Finsbury

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Finsbury
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Finsbury
Location within Greater London
OS grid reference TQ315825
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Region
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Historic county
Post town LONDON
Postcode district EC1
Postcode district WC1
Dialling code 020
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UK
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51°31′21″N0°05′33″W / 51.5224°N 0.0925°W / 51.5224; -0.0925 Coordinates: 51°31′21″N0°05′33″W / 51.5224°N 0.0925°W / 51.5224; -0.0925

Finsbury is a district of Central London, forming the south-eastern part of the London Borough of Islington. It borders the City of London.

Contents

The Manor of Finsbury is first recorded as Vinisbir (1231) and means "manor of a man called Finn". [1] Finsbury lay just outside Cripplegate (and on its later construction, Moorgate) in London Wall. At that time, much of the manor was part of the "great fen which washed against the northern wall of the City". [2]

Finsbury gave its name to two larger administrative areas: the Finsbury Division of the Ossulstone Hundred of Middlesex, from the 17th century until 1900, and from 1900 to 1965 the Metropolitan Borough of Finsbury. The Metropolitan Borough included Finsbury (also known as St Luke's) and Clerkenwell.

The area should not be confused with Finsbury Park, a public space roughly 3 miles (5 km) to the north, which gives its name to its surrounding mainly residential area.

Geography

The area lies immediately north of the City of London, and approximates to the part of the London Borough of Islington east of Goswell Road and south of City Road. It also includes a small area north of City Road, focused on the City Road Basin.

Finsbury Square, looking north. Summer at Finsbury Square - geograph.org.uk - 514787.jpg
Finsbury Square, looking north.

The parts of the City of London's Coleman Street Ward that lie outside the line of the former City walls (now mostly covered by Finsbury Circus) were historically part of the Manor of Finsbury and still sometimes described as part of the area.

Finsbury Town Hall and the Finsbury Estate lie further west, in Clerkenwell and are named after the former borough of Finsbury which included both Finsbury and Clerkenwell.

Origins and administration

Soke of Cripplegate

The Soke of Cripplegate was a landholding outside Cripplegate and Aldersgate. Bordered (in part at least) by the Walbrook to the east, it covered the areas subsequently known as Aldersgate Without and the parish of St Giles-without-Cripplegate (which included Cripplegate Without, the part of Coleman Street Ward north of the wall and the Manor of Finsbury).

Origin of Finsbury: The Soke included Aldersgate Without, Cripplegate Without, the parts of Coleman Street Ward north of the Wall and a much larger area, in the modern London Borough of Islington, that would become the Manor of Finsbury. City of London Ward Map, 1870.svg
Origin of Finsbury: The Soke included Aldersgate Without, Cripplegate Without, the parts of Coleman Street Ward north of the Wall and a much larger area, in the modern London Borough of Islington, that would become the Manor of Finsbury.

The Soke was granted to St. Martin's Le Grand by William the Conqueror in 1068, in exchange for prayers for the souls of his parents. [3] It is thought the estate may be much older dating back to the establishment of the Diocese of London in the 7th century. [4]

The Empress Matilda wished to develop a northern suburb. Empress Mathilda.png
The Empress Matilda wished to develop a northern suburb.

The churches of St Botolph without Aldersgate and St Giles-without-Cripplegate appear to have been built in the early decades of the twelfth century (possibly under the aegis of Matilda of Blessed Memory [5] ) and there was very little, if any, development north of the wall before that time. St Martins rights to the Soke were confirmed by the Empress Matilda (daughter of Matilda of Blessed Memory) around 1140. St Martins was permitted to enclose land there to prevent rubbish dumping in the area, but it is thought the Empress' principle intention was to promote planned development of a northern suburb. [6]

The development of streets such as Redcross Street, Whitecross Street, Grub Street, Fore Street, Moor Lane, Chiswell Street and others were subsequently recorded.

Manor and parishes

It is not entirely clear how the territory and rights of the Soke evolved into the subsequent administrative and ecclesiastical units.

The area covered by the Soke was served by two parishes; the little parish of St Botolph without Aldersgate served the extramural City Ward of Aldersgate Without, while the parish of St Giles-without-Cripplegate served the extramural City Ward of Cripplegate Without and the Manor (estate) of Finsbury. [7] In the 17th Century, Little and Lower Moorfields, previously in the Manor of Finsbury and Parish of St Giles, was transferred to the Coleman Street Ward of the City of London (and also to the parish of St Stephen Coleman Street for religious purposes). This meant that Coleman Street Ward also possessed an extramural area. [8] [9]

Lower Moorfields, north London in 1676, including the re-sited Bethlem Hospital. London's Wall and the Moorgate are clearly shown, and some of the administrative boundaries can also be discerned. Map 1682 Bethlem in Moorfields.jpg
Lower Moorfields, north London in 1676, including the re-sited Bethlem Hospital. London's Wall and the Moorgate are clearly shown, and some of the administrative boundaries can also be discerned.

