Virtual International Authority File

Last updated
Virtual International Authority File
VIAF Screenshot 2012.png
Screenshot 2012
AcronymVIAF
Organisation OCLC
IntroducedAugust 6, 2003 (2003-08-06)
Example 106965171
Website viaf.org OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg

The Virtual International Authority File (VIAF) is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC). [1]

OCLC global library cooperative

OCLC, Inc., d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center, then became the Online Computer Library Center as it expanded. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog (OPAC) in the world. OCLC is funded mainly by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC also maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system.

Contents

History

Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities. This would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. [2]

The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress (LC), the German National Library (DNB) and the OCLC on August 6, 2003. The Bibliothèque nationale de France (BnF) joined the project on October 5, 2007.

Library of Congress (de facto) national library of the United States of America

The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States. It is the oldest federal cultural institution in the United States. The library is housed in three buildings on Capitol Hill in Washington, D.C.; it also maintains the National Audio-Visual Conservation Center in Culpeper, Virginia. The library's functions are overseen by the librarian of Congress, and its buildings are maintained by the architect of the Capitol. The Library of Congress claims to be the largest library in the world. Its "collections are universal, not limited by subject, format, or national boundary, and include research materials from all parts of the world and in more than 450 languages."

German National Library central archival library and national bibliographic centre for the Federal Republic of Germany

The German National Library is the central archival library and national bibliographic centre for the Federal Republic of Germany. Its task is to collect, permanently archive, comprehensively document and record bibliographically all German and German-language publications since 1913, foreign publications about Germany, translations of German works, and the works of German-speaking emigrants published abroad between 1933 and 1945, and to make them available to the public. The German National Library maintains co-operative external relations on a national and international level. For example, it is the leading partner in developing and maintaining bibliographic rules and standards in Germany and plays a significant role in the development of international library standards. The cooperation with publishers has been regulated by law since 1935 for the Deutsche Bücherei Leipzig and since 1969 for the Deutsche Bibliothek Frankfurt.

Bibliothèque nationale de France National Library of France

The Bibliothèque nationale de France is the national library of France, located in Paris. It is the national repository of all that is published in France and also holds extensive historical collections.

The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012. [3]

The aim is to link the national authority files (such as the German Name Authority File) to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are made available online and are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH) protocol.

The Name Authority File is an authority file of people, which served primarily to access literature in libraries. The PND has been built up between 1995 and 1998 and was published by the German National Library until 2012. For each person there is a record with his or her name, birth and occupation connected with a unique identifier, the PND number.

The Open Archives Initiative (OAI) is an organization to develop and apply technical interoperability standards for archives to share catalog information (metadata). It attempts to build a "low-barrier interoperability framework" for archives containing digital content. It allows people to harvest metadata. This metadata is used to provide "value-added services", often by combining different data sets.

The file numbers are also being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. [4] [5]

Wikipedia Free online encyclopedia that anyone can edit

Wikipedia is a multilingual online encyclopedia, based on open collaboration through a wiki-based content editing system. It is the largest and most popular general reference work on the World Wide Web, and is one of the most popular websites ranked by Alexa as of June 2019. It features exclusively free content and no commercial ads, and is owned and supported by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization funded primarily through donations.

Wikidata Free knowledge database project

Wikidata is a collaboratively edited knowledge base hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. It is a common source of open data that Wikimedia projects such as Wikipedia can use, and anyone else, under a public domain license. This is similar to the way Wikimedia Commons provides storage for media files and access to those files for all Wikimedia projects, and which are also freely available for reuse. Wikidata is powered by the software Wikibase.

