North London is the northern part of London, England, north of the River Thames. It extends from Clerkenwell and Finsbury, on the edge of the City of London financial district, to Greater London's boundary with Hertfordshire.
The term north London is used to differentiate the area from south London, east London and west London. Some parts of north London are also part of Central London. There is a Northern postal area, but this includes some areas not normally described as part of north London, while excluding many others that are.
The first northern suburb developed in the Soke of Cripplegate in the early twelfth century, but London's growth beyond its Roman northern gates was slower than in other directions, partly because of the marshy ground north of the wall and also because the roads through those gates were less well connected than elsewhere. The parishes that would become north London were almost entirely rural until the Victorian period. Many of these parishes were grouped into an area called the Finsbury division.
In the early 19th century, the arrival of the Regent's Canal in Islington and St Pancras stimulated London's northerly expansion, continuing when the development of the railway network accelerated urbanisation, promoting economic growth in the capital and allowing for the establishment of commuter suburbs.
This trend continued in the twentieth century and was reinforced by motorcar-based commuting until the establishment of the Metropolitan Green Belt, shortly after the Second World War, prevented London from expanding any further.
The 2011 iteration of the London Planincluded an altered 'North' sub-region, to be used for planning, engagement, resource allocation and progress reporting purposes. It consists of the London Boroughs of Barnet, Haringey and Enfield. The 2004-2008 and 2008-2011 versions of the London Plan sub-regions varied in their composition.
In 2017, the government asked the Boundary Commission for England to reconsider the boundaries of parliamentary constituencies. The Commission's approach was to start with existing regions of England (in this case London) and then group the local authorities within that area into sub-regions for further sub-division.
The North Thames sub-region includes all parts of London lying north of the river; the 19 boroughs which lie wholly north of the river, plus parts of cross-river Richmond upon Thames.
An earlier 2013 study, whose recommendations were not adopted, took a different approach by assigning all of Richmond to the south.This list includes all boroughs included in the North Thames area:
|London borough||Postcode areas||2011 sub-region||London Assembly|
|Barking and Dagenham||IG, RM, E||East||City and East|
|Barnet||EN, HA, N, NW||North||Barnet and Camden|
|Brent||HA, NW, W||West||Brent and Harrow|
|Camden||EC, WC, N, NW, W||Central||Barnet and Camden|
|Ealing||UB, W, NW||West||Ealing and Hillingdon|
|Enfield||EN, N||North||Enfield and Haringey|
|Hackney||E, EC, N||East||North East|
|Hammersmith & Fulham||SW, W, NW||West||West Central|
|Haringey||N||North||Enfield and Haringey|
|Harrow||HA, UB, NW||West||Brent and Harrow|
|Havering||RM, CM||East||Havering and Redbridge|
|Hillingdon||HA, TW, UB, WD||West||Ealing and Hillingdon|
|Hounslow||TW, W, UB||West||South West|
|Islington||EC, WC, N||Central||North East|
|Kensington and Chelsea||W, SW||Central||West Central|
|Newham||E||East||City and East|
|Redbridge||E, IG, RM||East||Havering and Redbridge|
|Waltham Forest||E, IG||East||North East|
|Westminster||NW, SW, WC, W||Central||West Central|
In English football, the teams Arsenal and Spurs are considered the two North London teams and the games against each other are known as North London Derbies.
It has been described as "one of the fiercest derbies in English football and one that separates families in north London."
The League matches in the English Premier League and formerly the Football League are known formally as the North London Derby. To date, 167 have been contested with 66 wins for Arsenal, 54 wins for Spurs and 47 draws. In other matches, simply referred to generically as North London Derbies, the 6 FA cup contests resulted in 4 Arsenal victories to Spurs' 2 with no draws, while the 14 League Cup matches have ended with 7 wins for the Arsenal against 4 for Spurs with 3 draws. In the sole Charity Shield between the two clubs, then exclusively between the previous season's league champions and the FA Cup winners, the contest in 1991 was drawn with the Shield shared. Spurs had won the FA cup final in 1991 after beating Arsenal 3-1 in the semi-final, the first FA cup semi-final and the first of five North London Derbies to be held at Wembley Stadium. The 1991 Charity Shield is the sole occasion so far in which a trophy has been at stake, though in 1971 (0-1) and 2004 (2-2) Arsenal were crowned league champions at the final whistle of the North London Derby in Tottenham.