From mid-12th century the Manor of Finsbury was owned by St Paul's cathedral and managed as a Prebendary Manor to provide a prebend (a stipend of money or goods) to support an ecclesiastic person such as a canon, or an institution. For a long time the prebendary income went to Holywell Priory in nearby Shoreditch, so the estate became known as the Prebend of Halliwell and Finsbury, [10] thought the Priory itself did not lay adjacent to the prebendary manor or form part of it.

The prebendary manor of Finsbury was, from 1315, [11] leased by the Lord Mayor of London, so that after that the formal title of the Mayors has been Mayor of London and Lord of Finsbury. [12] The mayoral manor house, Finsbury Court, lay on the junction of Chiswell Street and Finsbury Pavement.

The parts of Coleman Street Ward north of the Wall, were part of the Manor of Finsbury. Ward Coleman Street plaque London.jpg
The parts of Coleman Street Ward north of the Wall, were part of the Manor of Finsbury.

In this way the part of St Giles parish, Cripplegate Without, that was part of the city was also known as The Freedom and governed by the Mayor as a part of, or a dependency of the city. The remaining part, The Manor of Finsbury, was also known as The Lordship, where the Mayor's position was that of a lessee, albeit with the title Lord of the Manor of Finsbury.

Other accounts suggest the Manor passed to the Lord Mayors later, being made over their use by Richard II, in gratitude for the killing of Wat Tyler by Mayor William Walworth at Smithfield in 1381.

In 1733, the growth of the local population, led to the part of St Giles-without-Cripplegate outside the city, the area which had been the Manor of Finsbury, being made an independent parish, known as St Luke's, after the parish church.

Latter administration and representation

The parts of the parish of St Giles outside of the city (originally the Manor of Finsbury, later organised as the Parish of St Luke) were part of the Hundred of Ossulstone in Middlesex. By the 17th century, population growth made this unit inefficient, so it was sub-divided with the area north of the walls becoming part of a new Finsbury Division which handled the responsibilities previously managed by the Hundred. Parish-level institutions continued to manage the Poor Law and ecclesiastical matters.

In 1832 the parliamentary borough of Finsbury was created to represent the area in parliament. This area loosely approximated to the Finsbury division, but also included parts of west London. In 1857 Finsbury Park was opened some three miles north, for the enjoyment of the residents of this parliamentary borough. [1]

The wards of the Metropolitan Borough preserved the boundary between Finsbury (St Luke's) and Clerkenwell. Finsbury comprised the five eastern wards. Finsbury Met. B Ward Map 1952.svg
The wards of the Metropolitan Borough preserved the boundary between Finsbury (St Luke's) and Clerkenwell. Finsbury comprised the five eastern wards.

The Metropolitan Borough of Finsbury in the County of London was created in 1900, covering the area of Finsbury (also known as St Luke's) and Clerkenwell, with Finsbury Town Hall located on Rosebery Avenue, Clerkenwell. In 1938, Dr. Chuni Lal Katial was elected mayor of Finsbury, making him the first Asian mayor in the United Kingdom.

Finsbury.jpeg
The arms of the Metropolitan Borough refer to the London Wall and the northern gates

The Borough's coat of arms included an embattled chief (top of the shield) representing the London Wall, a Barbican representing the three northern gates (Aldersgate, Cripplegate and Moorgate) and a Winged Bull, the heraldic symbol of St Luke. [13]

In 1965 the area merged with Islington to form the new London Borough of Islington, though Finsbury Circus remains part of the City of London.

History

Growth

Urbanisation was slow, despite the building of a new gate in the adjacent London Wall, Moorgate, in 1511. In 1665 the Bunhill Fields burial ground was opened in the area.

Moorgate was built in 1511, the last gate to be created in the originally Roman wall. The creation of the gate encouraged development to the north of the wall. Moorgate Hollar.PNG
Moorgate was built in 1511, the last gate to be created in the originally Roman wall. The creation of the gate encouraged development to the north of the wall.

Building on Finsbury Fields began in the late 17th century. The parish church of St Luke's was built in 1732–33, development was accelerated by the building of the City Road in 1765, and at the end of the 18th century a residential suburb was built with its centre at Finsbury Square. [14] Little and Lower Moorfields remained open until Finsbury Circus was developed after 1815.

Military history

Finsbury Barracks Armoury House.JPG
Finsbury Barracks

In 1641 the Honourable Artillery Company moved to Finsbury, where it still remains. The City of London Yeomanry, founded at the time of the Second Boer War, made its headquarters in Finsbury Square.

In 1862 Finsbury gave its name to a volunteer infantry unit the Finsbury Rifles, which recruited in both Finsbury and Clerkenwell, and saw distinguished service in several conflicts.

Medical district

Before Harley Street rose to prominence, Finsbury was London's principal medical district. In the mid-19th century it was home to a large number of hospitals, [15] but now only Moorfields Eye Hospital remains.

