1460

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Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1460 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 1460
MCDLX
Ab urbe condita 2213
Armenian calendar 909
ԹՎ ՋԹ
Assyrian calendar 6210
Balinese saka calendar 1381–1382
Bengali calendar 867
Berber calendar 2410
English Regnal year 38  Hen. 6   39  Hen. 6
Buddhist calendar 2004
Burmese calendar 822
Byzantine calendar 6968–6969
Chinese calendar 己卯(Earth  Rabbit)
4156 or 4096
     to 
庚辰年 (Metal  Dragon)
4157 or 4097
Coptic calendar 1176–1177
Discordian calendar 2626
Ethiopian calendar 1452–1453
Hebrew calendar 5220–5221
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1516–1517
 - Shaka Samvat 1381–1382
 - Kali Yuga 4560–4561
Holocene calendar 11460
Igbo calendar 460–461
Iranian calendar 838–839
Islamic calendar 864–865
Japanese calendar Chōroku 4 / Kanshō 1
(寛正元年)
Javanese calendar 1376–1377
Julian calendar 1460
MCDLX
Korean calendar 3793
Minguo calendar 452 before ROC
民前452年
Nanakshahi calendar −8
Thai solar calendar 2002–2003
Tibetan calendar 阴土兔年
(female Earth-Rabbit)
1586 or 1205 or 433
     to 
阳金龙年
(male Iron-Dragon)
1587 or 1206 or 434

Year 1460 ( MCDLX ) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar, the 1460th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 460th year of the 2nd millennium, the 60th year of the 15th century, and the 1st year of the 1460s decade.

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The 1460s decade ran from January 1, 1460, to December 31, 1469.

Edward IV of England 15th-century King of England

Edward IV was King of England from 4 March 1461 to 3 October 1470, then again from 11 April 1471 until his death in 1483. He was a central figure in the Wars of the Roses, a series of civil wars in England fought between the Yorkist and Lancastrian factions between 1455 and 1487.

Battle of Barnet 1471 engagement in the Wars of the Roses

The Battle of Barnet was a decisive engagement in the Wars of the Roses, a dynastic conflict of 15th-century England. The military action, along with the subsequent Battle of Tewkesbury, secured the throne for Edward IV. On 14 April 1471 near Barnet, then a small Hertfordshire town north of London, Edward led the House of York in a fight against the House of Lancaster, which backed Henry VI for the throne. Leading the Lancastrian army was Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, who played a crucial role in the fate of each king. Historians regard the battle as one of the most important clashes in the Wars of the Roses, since it brought about a decisive turn in the fortunes of the two houses. Edward's victory was followed by 14 years of Yorkist rule over England.

Battle of Wakefield 1460 battle in the English Wars of the Roses

The Battle of Wakefield took place in Sandal Magna near Wakefield in northern England, on 30 December 1460. It was a major battle of the Wars of the Roses. The opposing forces were an army led by nobles loyal to the captive King Henry VI of the House of Lancaster and his Queen Margaret of Anjou on one side, and the army of Richard, Duke of York, the rival claimant to the throne, on the other.

Battle of Towton 1461 battle in the English Wars of the Roses

The Battle of Towton was fought on 29 March 1461 during the English Wars of the Roses, near the village of Towton in Yorkshire. It was "probably the largest and bloodiest battle ever fought on English soil". An estimated 50,000 soldiers fought for hours during a snowstorm on that day, which was Palm Sunday. It brought about a change of monarchs in England, with Edward IV displacing Henry VI, establishing the House of York on the English throne and driving the incumbent House of Lancaster and its key supporters out of the country.

House of York Cadet branch of the English royal House of Plantagenet

The House of York was a cadet branch of the English royal House of Plantagenet. Three of its members became kings of England in the late 15th century. The House of York descended in the male line from Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, the fourth surviving son of Edward III. In time, it also represented Edward III's senior line, when an heir of York married the heiress-descendant of Lionel, Duke of Clarence, Edward III's second surviving son. It is based on these descents that they claimed the English crown. Compared with its rival, the House of Lancaster, it had a superior claim to the throne of England according to cognatic primogeniture, but an inferior claim according to agnatic primogeniture. The reign of this dynasty ended with the death of Richard III of England at the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485. It became extinct in the male line with the death of Edward Plantagenet, 17th Earl of Warwick, in 1499.

Cecily Neville, Duchess of York 15th-century English duchess

Cecily Neville was an English noblewoman, the wife of Richard, Duke of York (1411–1460), and the mother of two kings of England, Edward IV and Richard III. Cecily Neville was known as "the Rose of Raby", because she was born at Raby Castle in Durham, and "Proud Cis", because of her pride and a temper that went with it, although she was also known for her piety. She herself signed her name "Cecylle".

Jacquetta of Luxembourg, Countess Rivers was the eldest daughter of Peter I of Luxembourg, Count of Saint-Pol, Conversano and Brienne, and his wife Margaret of Baux. She was a prominent, though often overlooked, figure in the Wars of the Roses. Through her short-lived first marriage to the Duke of Bedford, brother of King Henry V, she was firmly allied to the House of Lancaster. However, following the emphatic Lancastrian defeat at the Battle of Towton, she and her second husband Richard Woodville sided closely with the House of York. Three years after the battle and the accession of Edward IV of England, Jacquetta's eldest daughter Elizabeth Woodville married him and became Queen consort of England. Jacquetta bore Woodville 14 children and stood trial on charges of witchcraft, of which she was exonerated.