VIAF clusters

VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month. As more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. [6]

Participating libraries and organizations

English Wikipedia entry nameIdentifierNative-language nameLocationCountry
Bibliotheca Alexandrina EGAXA Arabic : مكتبة الإسكندرية Alexandria Egypt
Biblioteca Nacional de Chile BNCHL Spanish : Biblioteca Nacional de Chile Santiago Chile
Biblioteca Nacional de España BNE Spanish : Biblioteca Nacional de España Madrid Spain
Biblioteca Nacional de Portugal PTBNP Portuguese : Biblioteca Nacional de Portugal Lisbon Portugal
Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec B2Q French : Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec Quebec Canada
Bibliothèque nationale de France BnF French : Bibliothèque nationale de France Paris France
Bibliothèque Nationale du Royaume du Maroc (BNRM)MRBNR Arabic : المكتبة الوطنية للمملكة المغربية
French : Bibliothèque nationale du Royaume du Maroc
Rabat Morocco
Biografisch Portaal BPN Dutch : Biografisch Portaal The Hague Netherlands
British Library London England
Danish Agency for Culture and Palaces Danish : Kulturstyrelsen Copenhagen Denmark
Danish Bibliographic Centre DBC Danish : Dansk BiblioteksCenter Ballerup Denmark
German National Library (DNB)GND German : Deutsche Nationalbibliothek Frankfurt Germany
International Standard Name Identifier [7] ISNI London United Kingdom
Israel Museum Hebrew : מוזיאון ישראל Jerusalem Israel
Istituto Centrale per il Catalogo Unico ICCU
SBN
Italian : Istituto Centrale per il Catalogo Unico Rome Italy
Lebanese National Library LNL Arabic : المكتبة الوطنية Beirut Lebanon
Library and Archives Canada LAC French : Bibliothèque et Archives Canada Ottawa, Ontario Canada
Library of Congress
NACO consortium (Name Authority Cooperative Program) [8]
LCCN Washington, D.C. United States
National and University Library in Zagreb NSK Croatian : Nacionalna i sveučilišna knjižnica u Zagrebu Zagreb Croatia
National and University Library of Slovenia Slovene : Narodna in univerzitetna knjižnica Ljubljana Slovenia
National Central Library NCL
CYT
Chinese :國家圖書館 Taipei Taiwan
National Diet Library NDL Japanese : 国立国会図書館 Tokyo
Kyoto
Japan
National Institute of Informatics NII
CiNii
Japanese : 国立情報学研究所 Tokyo Japan
National Library Board NLB Singapore
National Library of Australia NLA Canberra Australia
National Library of Brazil BLBNB Portuguese : Biblioteca Nacional do Brasil Rio de Janeiro Brazil
National Library of Catalonia BNC Catalan : Biblioteca de Catalunya Barcelona Spain
National Library of Estonia ERRR Estonian : Eesti Rahvusraamatukogu Tallinn Estonia
National and University Library of Iceland (NULI)UIY Icelandic : Háskólabókasafn Reykjavík Iceland
National Library of Ireland N6I Irish : Leabharlann Náisiúnta na hÉireann Dublin Ireland
National Library of Israel NLI Hebrew : הספרייה הלאומית Jerusalem Israel
National Library of Korea KRNLK Korean : 국립중앙도서관 Seoul Korea
National Library of Latvia LNB Latvian : Latvijas Nacionālā bibliotēka Rīga Latvia
National Library of Luxembourg BNL Luxembourgish : Nationalbibliothéik Lëtzebuerg
French : Bibliothèque nationale de Luxembourg
Luxembourg City Luxembourg
National Library of Mexico BNM Spanish : Biblioteca Nacional de México Mexico City Mexico
National Library of the Netherlands NTA Dutch : Koninklijke Bibliotheek The Hague Netherlands
National Library of New Zealand Wellington New Zealand
National Library of Norway BIBSYS
W2Z
Norwegian : Nasjonalbiblioteket Trondheim Norway
National Library of Poland NLP Polish : Biblioteka Narodowa Warsaw Poland
National Library of Scotland Scottish Gaelic : Leabharlann Nàiseanta na h-Alba
Scots : Naitional Leebrar o Scotland
Edinburgh Scotland
National Library of South Africa Afrikaans : Staats-Bibliotheek der Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek Cape Town
Pretoria
South Africa
National Library of Sweden SELIBR Swedish : Kungliga biblioteket - Sveriges nationalbibliotek Stockholm Sweden
National Library of Wales Welsh : Llyfrgell Genedlaethol Cymru Aberystwyth Wales
National Library of the Czech Republic NKC Czech : Národní knihovna České republiky Prague Czech Republic
National Széchényi Library NSZL Hungarian : Országos Széchényi Könyvtár Budapest Hungary
Perseus Project PERSEUS Medford, Massachusetts United States
RERO (Library Network of Western Switzerland) RERO German : Westschweizer Bibliothekverbund
French : Réseau des bibliothèques de Suisse occidentale
Italian : Rete delle bibliotheche della Svizzera occidentale
Martigny Switzerland
Répertoire International des Sources Musicales RISM Frankfurt Germany
Russian State Library RLS Russian : Российская государственная библиотека Moscow Russia
Système universitaire de documentation SUDOC French : Système universitaire de documentation France
Syriac Reference Portal SRP Nashville, Tennessee United States
Swiss National Library SWNL German : Schweizerische Nationalbibliothek
French : Bibliothèque nationale suisse
Italian : Biblioteca nazionale svizzera
Romansh : Biblioteca naziunala svizra
Berne Switzerland
Narodowy Uniwersalny Katalog Centralny, NUKAT  [ pl ]NUKAT Polish : Narodowy Uniwersalny Katalog Centralny Poland
Union List of Artist NamesGetty Research Institute ULAN
JPG
Los Angeles, California United States
United States National Agricultural Library NALT Beltsville, Maryland United States
United States National Library of Medicine Bethesda, Maryland United States
Vatican Library BAV Latin : Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana Vatican City
Vlaamse openbare bibliotheken (VLACC): Bibnet  [ nl ]VLACC Dutch : Vlaamse Centrale Catalogus Brussels Belgium
Wikidata WKP Berlin, Germany International

