London, south of the Thames
South London's emergence was a result of the existence and location of London Bridge
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|Comprises||Bexley, Bromley, Croydon, Greenwich, Kingston, Lambeth, Lewisham, Merton, Richmond, Southwark, Sutton and Wandsworth|
|• Total||249.34 sq mi (645.78 km2)|
|• Density||11,000/sq mi (4,400/km2)|
South London is the southern part of London, England. Situated south of the River Thames, it consists of the boroughs of Bexley, Bromley, Croydon, Greenwich, Kingston, Lambeth, Lewisham, Merton, Richmond (in part), Southwark, Sutton and Wandsworth.
South London originally emerged from Southwark,first recorded as Suthriganaweorc, meaning ‘fort of the men of Surrey’. From Southwark, London then extended further down into northern Surrey and then western Kent.
South London consists of 11 whole boroughs and part of the cross-river borough of Richmond Upon Thames.
South London began at Southwark at the southern end of London Bridge, the first permanent crossing over the river, with early development of the area being a direct result of the existence and location of the bridge.
Southwark was first known as Suthriganaweorc, the fortress of the men of Surrey, mentioned in the Burghal Hidage as part of military system created by Alfred the Great to defeat the Great Heathen Army of the Vikings. Southwark was also known as the Borough due to be it being an incorporated (nationally represented) Borough from 1295. From 1550 to 1899 it was administered as part of the City of London and referred to as the ward of Bridge Without.
In 1720, John Strype's ‘Survey of London’ described Southwark as one of the then four distinct areas of London; in it he describes the City of London, Westminster (West London), Southwark (South London), and 'That Part beyond the Tower' (East London). The area now usually referred to as North London developed later. As late as the mid 18th century, however, there were no other bridges crossing the river and as a result urban growth was considerably slower in the south than in areas north of the Thames.
The opening of Westminster Bridge and other subsequent bridges to the west encouraged growth in the south-west, but only Tower Bridge was built to the east of London Bridge, so south-east London grew more slowly, at least until the Surrey Commercial Docks were built.
The development of a dense network of railway lines in the mid nineteenth century significantly accelerated growth.
A significant feature of south London's economic geography is that while there are more than thirty bridges linking the area with West London and the City, there is only one, Tower Bridge, linking the area with East London.
Very little of London's underground rail network lies south of the river, largely due to the challenging geology,however 21st century technology makes tunnelling much cheaper than before (though stations are still expensive) and this may well lead to an improved underground provision in south London with the Crossrail 2 line proposed alongside extensions to the Northern and Bakerloo Lines.
South London contains a very extensive overground rail networkand all of London's trams operate within the area.
The 12 boroughs included, in whole or part are:
|London borough||Postcode areas||2008 sub-region||London Assembly|
|Bexley||DA, SE||South East||Bexley and Bromley|
|Bromley||BR, DA, SE, TN, CR||South East||Bexley and Bromley|
|Croydon||CR, SE, SW, BR||South West||Croydon and Sutton|
|Greenwich||SE, DA, BR||South East||Greenwich and Lewisham|
|Kingston||KT, SW, TW||South West||South West|
|Lambeth||SE, SW||South East||Lambeth and Southwark|
|Lewisham||SE, BR||South East||Greenwich and Lewisham|
|Merton||CR, KT, SM, SW||South West||Merton and Wandsworth|
|Richmond (part)||SW, TW||South West||South West|
|Southwark||SE||South East||Lambeth and Southwark|
|Sutton||CR, KT, SM||South West||Croydon and Sutton|
|Wandsworth||SW||South West||Merton and Wandsworth|
A small area of land, on which the southern end of Blackfriars Bridge stands, is not part of Southwark. It forms part of the City of London, a sui generis local authority which is mainly located north of the Thames.
The term ‘south London' has been used for a variety of formal purposes with the boundaries defined according to the purposes of the designation.
In 2017 the government asked the Boundary Commission for England to reconsider the boundaries of parliamentary constituencies. The commission's study, was to start with existing regions of England and then group the local authorities within that area into sub-regions for further sub-division. The South London sub-region included the 11 boroughs which lay south of the river, plus the parts of cross-river Richmond upon Thames that did so.
An earlier 2013 study, whose recommendations were not adopted, took a different approach by including all of Richmond in its South London sub-region.
For the purposes of progress reporting on the London Plan, there was a south London sub-region in operation from 2004 to 2008 consisting of Bromley, Croydon, Kingston, Merton, Richmond and Sutton.In 2001 this area had a population of 1,329,000. This definition is used by organisations such as Connexions.
Between 2008 and 2011 it was replaced with a South East sub-region consisting of Southwark, Lewisham, Greenwich, Bexley and Bromley and a South West sub-region consisting of Croydon, Kingston, Lambeth, Merton, Sutton, Richmond and Wandsworth.
