. It borders Shijiazhuang and Hengshui in the north, Handan in the south, and the provinces of Shandong and Shanxi in the east and west respectively.
Gongsun Yuan, courtesy name Wenyi, was a warlord and vassal of the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period of China. He rebelled against Wei in 237 and declared himself "King of Yan" (燕王). In 238, the Wei general Sima Yi led forces to Liaodong and successfully suppressed the rebellion.
The Records of the Three Kingdoms is a Chinese historical text which covers the history of the late Eastern Han dynasty and the Three Kingdoms period. The primary body of the text was written by Chen Shou in the third century and combines the smaller histories of Cao Wei, Shu Han and Eastern Wu into a single text.
Wei Zhao (204–273), courtesy name Hongsi, was an official, historian and scholar of the state of Eastern Wu during the Three Kingdoms period of China. He shared the same personal name as Sima Zhao so, in order to avoid naming taboo, the historian Chen Shou changed Wei Zhao's personal name to "Yao" when he wrote Wei Zhao's biography in the Sanguozhi.
Lu Zhi (159–192), courtesy name Zigan, was a general, official, and scholar of China's Eastern Han dynasty. According to the records of the Three kingdoms, he was the mentor of Liu Bei, and was described as a tall man with deep voice.
The Book of Wei, also known by its Chinese name as the Wei Shu, is a classic Chinese historical text compiled by Wei Shou from 551 to 554, and is an important text describing the history of the Northern Wei and Eastern Wei from 386 to 550.
Xiahou Hui, courtesy name Zhiquan, was an official of the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period of China.
Lady Bian, also known as Empress Dowager Bian or Grand Empress Dowager Bian, formally known as Empress Wuxuan, was an empress dowager and later grand empress dowager of the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period of China. She was the wife of Cao Cao, a warlord who rose to power in the late Eastern Han dynasty and laid the foundation of Wei. She bore Cao Cao's successor, Cao Pi, who ended the Han Dynasty and founded Wei in 220 after his father's death.
Empress Bian, personal name unknown, was an empress of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period of China. She was married to Cao Mao, the fourth emperor of Cao Wei. Her father Bian Long (卞隆) was a grandson of Bian Bing (卞秉), a brother-in-law of Cao Mao's great-grandfather Cao Cao. The former Empress Dowager Bian was her great-great-aunt.
Empress Bian, personal name unknown, was an empress of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period of China. She was married to Cao Huan, the fifth and last emperor of Cao Wei. She was a daughter of Bian Lin (卞霖) and a granddaughter of Bian Bing (卞秉), a brother of Lady Bian.
Bao Xun, courtesy name Shuye, was an official of the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period of China. He was appointed as a minister by Cao Cao in recognition of his father Bao Xin, who was killed in action against the Yellow Turban rebels. Bao Xun was known to be an outspoken minister who would not hesitate to criticise anyone for their mistakes, including his lord. The Wei emperor Cao Pi was frustrated and angry with Bao Xun for his outspoken nature that he demoted him several times during his reign. Eventually, Cao Pi grew tired of Bao Xun and ordered his execution.
Gongsun Gong was a minor warlord who lived during the late Eastern Han dynasty and early Three Kingdoms period of China. He was a son of Gongsun Du and a younger brother of Gongsun Kang, who both consecutively served as the Administrators of Liaodong Commandery in northeastern China. In 207, he advised his brother Gongsun Kang to execute the warlords Yuan Xi and Yuan Shang, who had fled to Liaodong Commandery for shelter after their defeat by the warlord Cao Cao. Gongsun Kang did so and sent the Yuans' heads to Cao Cao. After Gongsun Kang died, Gongsun Gong succeeded his brother as the new Administrator of Liaodong Commandery because Gongsun Kang's sons were too young at the time to assume the office. Gongsun Gong remained as a vassal of the Eastern Han dynasty and later pledged allegiance to the Cao Wei state, which replaced the Eastern Han dynasty in 220. In the same year, the Wei emperor Cao Pi granted Gongsun Gong the nominal appointment of General of Chariots and Cavalry (車騎將軍). In 228, Gongsun Yuan, Gongsun Kang's son, seized power from his uncle Gongsun Gong and put him in prison. Gongsun Yuan then started a rebellion against Wei, but the rebellion was suppressed by the Wei general Sima Yi in 238. Gongsun Gong was released after that. His eventual fate is unknown.
