Parts of this article (those related to Types of GND high-level entities) need to be updated.February 2018)(
|Introduced||5 April 2012|
The Integrated Authority File (German : Gemeinsame Normdatei; also known as the Universal Authority File) or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly also by archives and museums. The GND is managed by the German National Library (German: Deutsche Nationalbibliothek; DNB) in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero (CC0) licence.
The GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It also comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format.
The Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued:
At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities:
|Typ||German (official)||English (translation)|
|p||Person (individualisiert)||person (individualised)|
|n||Name (nicht individualisiert)||name (not individualised)|
|g||Geografikum||geographical place name|
The Dublin Core Schema is a small set of vocabulary terms that can be used to describe digital resources, as well as physical resources such as books or CDs, and objects like artworks. The full set of Dublin Core metadata terms can be found on the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) website. The original set of 15 classic metadata terms, known as the Dublin Core Metadata Element Set (DCMES), is endorsed in the following standards documents:
The Semantic Web has the ultimate goal of making a machine understand Internet data. To enable the encoding of semantics with the data, well-known technologies are used such as RDF and OWL. These technologies formally represent the meaning involved in information. For example, ontology can describe concepts, relationships between things, and categories of things. These embedded semantics offer significant advantages such as reasoning over data and dealing with heterogeneous data sources.
MARCstandards are a set of digital formats for the description of items catalogued by libraries, such as books. Working with the Library of Congress, American computer scientist Henriette Avram developed MARC in the 1960s to create records that could be read by computers and shared among libraries. By 1971, MARC formats had become the US national standard for dissemination of bibliographic data. Two years later, they became the international standard. There are several versions of MARC in use around the world, the most predominant being MARC 21, created in 1999 as a result of the harmonization of U.S. and Canadian MARC formats, and UNIMARC, widely used in Europe. The MARC 21 family of standards now includes formats for authority records, holdings records, classification schedules, and community information, in addition to the format for bibliographic records.
DNB ASA is Norway's largest financial services group with total combined assets of more than NOK 1.9 trillion and a market capitalisation NOK 164 billion as per 20 May 2016. DNB's head office is located in Oslo.
GND may refer to:
In library science, authority control is a process that organizes bibliographic information, for example in library catalogs by using a single, distinct spelling of a name (heading) or a numeric identifier for each topic. The word authority in authority control derives from the idea that the names of people, places, things, and concepts are authorized, i.e., they are established in one particular form. These one-of-a-kind headings or identifiers are applied consistently throughout catalogs which make use of the respective authority file, and are applied for other methods of organizing data such as linkages and cross references. Each controlled entry is described in an authority record in terms of its scope and usage, and this organization helps the library staff maintain the catalog and make it user-friendly for researchers.
The Library of Congress Control Number (LCCN) is a serially-based system of numbering cataloging records in the Library of Congress in the United States. It has nothing to do with the contents of any book, and should not be confused with Library of Congress Classification.
The German National Library is the central archival library and national bibliographic centre for the Federal Republic of Germany. Its task is to collect, permanently archive, comprehensively document and record bibliographically all German and German-language publications since 1913, foreign publications about Germany, translations of German works, and the works of German-speaking emigrants published abroad between 1933 and 1945, and to make them available to the public. The German National Library maintains co-operative external relations on a national and international level. For example, it is the leading partner in developing and maintaining bibliographic rules and standards in Germany and plays a significant role in the development of international library standards. The cooperation with publishers has been regulated by law since 1935 for the Deutsche Bücherei Leipzig and since 1969 for the Deutsche Bibliothek Frankfurt.
A statutory corporation is a corporation created by the state. Their precise nature varies by jurisdiction, thus, they might be ordinary companies/corporations owned by a government with or without other shareholders, or they might be a body without shareholders that is controlled by national or sub-national government to the extent provided for in the creating legislation.
Metadata is "data that provides information about other data". In other words, it is "data about data." Many distinct types of metadata exist, including descriptive metadata, structural metadata, administrative metadata, reference metadata and statistical metadata.
The Name Authority File is an authority file of people, which served primarily to access literature in libraries. The PND has been built up between 1995 and 1998 and was published by the German National Library until 2012. For each person there is a record with his or her name, birth and occupation connected with a unique identifier, the PND number.
Florentine Lahme is a German actress.
The Virtual International Authority File (VIAF) is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC).
The Corporate Bodies Authority File or GKD is a German authority control for the organisation of corporation names from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries. Like the Subject Headings Authority File and the Name Authority File, the GKD is looked after and updated by the German National Library (DNB), the Bavarian State Library, the Berlin State Library and, since 1997, the Austrian National Library, several library networks taking part. The responsible editor is the State Library in Berlin. The Common Corporate File was created in the 1970s from the catalogue data of the Journal Database (ZDB). In April 2004 it contained more than 915,000 records.
The Subject Headings Authority File or SWD is a controlled vocabulary index term system used primarily for subject indexing in library catalogs. The SWD is managed by the German National Library (DNB) in cooperation with various library networks. The inclusion of keywords in the SWD is defined by "Rules for the Keyword Catalogue" (RSWK). Similar authority systems in other languages include the Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) and the RAMEAU. Since April 2012 the SWD is part of the Integrated Authority File.
Knowledge extraction is the creation of knowledge from structured and unstructured sources. The resulting knowledge needs to be in a machine-readable and machine-interpretable format and must represent knowledge in a manner that facilitates inferencing. Although it is methodically similar to information extraction (NLP) and ETL, the main criteria is that the extraction result goes beyond the creation of structured information or the transformation into a relational schema. It requires either the reuse of existing formal knowledge or the generation of a schema based on the source data.
The Name and Title Authority File of Catalonia (CANTIC) is an authority union catalogue within the Union Catalogue of Universities of Catalonia (CCUC), that it is led by the Biblioteca de Catalunya. Its goals are to standardize the access points in bibliographic catalogues, to improve communication among catalogues and mainly, to make easier the information research and retrieval. CANTIC gives a special treatment to name and title authorities related with Catalan culture. These authorities receive a complete authority work and provide, eventually, access to the Enciclopèdia Catalana.
The LC Linked Data Service is an initiative of the Library of Congress that publishes authority data as linked data. It is commonly referred to by its URI: id.loc.gov.
Social Networks and Archival Context (SNAC) is an online project for discovering, locating, and using distributed historical records in regard to individual people, families, and organizations.
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