|Introduced||August 6, 2003|
The Virtual International Authority File (VIAF) is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC).
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog (OPAC) in the world. OCLC is funded mainly by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC also maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system.
Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities. This would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process.
The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress (LC), the German National Library (DNB) and the OCLC on August 6, 2003. The Bibliothèque nationale de France (BnF) joined the project on October 5, 2007.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States. It is the oldest federal cultural institution in the United States. The Library is housed in three buildings on Capitol Hill in Washington, D.C.; it also maintains the National Audio-Visual Conservation Center in Culpeper, Virginia. The Library's functions are overseen by the Librarian of Congress, and its buildings are maintained by the Architect of the Capitol. The Library of Congress has claimed to be the largest library in the world. Its "collections are universal, not limited by subject, format, or national boundary, and include research materials from all parts of the world and in more than 450 languages."
The German National Library is the central archival library and national bibliographic centre for the Federal Republic of Germany. Its task is to collect, permanently archive, comprehensively document and record bibliographically all German and German-language publications since 1913, foreign publications about Germany, translations of German works, and the works of German-speaking emigrants published abroad between 1933 and 1945, and to make them available to the public. The German National Library maintains co-operative external relations on a national and international level. For example, it is the leading partner in developing and maintaining bibliographic rules and standards in Germany and plays a significant role in the development of international library standards. The cooperation with publishers has been regulated by law since 1935 for the Deutsche Bücherei Leipzig and since 1969 for the Deutsche Bibliothek Frankfurt.
The Bibliothèque nationale de France is the national library of France, located in Paris. It is the national repository of all that is published in France and also holds extensive historical collections.
The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012.
The aim is to link the national authority files (such as the German Name Authority File) to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are made available online and are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH) protocol.
The Name Authority File is an authority file of people, which served primarily to access literature in libraries. The PND has been built up between 1995 and 1998 and was published by the German National Library until 2012. For each person there is a record with his or her name, birth and occupation connected with a unique identifier, the PND number.
The Open Archives Initiative (OAI) is an organization to develop and apply technical interoperability standards for archives to share catalog information (metadata). It attempts to build a "low-barrier interoperability framework" for archives containing digital content. It allows people to harvest metadata. This metadata is used to provide "value-added services", often by combining different data sets.
The file numbers are also being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata.
Wikipedia is a multilingual online encyclopedia with exclusively free content and no ads, based on open collaboration through a model of content edit by web-based applications like web browsers, called wiki. It is the largest and most popular general reference work on the World Wide Web, and is one of the most popular websites by Alexa rank as of April 2019. It is owned and supported by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization that operates on money it receives from donors to remain ad free.
Wikidata is a collaboratively edited knowledge base hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. It is a common source of open data that Wikimedia projects such as Wikipedia can use, and anyone else, under a public domain license. This is similar to the way Wikimedia Commons provides storage for media files and access to those files for all Wikimedia projects, and which are also freely available for reuse. Wikidata is powered by the software Wikibase.
VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month. As more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records.
|English Wikipedia entry name||Identifier||Native-language name||Location||Country|
|Bibliotheca Alexandrina||EGAXA||Arabic : مكتبة الإسكندرية||Alexandria||Egypt|
|Biblioteca Nacional de Chile||BNCHL||Spanish : Biblioteca Nacional de Chile||Santiago||Chile|
|Biblioteca Nacional de España||BNE||Spanish : Biblioteca Nacional de España||Madrid||Spain|
|Biblioteca Nacional de Portugal||PTBNP||Portuguese : Biblioteca Nacional de Portugal||Lisbon||Portugal|
|Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec||B2Q||French : Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec||Quebec||Canada|
|Bibliothèque nationale de France||BnF||French : Bibliothèque nationale de France||Paris||France|
|Bibliothèque Nationale du Royaume du Maroc (BNRM)||MRBNR|| Arabic : المكتبة الوطنية للمملكة المغربية|
French : Bibliothèque nationale du Royaume du Maroc
|Biografisch Portaal||BPN||Dutch : Biografisch Portaal||The Hague||Netherlands|
|Danish Agency for Culture and Palaces||Danish : Kulturstyrelsen||Copenhagen||Denmark|
