International Standard Name Identifier

Last updated
International Standard Name Identifier
AcronymISNI
IntroducedMarch 15, 2012 (2012-03-15)
Managing organisationISNI-IA
No. of digits16
Check digit MOD 11-2
Example 000000012146438X
Website isni.org OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg

The International Standard Name Identifier (ISNI) is an identifier for uniquely identifying the public identities of contributors to media content such as books, television programmes, and newspaper articles. Such an identifier consists of 16 digits. It can optionally be displayed as divided into four blocks.

Contents

ISNI can be used to disambiguate names that might otherwise be confused, and links the data about names that are collected and used in all sectors of the media industries.

It was developed under the auspices of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) as Draft International Standard 27729; the valid standard was published on 15 March 2012. The ISO technical committee 46, subcommittee 9 (TC 46/SC 9) is responsible for the development of the standard.

International Organization for Standardization An international standard-setting body composed of representatives from national organizations for standards

The International Organization for Standardization is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.

ISNI format

The FAQ of the isni.org websites states "An ISNI is made up of 16 digits, the last character being a check character." [1]

Format without space

Format with space

In display it is frequently shown with spaces.

Uses of an ISNI

The ISNI allows a single identity (such as an author's pseudonym or the imprint used by a publisher) to be identified using a unique number. This unique number can then be linked to any of the numerous other identifiers that are used across the media industries to identify names and other forms of identity.

A pseudonym or alias is a name that a person or group assumes for a particular purpose, which can differ from their first or true name (orthonym).

An example of the use of such a number is the identification of a musical performer who is also a writer both of music and of poems. Where he or she might currently be identified in many different databases using numerous private and public identification systems, under the ISNI system, he or she would have a single linking ISNI record. The many different databases could then exchange data about that particular identity without resorting to messy methods such as comparing text strings. An often quoted example in the English language world is the difficulty faced when identifying 'John Smith' in a database. While there may be many records for 'John Smith', it is not always clear which record refers to the specific 'John Smith' that is required.

If an author has published under several different names or pseudonyms, each such name will receive its own ISNI.

ISNI can be used by libraries and archives when sharing catalogue information; for more precise searching for information online and in databases, and it can aid the management of rights across national borders and in the digital environment.

ORCID

ORCID (Open Researcher and Contributor ID) identifiers consist of a reserved block of ISNI identifiers for scholarly researchers [5] and administered by a separate organisation. [5] Individual researchers can create and claim their own ORCID identifier. [6] The two organisations coordinate their efforts. [5] [6]

ORCID nonproprietary alphanumeric code to uniquely identify scientific and other academic authors

The ORCIDiD is a nonproprietary alphanumeric code to uniquely identify scientific and other academic authors and contributors. This addresses the problem that a particular author's contributions to the scientific literature or publications in the humanities can be hard to recognize as most personal names are not unique, they can change, have cultural differences in name order, contain inconsistent use of first-name abbreviations and employ different writing systems. It provides a persistent identity for humans, similar to that created for content-related entities on digital networks by digital object identifiers (DOIs).

Organisations involved in the management

ISNI Registration Authority

According to ISO the Registration Authority for ISO 27729:2012 is the "ISNI International Agency". [7] It is located in London (c/o EDItEUR) [8]

It is incorporated under the Companies Act 2006 as a private company limited by guarantee. [9]

The 'International Agency' is commonly known as the ISNI-IA. [10] [11]

This UK registered, not-for-profit company has been founded by a consortium of organisations consisting of the Confédération Internationale des Sociétés d'Auteurs et Compositeurs (CISAC), the Conference of European National Librarians (CENL), the International Federation of Reproduction Rights Organisations (IFRRO), the International Performers Database Association (IPDA), the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) and ProQuest. It is managed by directors nominated from these organisations and, in the case of CENL, by representatives of the Bibliothèque nationale de France and the British Library.

ISNI Registration Agencies

A registration agency provides the interface between ISNI applicants and the ISNI Assignment Agency. [12]

List of Registration Agencies in order as on ISNI-IA website
Name (as on ISNI-IA website)SinceRelation
Biblioteca Nacional de España (BNE)Spain
BnF (Bibliothèque nationale de France)2014 [13] France
Bibliothèque nationale de Luxembourg Luxembourg
British Library UK
BTLF (Société de gestion de la Banque de Titres de Langue Française) France
Casalini Libri Italy
China Knowledge Centre for Engineering Sciences and Technology (CKCEST)China
Consolidated Independent United Kingdom
Electre
Identification Agency (IDA)Russia
Koninklijke Bibliotheek Netherlands
Kültür ve Turizm Bakanliği Turkey
National Assembly Library of Korea South Korea
National Library of Korea South Korea
National Library of Poland Poland
Numerical GurusUnited States
Program for Cooperative Cataloging (PCC)
Ringgold organisations, international
Rakuten Kobo Canada
Sound Exchange Inc. United States
Soundways United States
YouTube 2018 [14] international

ISNI Members

ISNI members (ISNI-IA Members [15] ) as of 2018-07-11: [15]

ISNI assignment

ISNI-IA uses an assignment system comprising a user interface, data-schema, disambiguation algorithms, and database that meets the requirements of the ISO standard, while also using existing technology where possible. The system is based primarily on the Virtual International Authority File (VIAF) service, which has been developed by OCLC for use in the aggregation of library catalogues.