North London has, like other parts of London and the UK in general, a temperate maritime climate according to the Köppen climate classification system. Long term climate observations dating back to 1910 are available for Hampstead, which is also the most elevated Weather Station in the London area, at 137m. This both hilltop and urban position means severe frosts are rare.
Temperatures increase towards the Thames, firstly because of the urban warming effect of the surrounding area, but secondly due to altitude decreasing towards the river, meaning some of the hillier northern margins of North London are often a degree or so cooler than those areas adjacent to the Thames. Occasionally snow can be seen to lie towards the Chilterns while central London is snow-free.
Typically the warmest day of the year at Hampstead will average 29.3 °C (84.7 °F) with around 14 days in total achieving a value of 25.1 °C (77.2 °F) or higher.
The average coldest night should fall to −5.6 °C (21.9 °F). On average 35.8 nights will report an air frost, some 119 days of the year will register at least 1mm of precipitation, and on 7.4 days a cover of snow will be observed. All annual averages refer to the observation period 1971–2000.
|Climate data for Hampstead 137m asl 1971–2000|
|Record high °C (°F)||15.7|
|Average high °C (°F)||6.8|
|Average low °C (°F)||1.6|
|Record low °C (°F)||−10.8|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||64.72|
|Source: Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute|
The London Borough of Islington is a London borough in Inner London. The borough includes a significant area to the south which forms part of central London. Islington has an estimated population of 215,667. It was formed in 1965 under the London Government Act 1963, which simultaneously abolished the metropolitan boroughs of Islington and Finsbury.
Middlesex is a historic county in southeast England. Its area is almost entirely within the wider urbanised area of London and mostly within the ceremonial county of Greater London, with small sections in neighbouring ceremonial counties. Three rivers provide most of the county's boundaries; the Thames in the south, the Lea to the east and the Colne to the west. A line of hills forms the northern boundary with Hertfordshire.
The County of London was a county of England from 1889 to 1965, corresponding to the area known today as Inner London. It was created as part of the general introduction of elected county government in England, by way of the Local Government Act 1888. The Act created an administrative County of London, which included within its territory the City of London. However, the City of London and the County of London formed separate ceremonial counties for "non-administrative" purposes. The local authority for the county was the London County Council (LCC), which initially performed only a limited range of functions, but gained further powers during its 76-year existence. The LCC provided very few services within the City of London, where the ancient Corporation monopolised local governance. In 1900, the lower-tier civil parishes and district boards were replaced with 28 new metropolitan boroughs. The territory of the county was 74,903 acres (303.12 km2) in 1961. During its existence, there was a long-term decline in population as more residents moved into the outer suburbs; there were periodic reviews of the local government structures in the greater London area and several failed attempts to expand the boundaries of the county. In 1965, the London Government Act 1963 replaced the county with the much larger Greater London administrative area.
South London is the informally defined southern part of London, England, south of the River Thames, which broadly consists of the boroughs of Bexley, Bromley, Croydon, Greenwich, Kingston, Lambeth, Lewisham, Merton, Richmond, Southwark, Sutton and Wandsworth.
Moorfields was an open space, partly in the City of London, lying adjacent to – and outside – its northern wall, near the eponymous Moorgate. It was known for its marshy conditions, the result of the defensive wall acting like a dam, impeding the flow of the River Walbrook and its tributaries.
Harringay is a district of north London, England, within the London Borough of Haringey. It is centred on the section of Green Lanes running between the New River, where it crosses Green Lanes by Finsbury Park, and Duckett's Common, near Turnpike Lane.