|Danish Bibliographic Centre||DBC||Danish : Dansk BiblioteksCenter||Ballerup||Denmark|
|German National Library (DNB)||GND||German : Deutsche Nationalbibliothek||Frankfurt||Germany|
|International Standard Name Identifier||ISNI||–||London||United Kingdom|
|Israel Museum||Hebrew : מוזיאון ישראל||Jerusalem||Israel|
|Istituto Centrale per il Catalogo Unico||ICCU|
|Italian : Istituto Centrale per il Catalogo Unico||Rome||Italy|
|Lebanese National Library||LNL||Arabic : المكتبة الوطنية||Beirut||Lebanon|
|Library and Archives Canada||LAC||French : Bibliothèque et Archives Canada||Ottawa, Ontario||Canada|
| Library of Congress |
NACO consortium (Name Authority Cooperative Program)
|LCCN||–||Washington, D.C.||United States|
|National and University Library in Zagreb||NSK||Croatian : Nacionalna i sveučilišna knjižnica u Zagrebu||Zagreb||Croatia|
|National and University Library of Slovenia||Slovene : Narodna in univerzitetna knjižnica||Ljubljana||Slovenia|
|National Central Library||NCL|
|National Diet Library||NDL||Japanese : 国立国会図書館|| Tokyo |
|National Institute of Informatics||NII|
|Japanese : 国立情報学研究所||Tokyo||Japan|
|National Library Board||NLB||–||–||Singapore|
|National Library of Australia||NLA||–||Canberra||Australia|
|National Library of Brazil||BLBNB||Portuguese : Biblioteca Nacional do Brasil||Rio de Janeiro||Brazil|
|National Library of Catalonia||BNC||Catalan : Biblioteca de Catalunya||Barcelona||Spain|
|National Library of Estonia||ERRR||Estonian : Eesti Rahvusraamatukogu||Tallinn||Estonia|
|National and University Library of Iceland (NULI)||UIY||Icelandic : Háskólabókasafn||Reykjavík||Iceland|
|National Library of Ireland||N6I||Irish : Leabharlann Náisiúnta na hÉireann||Dublin||Ireland|
|National Library of Israel||NLI||Hebrew : הספרייה הלאומית||Jerusalem||Israel|
|National Library of Korea||KRNLK||Korean : 국립중앙도서관||Seoul||Korea|
|National Library of Latvia||LNB||Latvian : Latvijas Nacionālā bibliotēka||Rīga||Latvia|
|National Library of Luxembourg||BNL|| Luxembourgish : Nationalbibliothéik Lëtzebuerg|
French : Bibliothèque nationale de Luxembourg
|National Library of Mexico||BNM||Spanish : Biblioteca Nacional de México||Mexico City||Mexico|
|National Library of the Netherlands||NTA||Dutch : Koninklijke Bibliotheek||The Hague||Netherlands|
|National Library of New Zealand||–||Wellington||New Zealand|
|National Library of Norway|| BIBSYS |
|Norwegian : Nasjonalbiblioteket||Trondheim||Norway|
|National Library of Poland||NLP||Polish : Biblioteka Narodowa||Warsaw||Poland|
|National Library of Scotland|| Scottish Gaelic : Leabharlann Nàiseanta na h-Alba|
Scots : Naitional Leebrar o Scotland
|National Library of South Africa||Afrikaans : Staats-Bibliotheek der Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek|| Cape Town |
|National Library of Sweden||SELIBR||Swedish : Kungliga biblioteket - Sveriges nationalbibliotek||Stockholm||Sweden|
|National Library of Wales||Welsh : Llyfrgell Genedlaethol Cymru||Aberystwyth||Wales|
|National Library of the Czech Republic||NKC||Czech : Národní knihovna České republiky||Prague||Czech Republic|
|National Széchényi Library||NSZL||Hungarian : Országos Széchényi Könyvtár||Budapest||Hungary|
|Perseus Project||PERSEUS||–||Medford, Massachusetts||United States|
|RERO (Library Network of Western Switzerland)||RERO|| German : Westschweizer Bibliothekverbund|
French : Réseau des bibliothèques de Suisse occidentale
Italian : Rete delle bibliotheche della Svizzera occidentale
|Répertoire International des Sources Musicales||RISM||–||Frankfurt||Germany|
|Russian State Library||RLS||Russian : Российская государственная библиотека||Moscow||Russia|
|Système universitaire de documentation||SUDOC||French : Système universitaire de documentation||–||France|
|Syriac Reference Portal||SRP||–||Nashville, Tennessee||United States|
|Swiss National Library||SWNL|| German : Schweizerische Nationalbibliothek|
French : Bibliothèque nationale suisse
Italian : Biblioteca nazionale svizzera
Romansh : Biblioteca naziunala svizra
|Narodowy Uniwersalny Katalog Centralny, NUKAT||NUKAT||Polish : Narodowy Uniwersalny Katalog Centralny||–||Poland|
|Union List of Artist Names – Getty Research Institute||ULAN|
|–||Los Angeles, California||United States|
|United States National Agricultural Library||NALT||–||Beltsville, Maryland||United States|
|United States National Library of Medicine||–||Bethesda, Maryland||United States|
|Vatican Library||BAV||Latin : Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana||–||Vatican City|
|Vlaamse openbare bibliotheken (VLACC): Bibnet||VLACC||Dutch : Vlaamse Centrale Catalogus||Brussels||Belgium|
|English Wikipedia entry name||Identifier||Native-language name||Location||Country|
|Lithuanian National Library||LIH||Lithuanian : Lietuvos nacionalinė Martyno Mažvydo biblioteka||Vilnius||Lithuania|
|National and University Library of Slovenia / COBISS||SIMACOB||Slovene : Narodna in univerzitetna knjižnica, NUK||Ljubljana||Slovenia|
MARCstandards are a set of digital formats for the description of items catalogued by libraries, such as books. Working with the Library of Congress, American computer scientist Henriette Avram developed MARC in the 1960s to create records that could be read by computers and shared among libraries. By 1971, MARC formats had become the US national standard for dissemination of bibliographic data. Two years later, they became the international standard. There are several versions of MARC in use around the world, the most predominant being MARC 21, created in 1999 as a result of the harmonization of U.S. and Canadian MARC formats, and UNIMARC, widely used in Europe. The MARC 21 family of standards now includes formats for authority records, holdings records, classification schedules, and community information, in addition to the format for bibliographic records.
The Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH) is a protocol developed for harvesting metadata descriptions of records in an archive so that services can be built using metadata from many archives. An implementation of OAI-PMH must support representing metadata in Dublin Core, but may also support additional representations.
In library science, authority control is a process that organizes bibliographic information, for example in library catalogs by using a single, distinct spelling of a name (heading) or a numeric identifier for each topic. The word authority in authority control derives from the idea that the names of people, places, things, and concepts are authorized, i.e., they are established in one particular form. These one-of-a-kind headings or identifiers are applied consistently throughout catalogs which make use of the respective authority file, and are applied for other methods of organizing data such as linkages and cross references. Each controlled entry is described in an authority record in terms of its scope and usage, and this organization helps the library staff maintain the catalog and make it user-friendly for researchers.
The Library of Congress Control Number (LCCN) is a serially-based system of numbering cataloging records in the Library of Congress in the United States. It has nothing to do with the contents of any book, and should not be confused with Library of Congress Classification.
The International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) is the leading international body representing the interests of people who rely on libraries and information professionals. An independent, non-governmental, not-for-profit organization, IFLA was founded in Scotland in 1927 and maintains headquarters at the National Library of the Netherlands in The Hague. IFLA sponsors the annual IFLA World Library and Information Congress, promoting universal and equitable access to information, ideas, and works of imagination for social, educational, cultural, democratic, and economic empowerment.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to library science:
Functional Requirements for Authority Data (FRAD), formerly known as Functional Requirements for Authority Records (FRAR) is a conceptual entity-relationship model developed by the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) for relating the data that are recorded in library authority records to the needs of the users of those records and facilitate and sharing of that data.
Resource Description and Access (RDA) is a standard for descriptive cataloging initially released in June 2010, providing instructions and guidelines on formulating bibliographic data. Intended for use by libraries and other cultural organizations such as museums and archives, RDA is the successor to Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, Second Edition (AACR2).
The International Standard Name Identifier (ISNI) is an identifier for uniquely identifying the public identities of contributors to media content such as books, television programmes, and newspaper articles. Such an identifier consists of 16 digits. It can optionally be displayed as divided into four blocks.
In the Dutch research system, the Digital Author Identifier (DAI) system assigns a unique number to all academic authors as a form of authority control. The DAI links the PICA database in institutional libraries with the METIS national research information system.
The ORCIDiD is a nonproprietary alphanumeric code to uniquely identify scientific and other academic authors and contributors. This addresses the problem that a particular author's contributions to the scientific literature or publications in the humanities can be hard to recognize as most personal names are not unique, they can change, have cultural differences in name order, contain inconsistent use of first-name abbreviations and employ different writing systems. It provides a persistent identity for humans, similar to that created for content-related entities on digital networks by digital object identifiers (DOIs).
Jacques Edmond-Joseph Papinot (1860–1942) was a French Roman Catholic priest and missionary who was also known in Japan as Father Papino. He was an architect, academic, historian, editor, Japanologist.
Richard Henry Pitt Mason, also known as R.H.P. Mason, was an Australian academic, historian and Japanologist, and professor at the Australian National University in Canberra, before retiring in 1993.
BIBFRAME is a data model for bibliographic description. BIBFRAME was designed to replace the MARC standards, and to use linked data principles to make bibliographic data more useful both within and outside the library community.
The LC Linked Data Service is an initiative of the Library of Congress that publishes authority data as linked data. It is commonly referred to by its URI: id.loc.gov.
Faceted Application of Subject Terminology (FAST) is a general use controlled vocabulary based on the Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH). FAST is developed as a part of WorldCat by the Online Computer Library Center, Inc. (OCLC), with the goal of making subject cataloging less costly and easier to implement in online contexts. FAST headings separate topical data from non-topical data, such as information about a document's form, chronological coverage, or geographical coverage.
The International Standard Authority Data Number (ISADN) was a registry proposed by the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) to provide and maintain unique identifiers for entities described in authority data. Having such a unique number would have the benefits of being language-independent and system-independent.
E-Theses Online Service (EThOS) is a bibliographic database and union catalogue of electronic theses provided by the British Library, the National Library of the United Kingdom. As of March 2018 EThOS provides access to approximately 480,000 doctoral theses awarded by over 140 UK higher education institutions, with around 3000 new thesis records added every month.
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