North London is an informally and inexactly defined part of London, England, which covers part of the area of the capital lying north of the River Thames. It extends from Clerkenwell and Finsbury on the edge of the City of London financial district, to Greater London's boundary with Hertfordshire.
The term north London is used to differentiate the area from south London, east London and west London. Some parts of north London are also part of Central London. There is a northern postal area but this includes some areas not normally described as part of north London, while excluding many others that are.
The first northern suburb developed in the Soke of Cripplegate in the early twelfth century, but London's growth beyond its Roman northern gates was slower than in other directions, partly because of the marshy ground north of the wall and also because the roads through those gates were less well connected than elsewhere. The parishes that would become north London were almost entirely rural until the Victorian period. Many of these parishes were grouped into an area called the Finsbury division.
In the early 19th century, the arrival of the Regent's Canal in Islington and St Pancras stimulated London's northerly expansion, continuing when the development of the railway network accelerated urbanisation, promoting economic growth in the capital and allowing for the establishment of commuter suburbs.
This trend continued in the twentieth century and was reinforced by motorcar-based commuting until the establishment of the Metropolitan Green Belt, shortly after the Second World War, prevented London from expanding any further.
The 2011 iteration of the London Planincluded an altered 'North' sub-region, to be used for planning, engagement, resource allocation and progress reporting purposes. It consists of the London Boroughs of Barnet, Haringey and Enfield. The 2004-2008 and 2008-2011 versions of the London Plan sub-regions varied in their composition.
In 2017, the government asked the Boundary Commission for England to reconsider the boundaries of parliamentary constituencies. The Commission's approach was to start with existing regions of England (in this case London) and then group the local authorities within that area into sub-regions for further sub-division.
The North Thames sub-region includes all parts of London lying north of the river; the 19 boroughs which lie wholly north of the river, plus parts of cross-river Richmond upon Thames.
An earlier 2013 study, whose recommendations were not adopted, took a different approach by assigning all of Richmond to the south.This list includes all boroughs included in the North Thames area:
|London borough||Postcode areas||2011 sub-region||London Assembly|
|Barking and Dagenham||IG, RM, E||East||City and East|
|Barnet||EN, HA, N, NW||North||Barnet and Camden|
|Brent||HA, NW, W||West||Brent and Harrow|
|Camden||EC, WC, N, NW||Central||Barnet and Camden|
|Ealing||UB, W, NW||West||Ealing and Hillingdon|
|Enfield||EN, N, E||North||Enfield and Haringey|
|Hackney||E, EC, N||East||North East|
|Hammersmith Fulham||SW, W, NW||West||West Central|
|Haringey||N||North||Enfield and Haringey|
|Harrow||HA, UB, NW||West||Brent and Harrow|
|Havering||RM, CM||East||Havering and Redbridge|
|Hillingdon||HA, TW, UB, WD||West||Ealing and Hillingdon|
|Hounslow||TW, W, UB||West||West|
|Islington||EC, WC, N||Central||North East|
|Kensington and Chelsea||W, SW||Central||West Central|
|Newham||E, IG||East||City and East|
|Redbridge||E, IG, RM||East||Havering and Redbridge|
|Waltham Forest||E, IG||East||North East|
|Westminster||NW, SW, W||Central||West Central|
In English football, the teams Arsenal and Spurs are considered the two North London teams and the games against each other are known as North London Derbies.
It has been described as "one of the fiercest derbies in English football and one that separates families in north London."
The League matches in the English Premier League and formerly the Football League are known formally as the North London Derby. To date, 167 have been contested with 66 wins for Arsenal, 54 wins for Spurs and 47 draws. In other matches, simply referred to generically as North London Derbies, the 6 FA cup contests resulted in 4 Arsenal victories to Spurs' 2 with no draws, while the 14 League Cup matches have ended with 7 wins for the Arsenal against 4 for Spurs with 3 draws. In the sole Charity Shield between the two clubs, then exclusively between the previous season's league champions and the FA Cup winners, the contest in 1991 was drawn with the Shield shared. Spurs had won the FA cup final in 1991 after beating Arsenal 3-1 in the semi-final, the first FA cup semi-final and the first of five North London Derbies to be held at Wembley Stadium. The 1991 Charity Shield is the sole occasion so far in which a trophy has been at stake, though in 1971 (0-1) and 2004 (2-2) Arsenal were crowned league champions at the final whistle of the North London Derby in Tottenham.