Libraries added for testing purposes

English Wikipedia entry nameIdentifierNative-language nameLocationCountry
Lithuanian National Library LIH Lithuanian : Lietuvos nacionalinė Martyno Mažvydo biblioteka Vilnius Lithuania
National and University Library of Slovenia / COBISS SIMACOB Slovene : Narodna in univerzitetna knjižnica, NUK Ljubljana Slovenia

See also

Related Research Articles

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References

  1. Kelley, Michael; Schwartz, Meredith (2012). "VIAF service transitions to OCLC". Library Journal . Media Source Inc. 137 (8): 16.  Closed Access logo transparent.svg
  2. O'Neill, Edward T. (12 August 2016). "VIAF: Origins" (Video presentation). Authority Data on the Web, a Satellite Meeting of the 2016 IFLA World Library and Information Congress. OCLC.
  3. Murphy, Bob (4 April 2012). "Virtual International Authority File service transitions to OCLC; contributing institutions continue to shape direction through VIAF Council" (Press release). OCLC . Dublin, OH.
  4. Klein, Max; Renspie, Melissa (7 December 2012). "VIAFbot Edits 250,000 Wikipedia Articles to Reciprocate All Links from VIAF into Wikipedia". OCLC .
  5. Klein, Maximilian; Kyrios, Alex (14 October 2013). "VIAFbot and the Integration of Library Data on Wikipedia". The Code4Lib Journal (22). ISSN   1940-5758.
  6. Hickey, Thomas B.; Toves, Jenny A. (July 2014). "Managing Ambiguity In VIAF". D-Lib Magazine . Corporation for National Research Initiatives. 20 (7/8). doi:10.1045/july2014-hickey.
  7. MacEwan, Andrew (12 August 2016). "ISNI and VIAF" (Video presentation). Authority Data on the Web, a Satellite Meeting of the 2016 IFLA World Library and Information Congress. OCLC.
  8. "NACO - Name Authority Cooperative Program". Library of Congress .