A division was the usual term for the largest territorial subdivision of most British police forces. In major reforms of police organisation in the 1990s divisions of many forces were restructured and retitled Basic Command Units (BCUs), although as of 2009 some forces continue to refer to them as divisions.
Patrick Anthony Jennings is a Northern Irish former professional footballer who played as a goalkeeper. He played 119 international matches for Northern Ireland in an international career which lasted for over 22 years. During his career, Jennings played for Newry Town, Watford and in the top division with Tottenham Hotspur and Arsenal, winning the FA Cup with both of the north London rivals. In total, Jennings made over 1,000 top level appearances, and despite being a goalkeeper he scored in the 1967 FA Charity Shield.
East London refers to the part of London, England, east of the ancient City of London and north of the River Thames. It consists of areas in the historic counties of Essex and Middlesex.
London is the largest urban area and capital city of the United Kingdom. It is located in the southeast of Great Britain. The London region covers an area of 1,579 square kilometres (610 sq mi), and had a population of 7,172,036 in 2001 and a population density of 4,542 people per square kilometre. A larger area, referred to as the London Metropolitan Region or the London Metropolitan Agglomeration covers an area of 8,382 square kilometres (3,236 sq mi), and had a population of 12,653,500 and a population density of 1,510 people per square kilometre.
The region of Greater London, including the City of London, is divided into 73 parliamentary constituencies which are sub-classified as borough constituencies, affecting the type of electoral officer and level of expenses permitted.
The North London derby is the association football local rivalry in England between Arsenal F.C. and Tottenham Hotspur, both of which are based in North London. Fans of both clubs consider the other to be their main rivals, and the derby is considered by many to be one of the most famous and fiercest derbies in the world. Although the two teams first played each other in 1887, the rivalry did not begin until 1913 when Arsenal moved their ground to north London from Woolwich.
Walking is a popular recreational activity in London, despite traffic congestion. There are many streets that provide interesting walks, especially within historic central London, In addition there are attractive commons, parks, canals, and disused railway tracks that provide space for walks. This includes Wimbledon Common, Epping Forest, Hampstead Heath, and the eight Royal Parks: Hyde Park, Regent's Park, Richmond Park, etc. In recent years access to canals and rivers, including the Regent's Canal, and the River Thames has been greatly improved, and as well a number of long-distance walking routes have been created that link green spaces.
The winter of 1962–1963, known as the Big Freeze of 1963, was one of the coldest winters on record in the United Kingdom. Temperatures plummeted and lakes and rivers began to freeze over.
Finsbury Park is an area towards the northern edge of Inner London, England, which grew up around an important railway interchange near the convergence of the Boroughs of Islington, Haringey and Hackney.
The 1971–72 FA Cup was the 91st season of the world's oldest football cup competition, the Football Association Challenge Cup, commonly known as the FA Cup. Leeds United won the competition for the first time, beating holders Arsenal 1–0 in the final at Wembley, London.
London based Arsenal Football Club has developed a very strong following since its founding in 1886. Since the 1980s, Arsenal's fans have often been referred to as Gooners, a derivation from the team's nickname, the "Gunners".
The 2014–15 FA Cup, also called the 2014–15 FA Challenge Cup, was the 134th occurrence of the FA Cup, the main domestic cup in English football and the oldest knockout competition in the world. It was the first season when the BBC and BT Sport hosted televised matches, seven years after the BBC lost the rights to ITV. The 2014–15 season's Cup also marked the first time that 3G artificial pitches were allowed in all rounds of the competition, designed to lower costs for maintenance. After Queens Park Rangers, Luton Town, Oldham Athletic and Preston North End trialled artificial pitches in the 1980s, they were made illegal in 1995.
Chloe Morgan is an English lawyer and footballer who plays as a goalkeeper for FA Women's Championship club Crystal Palace.
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