Access to the assignment system and database, and to the numbers that are generated as the output of the process, are controlled by independent bodies known as 'registration agencies'. These registration agencies deal directly with customers, ensuring that data is provided in appropriate formats and recompensing the ISNI-IA for the cost of maintaining the assignment system. Registration agencies are appointed by ISNI-IA but will be managed and funded independently.

ISNI coverage

In 2018, YouTube became an ISNI registry, and announced its intention to begin creating ISNI IDs for the musicians whose videos it features. [17] ISNI anticipates the number of ISNI IDs "going up by perhaps 3-5 million over the next couple of years" as a result. [18]

See also

Related Research Articles

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ISO 639 is a set of standards by the International Organization for Standardization that is concerned with representation of names for languages and language groups.

Digital object identifier Character string used as a permanent identifier for a digital object, in a format controlled by the International DOI Foundation

In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to identify objects uniquely, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). An implementation of the Handle System, DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos.

ISO/IEC 7812Identification cards — Identification of issuers was first published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in 1989. It is the international standard specifies "a numbering system for the identification of the card issuers, the format of the issuer identification number (IIN) and the primary account number (PAN).", and procedures for registering IINs. ISO/IEC 7812 has two parts:

Registration authorities exist for many standards organizations, such as ANNA, the Object Management Group, W3C, IEEE and others. In general, registration authorities all perform a similar function, in promoting the use of a particular standard through facilitating its use. This may be by applying the standard, where appropriate, or by verifying that a particular application satisfies the standard's tenants. Maintenance agencies, in contrast, may change an element in a standard based on set rules – such as the creation or change of a currency code when a currency is created or revalued. The Object Management Group has an additional concept of certified provider, which is deemed an entity permitted to perform some functions on behalf of the registration authority, under specific processes and procedures documented within the standard for such a role.

International Standard Musical Work Code (ISWC) is a unique identifier for musical works, similar to ISBN for books. It is adopted as international standard ISO 15707. The ISO subcommittee with responsibility for the standard is TC 46/SC 9.

International Standard Audiovisual Number

International Standard Audiovisual Number (ISAN) is a unique identifier for audiovisual works and related versions, similar to ISBN for books. It was developed within an ISO TC46/SC9 working group. ISAN is managed and run by ISAN-IA.

The International Standard Identifier for Libraries and Related Organisations (ISIL), ISO 15511, assigns unique identifiers to libraries and related organisations, such as archives and museums.

The International Standard Recording Code (ISRC) is an international standard code for uniquely identifying sound recordings and music video recordings. The code was developed by the recording industry in conjunction with the ISO technical committee 46, subcommittee 9, which codified the standard as ISO 3901 in 1986, and updated it in 2001.

In library science, authority control is a process that organizes bibliographic information, for example in library catalogs by using a single, distinct spelling of a name (heading) or a numeric identifier for each topic. The word authority in authority control derives from the idea that the names of people, places, things, and concepts are authorized, i.e., they are established in one particular form. These one-of-a-kind headings or identifiers are applied consistently throughout catalogs which make use of the respective authority file, and are applied for other methods of organizing data such as linkages and cross references. Each controlled entry is described in an authority record in terms of its scope and usage, and this organization helps the library staff maintain the catalog and make it user-friendly for researchers.

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References

  1. "ISNI - FAQ". www.isni.org. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  2. Office, Library of Congress Network Development and MARC Standards. "Encoding the International Standard Name Identifier (ISNI) in the MARC 21 Bibliographic and Authority Formats". www.loc.gov. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  3. "ISNI 000000012281955X Ai-en-ssu-tan (1879-1955)". www.isni.org. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  4. http://viaf.org/viaf/75121530/
  5. 1 2 3 "What is the relationship between ISNI and ORCID?". About ORCID. ORCID. Retrieved 29 March 2013.
  6. 1 2 "ISNI and ORCID". ISNI. Archived from the original on 4 March 2013. Retrieved 29 March 2013.
  7. "Maintenance agencies and registration authorities". Iso.org. Retrieved 2018-07-16.
  8. "ISNI International Agency - ISNI International Agency". Iso.org. Retrieved 2018-07-16.
  9. http://www.isni.org/filedepot_download/134/473
  10. "ISNI" . Retrieved 19 December 2014.
  11. "About the ISNI International Agency" . Retrieved 19 December 2014.
  12. "Registration Agencies". ISNI. Retrieved 2018-07-16.
  13. "BnF: First National Library In the World to Become an ISNI Registration Agency". ISNI. Retrieved 2018-07-16.
  14. "YouTube Adopts ISNI ID for Artists & Songwriters". ISNI. 2018-01-22. Retrieved 2018-07-16.
  15. 1 2 "Members". ISNI. Retrieved 2018-07-16.
  16. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 "ISNI". www.isni.org. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  17. "YouTube Adopts ISNI ID for Artists & Songwriters". ISNI. Retrieved 1 June 2018.
  18. "Transcript: YouTube Knows Who You Are". Beyond the Book. 18 March 2018. Retrieved 1 June 2018.

Further reading