North London has, like other parts of London and the UK in general, a temperate maritime climate according to the Köppen climate classification system. Long term climate observations dating back to 1910 are available for Hampstead, which also the most elevated Weather Station in the London area, at 137m. This both hilltop and urban position means severe frosts are rare.
Temperatures increase towards the Thames, firstly because of the urban warming effect of the surrounding area, but secondly due to altitude decreasing towards the river, meaning some of the hillier northern margins of North London are often a degree or so cooler than those areas adjacent to the Thames. Occasionally snow can be seen to lie towards the Chilterns while central London is snow-free.
Typically the warmest day of the year at Hampstead will average 29.3 °C (84.7 °F) with around 14 days in total achieving a value of 25.1 °C (77.2 °F) or higher.
The average coldest night should fall to −5.6 °C (21.9 °F). On average 35.8 nights will report an air frost, some 119 days of the year will register at least 1mm of precipitation, and on 7.4 days a cover of snow will be observed. All annual averages refer to the observation period 1971–2000.
|Climate data for Hampstead 137m asl 1971–2000|
|Record high °C (°F)||15.7|
|Average high °C (°F)||6.8|
|Average low °C (°F)||1.6|
|Record low °C (°F)||−10.8|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||64.72|
|Source: Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute|
The London Borough of Hackney is a London borough in Inner London. The historical and administrative heart of Hackney is Mare Street, which lies 5 miles (8 km) north-east of Charing Cross. The borough is named after Hackney, its principal district. Southern and eastern parts of the borough are popularly regarded as being part of east London, with the northwest belonging to north London.
The County of London was a county of England from 1889 to 1965, corresponding to the area known today as Inner London. It was created as part of the general introduction of elected county government in England, by way of the Local Government Act 1888. The Act created an administrative County of London, which included within its territory the City of London. However, the City of London and the County of London formed separate ceremonial counties for "non-administrative" purposes. The local authority for the county was the London County Council (LCC), which initially performed only a limited range of functions, but gained further powers during its 76-year existence. The LCC provided very few services within the City of London, where the ancient Corporation monopolised local governance. In 1900 the lower-tier civil parishes and district boards were replaced with 28 new metropolitan boroughs. The territory of the county was 74,903 acres (303.12 km2) in 1961. During its existence there was a long-term decline in population as more residents moved into the outer suburbs; there were periodic reviews of the local government structures in the greater London area and several failed attempts to expand the boundaries of the county. In 1965, the London Government Act 1963 replaced the county with the much larger Greater London administrative area.
South London is the southern part of London, England. Situated south of the River Thames, it consists of the boroughs of Bexley, Bromley, Croydon, Greenwich, Kingston, Lambeth, Lewisham, Merton, Richmond, Southwark, Sutton and Wandsworth.
Harringay is a district of north London, England, within the London Borough of Haringey. It is centred on the section of Green Lanes running between the New River, where it crosses Green Lanes by Finsbury Park, and Duckett's Common, near Turnpike Lane.
East London is a popularly and informally defined part of London, capital of the United Kingdom. By most definitions, it is east of the ancient City of London and north of the River Thames. It broadly comprises the London boroughs of Barking and Dagenham, Hackney, Havering, Newham, Redbridge, Tower Hamlets and Waltham Forest. This understanding accords closely, but not exactly, with the interpretation of the area consisting of the former Tower Division, and London east of the Lea. The East End of London is a subset of East London, consisting of areas close to the ancient City of London. The Eastern (E) Postal District is a different subset of East London; and there is also an "East" sub-region used in the London Plan for planning policy reporting purposes. The most recent (2011) iteration includes seven boroughs north of the Thames, with the addition of three boroughs south of the river.