Richard Woodville, 1st Earl Rivers, also Wydeville, was the father of Elizabeth Woodville and father-in-law of Edward IV.

Battle of Mortimers Cross 1461 battle in the English Wars of the Roses

The Battle of Mortimer's Cross was fought on 2 February 1461 near Kingsland, Herefordshire, not far from the Welsh border. It was a major battle of the Wars of the Roses. The opposing forces were an army led by Jasper Tudor and his father, Owen Tudor, and other nobles loyal to King Henry VI of the House of Lancaster, his wife, Margaret of Anjou, and their seven-year-old son, Edward, Prince of Wales, on one side, and the army of Edward, Earl of March. Some sources say it was fought on 3 February, and the exact location has been the subject of some speculation.

Henry Beaufort, 3rd Duke of Somerset 15th-century English noble

Henry Beaufort, 3rd Duke of Somerset was an important Lancastrian military commander during the English Wars of the Roses. He is sometimes numbered the 2nd Duke of Somerset, because the title was re-created for his father after his uncle died. He also held the subsidiary titles of 5th Earl of Somerset, 2nd Marquess of Dorset and 2nd Earl of Dorset.

Battle of Northampton (1460) Major battle of the Wars of the Roses

The Battle of Northampton was fought on 10 July 1460 near the River Nene, Northamptonshire. It was a major battle of the Wars of the Roses. The opposing forces were an army led by nobles loyal to King Henry VI of the House of Lancaster, his Queen Margaret of Anjou and their seven-year-old son Edward, Prince of Wales on one side, and the army of Edward, Earl of March and Warwick the Kingmaker on the other. The battle was the first in which artillery was used in England.

John de la Pole, 1st Earl of Lincoln Earl of Lincoln

John de la Pole, 1st Earl of Lincoln was a leading figure in the Yorkist aristocracy during the Wars of the Roses.

John Clifford, 9th Baron Clifford 15th-century English noble

John Clifford, 9th Baron Clifford, 9th Lord of Skipton was a Lancastrian military leader during the Wars of the Roses in England. The Clifford family was one of the most prominent families among the northern English nobility of the fifteenth century, and by the marriages of his sisters John Clifford had links to some very important families of the time, including the earls of Devon. He was orphaned at twenty years of age when his father was slain by partisans of the House of York at the first battle of the Wars of the Roses, the Battle of St Albans in 1455. It was probably as a result of his father's death there that Clifford became one of the strongest supporters of Queen Margaret of Anjou, consort of King Henry VI, who ended up as effective leader of the Lancastrian faction.

Andrew Trollope

Sir Andrew Trollope was an English professional soldier who fought in the Hundred Years' War and the Wars of the Roses.

Events from the 1450s in England.

Events from the 1460s in England.

Wars of the Roses Dynastic civil war in England during the 15th-century

The Wars of the Roses were a series of fifteenth-century English civil wars for control of the throne of England, fought between supporters of two rival cadet branches of the royal House of Plantagenet: the House of Lancaster, represented by a red rose, and the House of York, represented by a white rose. Eventually, the wars eliminated the male lines of both families. The conflict lasted through many sporadic episodes between 1455 and 1487, but there was related fighting before and after this period between the parties. The power struggle ignited around social and financial troubles following the Hundred Years' War, unfolding the structural problems of bastard feudalism, combined with the mental infirmity and weak rule of King Henry VI which revived interest in the House of York's claim to the throne by Richard of York. Historians disagree on which of these factors was the main reason for the wars.

Second Battle of St Albans 1461 battle in the English Wars of the Roses

The Second Battle of St Albans was fought on 17 February 1461 during the Wars of the Roses in England. It took place at St Albans in Hertfordshire, the first battle having been fought in 1455. The army of the Yorkist faction under the Earl of Warwick attempted to bar the road to London north of the town. The rival Lancastrian army used a wide outflanking manoeuvre to take Warwick by surprise, cut him off from London, and drive his army from the field. The victors also released the feeble King Henry VI, who had been Warwick's prisoner, from his captivity. However, they ultimately failed to take advantage of their victory.

Siege of the Tower of London (1460) 1460 battle in the English Wars of the Roses

The Siege of the Tower of London was an episode of the Wars of the Roses, in which adherents of the rival Plantagenet houses of Lancaster and York were pitted against each other. In June 1460, several Yorkist nobles, who had unsuccessfully rebelled against King Henry the year before and had fled to Calais, invaded the south east of England at Sandwich. They enjoyed widespread support through popular discontent with the ruling court among the populace of Kent and the merchants of London, and were greeted by enthusuastic crowds when they entered London on 2 July.

References

  1. Peter Burley; Michael Elliot; Harvey Watson (September 9, 2013). The Battles of St Albans. Pen and Sword. p. 46. ISBN   978-1-84415-569-9.
  2. Bennett, Vanora. "London and the Wars of the Roses". Archived from the original on September 14, 2013. Retrieved August 16, 2013.
  3. Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History . London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp.  183–185. ISBN   0-304-35730-8.
  4. Philip A. Haigh (1996). The Battle of Wakefield, 30 December 1460. Sutton. ISBN   978-0-7509-1342-3.
  5. Trevor Royle (2009). The Road to Bosworth Field: A New History of the Wars of the Roses. Little, Brown. p. 233. ISBN   978-0-316-72767-9.
  6. "Richard, 3rd duke of York | English noble". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved September 29, 2018.