In 2011 a new south London region was created consisting of Bromley, Croydon, the Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames, Richmond upon Thames, Merton, Sutton, Wandsworth, Bexley, Greenwich and Lewisham.
South London is, like other parts of London and the UK in general, a temperate maritime climate according to the Köppen climate classification system. Three Met Office weather stations currently collect climate data south of the river; Kew, Hampton and Kenley Airfield, on the southern edge of the urban area.Long term climate observations dating back to 1763 are available for Greenwich, although observations ceased here in 2003.
Temperatures increase towards the Thames, firstly because of the urban warming effect of the surrounding area, but secondly due to altitude decreasing towards the river, meaning the southern margins of south London are often a couple of degrees cooler than those areas adjacent to the Thames. Often snow can be seen to lie on the North Downs near Croydon when central London is snow free.
The record high temperature at Greenwich is 37.5 °C (99.5 °F) recorded during August 2003. Sunshine is notably lower than other London area weather stations (by about 50–100 hours a year), suggesting Greenwich may be a fog trap in winter, and that the hillier land to the south may obscure early morning and late evening sunshine.
The highest temperature recorded across south London was 38.1 °C (100.6 °F) on the same occasion at Kew Gardens. Although the Met Office accepts a higher reading from Brogdale in Kent, many have questioned the accuracy of this and regard the Kew reading as the most reliable highest UK temperature reading.
|Climate data for Greenwich 7m asl 1971–2000,|
|Average high °C (°F)||7.9|
|Average low °C (°F)||2.4|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||51.9|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||45.9||66.1||103.2||147.0||185.4||180.6||190.3||194.4||139.2||109.7||60.6||37.8||1,461|
Outer London is the name for the group of London Boroughs that form a ring around Inner London.
This is a list of lists of neighborhoods in cities around the world. An asterisk indicates a separate article.
London Road may refer to numerous roads throughout the United Kingdom.
London Dial-a-Ride run by Transport for London (TfL) is a door-to-door community transport service for people with a permanent or long term disability or health problem who are unable, or virtually unable to use public transport.
The Diocese of Southwark is one of the 42 dioceses of the Church of England, part of the worldwide Anglican Communion. The diocese forms part of the Province of Canterbury in England. It was created on 1 May 1905 from part of the ancient Diocese of Rochester that was served by a Suffragan Bishop of Southwark (1891–1905). Before 1877 the area was part of the Diocese of Winchester.
Greater London has a number of waste disposal authorities, responsible for waste collection and disposal. Prior to the abolition of the Greater London Council in 1986, it was the waste authority for Greater London.
The London Government Act 1963 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which recognised officially the conurbation known as Greater London and created a new local government structure for the capital. The Act significantly reduced the number of local government districts in the area, resulting in local authorities responsible for larger areas and populations. The upper tier of local government was reformed to cover the whole of the Greater London area and with a more strategic role; and the split of functions between upper and lower tiers was recast. The Act classified the boroughs into inner and outer London groups. The City of London and its corporation were essentially unreformed by the legislation. Subsequent amendments to the Act have significantly amended the upper tier arrangements, with the Greater London Council abolished in 1986, and the Greater London Authority introduced in 2000. As of 2016, the London boroughs are more or less identical to those created in 1965, although with some enhanced powers over services such as waste management and education.
The Greater London Built-up Area, or Greater London Urban Area, is a conurbation in south-east England that constitutes the continuous urban area of London, and includes surrounding adjacent urban towns as defined by the Office for National Statistics. It is the largest urban area in the United Kingdom with a population of 9,787,426 in 2011.
The Croydon Guardian is a weekly free local newspaper covering the London Borough of Croydon, South London, and surrounding areas. The newspaper is published every Wednesday and is distributed free of charge in the borough of Croydon. It is sold for 60 pence at newsagents and other shops in and around the borough. With an average distribution of 99,753 copies, it is one of Newsquest's most read newspapers in London.
Scouting in the region of Greater London is largely represented by The Scout Association of the United Kingdom and some Groups of traditional Scouting including the Baden-Powell Scouts' Association.
Greater London Association of Trade Union Councils (GLATUC) is the largest County Association of Trades (Union) Councils in the Uk and covers the Greater London area. As the official Trades Union Congress body for London GLATUC seeks to co-ordinate activity by Trades (Union) Councils across the capital and works with individual unions and other organisations on a range of campaigns and activities. It is part of the national Trades Union Congress.
Local government elections took place in London, and some other parts of the United Kingdom on Thursday 6 May 2010. Polling stations were open between 7am and 10pm.
Local government elections took place in London, and some other parts of the United Kingdom on Thursday 2 May 2002. Ward changes took place in every borough, following a series of reviews and 32 statutory instruments which reduced the total number of councillors by 56 from 1,917 to 1,861.
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for South London .|