Xu Miao (172–249), courtesy name Jingshan, was an official of the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period of China. He started his career in the late Eastern Han dynasty under the warlord Cao Cao, who was the de facto head of the Han central government in that period. After the end of the Han dynasty in 220, Xu Miao served under Cao Cao's son and successor, Cao Pi, who established the Cao Wei state with himself as the emperor. He lived through the reigns of three Wei emperors – Cao Pi, Cao Rui and Cao Fang – and held various high offices in the Wei government.
Han Hao, courtesy name Yuansi, was a military officer serving under the warlord Cao Cao during the late Eastern Han dynasty of China.
Liu Shao, courtesy name Kongcai (孔才), was an official of the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period of China. He often provided advice to the emperor Cao Rui, and was praised by Cao Rui for his good advice, even though Cao Rui did not frequently actually act on the advice. He also wrote poems to try to discourage Cao Rui from military and palace-building projects. When Sun Quan, the emperor of Wei's rival state Eastern Wu, led an army to attack the Wei stronghold at Hefei in 234, Liu Shao suggested to Cao Rui to send his forces to cut off Sun Quan's supply route rather than engage Sun Quan directly – a strategy that forced Sun Quan to withdraw.
Wen Qin, courtesy name Zhongruo, was a military general of the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period of China. He served as the Inspector of Yang Province during the reign of the third Wei emperor, Cao Fang. In 254, when the Wei regent Sima Shi, who effectively controlled the Wei government, deposed Cao Fang and replaced him with Cao Mao, Wen Qin was deeply displeased because his loyalty was to the Wei emperor and not the Sima family. In the following year, he and another Wei general, Guanqiu Jian, started a rebellion in Shouchun against Sima Shi. However, Sima Shi managed to suppress the rebellion within months; Guanqiu Jian was killed while Wen Qin and his family escaped and defected to Wei's rival state, Eastern Wu. In 257, when another Wei general Zhuge Dan started a rebellion in Shouchun against the Wei regent Sima Zhao, Wen Qin and some Wu forces came to Shouchun to support Zhuge Dan. Sima Zhao led Wei forces to besiege Shouchun and the siege dragged on until early 258. As the situation became more dire, relations between Wen Qin and Zhuge Dan deteriorated, especially since they did not trust each other before. Zhuge Dan eventually had Wen Qin executed. Wen Qin's sons, Wen Hu and Wen Yang, fled from Shouchun and surrendered to Sima Zhao.
Budugen was a Xianbei chieftain who lived during the late Eastern Han dynasty and Three Kingdoms period of China. He retained his independence by pledging allegiance to the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period and sending tribute to Cao Pi, the first Wei emperor. During the reign of the second Wei emperor Cao Rui, Budugen attempted to form an alliance with another Xianbei chieftain, Kebineng, and start a rebellion against Wei rule. However, the rebellion was crushed and Budugen was killed by Kebineng.
Zhuge Xu was an official of the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period of China.
Cao Yan was a prince in the state of Cao Wei in the Three Kingdoms period of China. He was a son of Cao Pi, the first emperor of Wei. His mother, Consort Song (宋姬), was a concubine of Cao Pi. He was enfeoffed as the Prince of Guangping (廣平王) in 222. After his death in the following year, his princedom was abolished because he had no son to inherit it.
Cao Gong was a prince in the state of Cao Wei in the Three Kingdoms period of China. He was a son of Cao Pi, the first emperor of Wei. His mother, Consort Zhang (張姬), was a concubine of Cao Pi. He was enfeoffed as the Prince of Qinghe (清河王) in 222. After his death in the following year, his princedom was abolished because he had no son to inherit it.
Pang E (龐娥) or Zhao E (趙娥) was a woman from the Later Han to the Three Kingdoms period. Born in Gansu province, she was the mother of the Cao Wei politician, Pang Yu. She murdered her family's killer before turning herself in. Her case was recorded in Huangfu's ''Legend of Women'' (列女傳)
The Encyclopedia of China is the first large-entry modern encyclopedia in the Chinese language. The compilation began in 1978. Published by the Encyclopedia of China Publishing House, the encyclopedia was issued one volume at a time, beginning in 1980 with a volume on astronomy; the final volume was completed in 1993. It comprised 74 volumes, with more than 80,000 entries. Arranged by subject, which numbered 66, within each subject, entries were arranged by pinyin as many modern Chinese dictionaries have been. A Uyghur language edition was also published in 2015.
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