1390

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Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1390 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 1390
MCCCXC
Ab urbe condita 2143
Armenian calendar 839
ԹՎ ՊԼԹ
Assyrian calendar 6140
Balinese saka calendar 1311–1312
Bengali calendar 797
Berber calendar 2340
English Regnal year 13  Ric. 2   14  Ric. 2
Buddhist calendar 1934
Burmese calendar 752
Byzantine calendar 6898–6899
Chinese calendar 己巳(Earth  Snake)
4086 or 4026
     to 
庚午年 (Metal  Horse)
4087 or 4027
Coptic calendar 1106–1107
Discordian calendar 2556
Ethiopian calendar 1382–1383
Hebrew calendar 5150–5151
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1446–1447
 - Shaka Samvat 1311–1312
 - Kali Yuga 4490–4491
Holocene calendar 11390
Igbo calendar 390–391
Iranian calendar 768–769
Islamic calendar 792–793
Japanese calendar Kōō 2 / Meitoku 1
(明徳元年)
Javanese calendar 1303–1304
Julian calendar 1390
MCCCXC
Korean calendar 3723
Minguo calendar 522 before ROC
民前522年
Nanakshahi calendar −78
Thai solar calendar 1932–1933
Tibetan calendar 阴土蛇年
(female Earth-Snake)
1516 or 1135 or 363
     to 
阳金马年
(male Iron-Horse)
1517 or 1136 or 364

Year 1390 ( MCCCXC ) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Roman numerals Numbers in the Roman numeral system

Roman numerals are a numeric system that originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet. Modern usage employs seven symbols, each with a fixed integer value:

A common year starting on Saturday is any non-leap year that begins on Saturday, 1 January, and ends on Saturday, 31 December. Its dominical letter hence is B. Examples include 1977, 1983, 1994, 2005, 2011 and 2022 in the Gregorian calendar or, likewise, 2017 and 2023 in the obsolete Julian calendar, see below for more. Any common year that starts on Wednesday, Friday or Saturday has only one Friday the 13th; The only Friday the 13th in this common year occurs in May. Leap years starting on Friday share this characteristic.

The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC, was a reform of the Roman calendar. It took effect on 1 January 45 BC, by edict. It was the predominant calendar in the Roman world, most of Europe, and in European settlements in the Americas and elsewhere, until it was refined and gradually replaced by the Gregorian calendar, promulgated in 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII.

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JanuaryDecember

January 19 is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 346 days remain until the end of the year.

The Treaty of Lyck was a treaty between Vytautas the Great, future Grand Duke of Lithuania, and the Teutonic Knights, represented by Marquard von Salzbach, komtur Arnold von Bürglen, and Thomas, son of Lithuanian duke Survila. It was signed on 19 January 1390 in Lyck, State of the Teutonic Order,. Vytautas, in exchange for a military alliance against his cousin Jogaila during the Lithuanian Civil War (1389–1392), agreed to cede Samogitia up to the Nevėžis River and become the Order's vassal. In essence Vytautas confirmed the Treaty of Königsberg (1384) that he had signed with the Knights during the Lithuanian Civil War (1381–1384). Once betrayed, the Knights now asked for hostages as a guarantee of Vytautas' loyalty. The Order demanded as hostages his two brothers Sigismund and Tautvilas, wife Anna, daughter Sophia, sister Rymgajla, brother-in-law Ivan Olshanski, and a number of other nobles.

Vytautas King of Lithuania

Vytautas, also known as Vytautas the Great from the 15th century onwards, was a ruler of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, which chiefly encompassed the Lithuanians and Ruthenians. He was also the Prince of Hrodna (1370–1382), Prince of Lutsk (1387–1389), and the postulated king of the Hussites.

Date unknown

Ottoman Empire Former empire in Asia, Europe and Africa

The Ottoman Empire, historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror.

Alaşehir Town in Aegean, Turkey

Alaşehir, in Antiquity and the Middle Ages known as Philadelphia, is a town and district of Manisa Province in the Aegean region of Turkey. It is situated in the valley of the Kuzuçay, at the foot of the Bozdağ Mountain. The town is connected to İzmir by a 105 km (65 mi) railway. The longtime mayor is Gökhan Karaçoban.

Anatolia Asian part of Turkey

Anatolia, also known as Asia Minor, Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region is bounded by the Black Sea to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, the Armenian Highlands to the east and the Aegean Sea to the west. The Sea of Marmara forms a connection between the Black and Aegean seas through the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits and separates Anatolia from Thrace on the European mainland.

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October 3 is the 276th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 89 days remain until the end of the year.

Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester 15th-century English noble

Humphrey of Lancaster, Duke of Gloucester was an English prince, soldier, and literary patron. He was "son, brother and uncle of kings", being the fourth and youngest son of Henry IV of England, the brother of Henry V, and the uncle of Henry VI. Gloucester fought in the Hundred Years' War and acted as Lord Protector of England during the minority of his nephew. A controversial figure, he has been characterised as reckless, unprincipled, and fractious, but is also noted for his intellectual activity and for being the first significant English patron of humanism, in the context of the Renaissance.

Year 1447 (MCDXLVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.

Deaths

Related Research Articles

Year 1389 (MCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.

The 1380s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1380, and ended on December 31, 1389.

Year 1393 (MCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.

The 1390s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1390, and ended on December 31, 1399.

Year 1391 (MCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.

Švitrigaila Grand Duke of Lithuania

Švitrigaila was the Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1430 to 1432. He spent most of his life in largely unsuccessful dynastic struggles against his cousins Vytautas and Sigismund Kęstutaitis.