London is the largest urban area and capital city of the United Kingdom. It is located in the southeast of Great Britain. The London region covers an area of 1,579 square kilometres (610 sq mi), and had a population of 7,172,036 in 2001 and a population density of 4,542 people per square kilometre. A larger area, referred to as the London Metropolitan Region or the London Metropolitan Agglomeration covers an area of 8,382 square kilometres (3,236 sq mi), and had a population of 12,653,500 and a population density of 1,510 people per square kilometre.
Charles Frederick George is an English former professional footballer who played as a forward.
The North London derby is the name of the association football local rivalry in England between Arsenal and Tottenham Hotspur, both of which are based in North London. Fans of both clubs consider the other to be their main rivals, and the derby is considered by many to be one of the most famous and fiercest derbies in the world. Although the two teams first played each other in 1887, the rivalry did not begin until 1913 when Arsenal moved their ground to north London. As of 6 December 2020, 188 games have been played between the two teams since their first game in the Football League in 1909, with 77 wins for Arsenal, 60 wins for Tottenham and 51 games drawn. When games played before both joined the Football League are included, 202 games have been played, with Arsenal winning 82, Tottenham 66, and 54 drawn.
The 1971–72 season was the 92nd season of competitive football in England.
The winter of 1962–63, known as the Big Freeze of 1963, was one of the coldest winters on record in the United Kingdom. Temperatures plummeted and lakes and rivers began to freeze over.
James Gillen Robertson is a Scottish former professional footballer who played as a winger. Robertson featured with clubs Cowdenbeath, St Mirren, Tottenham Hotspur, Arsenal, Ipswich Town, Stoke City, Seattle Sounders, Walsall and Crewe Alexandra.
Charles James Ambler, born Charles James Toby, was an English footballer who played as a goalkeeper. He made a single appearance in the Football League for Royal Arsenal and had two spells at Tottenham Hotspur, making 20 Southern League appearances in his second spell. He also played, mainly as a reserve team player, for West Ham United, where he made two first team appearances, and later with Millwall.
The 1992–93 FA Cup was the 112th season of the FA Cup, also known as The Football Association Challenge Cup. It was won by Arsenal, who beat Sheffield Wednesday 2–1 in the replay after a 1–1 draw in the final at the old Wembley Stadium. The goals were scored by Ian Wright and Andy Linighan, who scored in the 119th minute. This was the last FA Cup final to be decided by a replay before final replays were abolished in 2000.
The 1971–72 FA Cup was the 91st season of the world's oldest football cup competition, the Football Association Challenge Cup, commonly known as the FA Cup. Leeds United won the competition, beating Arsenal 1–0 in the final at Wembley, London.
The 1970–71 FA Cup was the 90th season of the world's oldest football cup competition, the Football Association Challenge Cup, commonly known as the FA Cup. First Division champions Arsenal won the competition for the fourth time, beating Liverpool 2–1 in the final at Wembley. In doing so, Arsenal were the fourth team to complete a double of League and Cup victories, following Preston North End, Aston Villa and Tottenham Hotspur.
The 1949–50 FA Cup was the 69th season of the world's oldest football cup competition, the Football Association Challenge Cup, commonly known as the FA Cup. Arsenal won the competition for the third time, beating Liverpool 2–0 in the final at Wembley, through two goals from Reg Lewis.
The 1991 FA Charity Shield was the 69th FA Charity Shield, the annual football match contested by the reigning champions of the Football League First Division and the holders of the FA Cup. It was held at Wembley Stadium, on 10 August 1991. The game was played between Arsenal, champions of the 1990–91 Football League and Tottenham Hotspur, who beat Nottingham Forest to win the 1991 FA Cup Final. This was Arsenal's twelfth Charity Shield appearance and Tottenham Hotspur's sixth.
West London is a popularly, but informally and inexactly defined part of London, England.
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for North London .|