Kęstutis monarch of medieval Lithuania

Kęstutis was a ruler of medieval Lithuania. He was the Duke of Trakai and governed the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, 1342–1382, together with his brother Algirdas, and with his nephew Jogaila. He ruled over the Lithuanians and Ruthenians.

Manuel III of Trebizond Emperor of Trebizond

Manuel III Megas Komnenos was Emperor of Trebizond from March 20, 1390 to his death in 1417.

Alexios III of Trebizond 14th-century Emperor of Trebizond

Alexios III Megas Komnenos, or Alexius III, was Emperor of Trebizond from December 1349 until his death. He is perhaps the best-documented ruler of that country, and his reign is distinguished by a number of religious grants and literary creations.

The Treaty of Königsberg was signed in Königsberg(Królewiec) on May 26, 1390 during the Lithuanian Civil War (1389–1392) between Samogitian nobles and representatives of the Teutonic Knights. The 31-member or 30-member delegation from seven Samogitian regions arrived to Königsberg around the pentecost. They promised their loyalty to "their king" Vytautas and guaranteed trade freedom for the Knights in Samogitia. The Knights gifted the nobles with food and clothes.

Ostrów Agreement

The Ostrów or Astrava Agreement was a treaty between Jogaila, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, and his cousin Vytautas the Great, signed on 4 August 1392. The treaty ended the destructive Lithuanian Civil War, launched in 1389 by Vytautas who hoped to gain political power, and concluded the power struggle between the two cousins that erupted in 1380 after Jogaila secretly signed the Treaty of Dovydiškės with the Teutonic Knights. The Ostrów Agreement did not stop attacks from the Teutonic Knights and the territorial dispute over Samogitia continued up to 1422. According to the treaty, Vytautas became the ruler of Lithuania, but he also acknowledged Jogaila's rights to Lithuania. The details of the Polish–Lithuanian relationship were clarified in several later treaties, including the Union of Vilnius and Radom in 1401 and Union of Horodło in 1413.

Lithuanian Civil War (1389–1392)

The Lithuanian Civil War of 1389–92 was the second civil conflict between Jogaila, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, and his cousin Vytautas. At issue was control of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, then the largest state in Europe. Jogaila had been crowned King of Poland in 1386; he installed his brother Skirgaila as ruler of Lithuania. Skirgaila proved unpopular and Vytautas attempted to depose him. When his first attempt to take the capital city of Vilnius failed, Vytautas forged an alliance with the Teutonic Knights, their common enemy – just as both cousins had done during the Lithuanian Civil War between 1381 and 1384. Vytautas and the Knights unsuccessfully besieged Vilnius in 1390. Over the next two years it became clear that neither side could achieve a quick victory, and Jogaila proposed a compromise: Vytautas would become Grand Duke and Jogaila would remain Superior Duke. This proposal was formalized in the Ostrów Agreement of 1392, and Vytautas turned against the Knights. He went on to reign as Grand Duke of Lithuania for 38 years, and the cousins remained at peace.

Lithuanian Civil War (1381–1384)

The Lithuanian Civil War of 1381–1384 was the first struggle for power between the cousins Jogaila, Grand Duke of Lithuania and later King of Poland, and Vytautas the Great. It began after Jogaila signed the Treaty of Dovydiškės with the Teutonic Knights which was aimed against his uncle Kęstutis, father of Vytautas. Kęstutis briefly seized power in the Grand Duchy, but was betrayed by adherents of Jogaila primarily from Vilnius. During negotiations for a truce Kęstutis and Vytautas were arrested and transported to the Kreva Castle. Kęstutis died there a week later but Vytautas managed to escape and then sought an alliance with the Teutonic Knights. Subsequently their joint forces raided Lithuanian lands. Eventually the cousins were reconciled as Jogaila needed internal stability in anticipation of negotiations with the Grand Duchy of Moscow and the Kingdom of Poland regarding the possible Christianization of Lithuania. The war did not settle the power struggle; it continued during the next Lithuanian Civil War (1389–1392) which was resolved by the signing of the Ostrów Agreement. After more than ten years of struggle, Vytautas finally became the Grand Duke of Lithuania and ruled the country for thirty-eight years.

The Treaty of Königsberg was signed in Königsberg (Królewiec) on 30 January 1384, during the Lithuanian Civil War (1381–1384) between Vytautas the Great and representatives of the Teutonic Knights. Vytautas waged a civil against his cousin Jogaila, Grand Duke of Lithuania and future King of Poland, and allied himself with the Teutonic Knights. In order to secure Teutonic support in the civil war, Vytautas signed the treaty and granted Samogitia up to the Nevėžis River and Kaunas to the Knights. In 1382 Jogaila promised the Knights Samogitia only up to the Dubysa River, but never ratified the Treaty of Dubysa. Samogitia was important for the Knights as this territory physically separated them from uniting with the Livonian order in the north. Vytautas also promised to become Order's vassal. In February several Samogitian regions acknowledged their support to Vytautas and the Knights.

References

  1. Ivinskis, Zenonas (1988) [1930]. "Vytauto jaunystė ir jo veikimas iki 1392 m". In Paulius Šležas (ed.). Vytautas Didysis (in Lithuanian). Vilnius: Vyriausioji enciklopedijų redakcija. p. 36. OCLC   25726071.
  2. Gudavičius, Edvardas (1999). Lietuvos istorija. Nuo seniausių laikų iki 1569 metų (in Lithuanian). Vilnius: Lietuvos rašytojų sąjungos leidykla. pp. 173–174. ISBN   9986-39-112-1.
  3. "Moctezuma I el Grande" [Moctezuma I the Great] (in Spanish). Biografias y Vidas.com. Retrieved June 1, 2019.