Finsbury Moorfields Eye Hospital Finsbury moorfields eye hospital 1.jpg
Finsbury Moorfields Eye Hospital

The area included the following hospitals:

Famous residents

Points of interest

Related Research Articles

London Borough of Islington Borough in United Kingdom

The London Borough of Islington is a London borough in Inner London. The borough includes a significant area to the south which forms part of central London. Islington has an estimated population of 215,667. It was formed in 1965 under the London Government Act 1963, which simultaneously abolished the metropolitan boroughs of Islington and Finsbury.

Clerkenwell Human settlement in England

Clerkenwell is an area of central London, England.

Bishopsgate Human settlement in England

Bishopsgate was one of the eastern gates in London’s former defensive wall. The gate gave its name to the Bishopsgate Ward of the City of London. The ward is traditionally divided into Bishopsgate Within, inside the line wall, and Bishopsgate Without beyond it. Bishopsgate Without is described as part of London's East End.

Farringdon, London Human settlement in England

Farringdon is a small district in Central London, the southern part of the London Borough of Islington. The term is used to describe the area around Farringdon station. Historically the district corresponded to southern Clerkenwell and the small parish of St Sepulchre Middlesex.

Metropolitan Borough of Finsbury

The Metropolitan Borough of Finsbury was a Metropolitan borough within the County of London from 1900 to 1965, when it was amalgamated with the Metropolitan Borough of Islington to form the London Borough of Islington.

London Wall

The London Wall was a defensive wall first built by the Romans around the strategically important port town of Londinium in c. AD 200. It has origins as an initial mound wall and ditch from c. AD 100 and an initial fort, now called Cripplegate fort after the city gate that was positioned within its northern wall later on, built in 120-150 where it was then expanded upon by Roman builders into a city-wide defence. Over time, as Roman influence waned through the departure of the Roman army in c. 410, their withdrawal led to its disrepair, as political power on the island dispersed through the Heptarchy period of Anglo-Saxon England. From the conquest of William the Conqueror, successive medieval restorations and repairs to its use have been undertaken. This wall largely defined the boundaries of the City of London until the later Middle Ages, when population rises and the development of towns around the city blurred the perimeter.

Aldersgate Human settlement in England

Aldersgate was one of the northern gates in the London Wall which once enclosed the City of London.

Cripplegate Human settlement in England

Cripplegate was a gate in the London Wall which once enclosed the City of London.

Moorgate Human settlement in England

Moorgate was one of the City of London's northern gates in its defensive wall, the last to be built. The gate took its name from the Moorfields, an area of marshy land that lay immediately north of the wall.

Moorfields

Moorfields was an open space, partly in the City of London, lying adjacent to – and outside – its northern wall, near the eponymous Moorgate. It was known for its marshy conditions, the result of the defensive wall acting like a dam, impeding the flow of the River Walbrook and its tributaries.

Finsbury Pavement

Finsbury Pavement is a short length of street connecting Moorgate with City Road in the London Borough of Islington. It forms a part of the London Inner Ring Road, and before the introduction of the ring of steel around the City of London it formed a major through-route towards London Bridge and south London.

St Lukes, London Human settlement in England

St Luke's is a district in central London in the Borough of Islington. It lies just north of the border with the City of London near the Barbican Estate, and the Clerkenwell and Shoreditch areas. The area takes its name from the now redundant parish church of St Luke's, on Old Street west of Old Street station. Following the closure of the church, the parish was reabsorbed into that of St Giles-without-Cripplegate, from which it had separated in 1733.

St Sepulchre (parish) St Sepulchre was an ancient parish partly within the City of London and partly within Middlesex, England

St Sepulchre was an ancient parish which always had its southern part within the City of London but its northern part outwith. The more popular terms used flexibly for this area are Smithfield, Farringdon and Clerkenwell.

St Luke Old Street Church in London, England

St Luke's is a historic Anglican church building in central London, and in the London Borough of Islington. It served as a parish church from 1733 to 1959. It was designed by John James and Nicholas Hawksmoor, and is a Grade I listed building.

The parliamentary borough of Finsbury was a constituency of the House of Commons of the UK Parliament from 1832 to 1885, and from 1918 to 1950. The constituency was first created in 1832 as one of seven two-seat "metropolis" parliamentary boroughs other than the two which already existed: Westminster and the City of London; the latter until 1885 retained an exceptional four seats. Finsbury was directly north of the City of London and was smaller than the Finsbury division of the Ossulstone hundred but took in land of Holborn division to its southwest in pre-introduction changes by Boundary Commissioners. It included Finsbury, Holborn, Moorfields, Clerkenwell, Islington, Stoke Newington and historic St Pancras. The 1918 constituency corresponded to the smaller Metropolitan Borough of Finsbury ; it was a seat, thus electing a single member, fulfilling a longstanding aim of Chartism which underscored the 1832 reforms.

Worshipful Company of Parish Clerks Guild of the City of London

The Worshipful Company of Parish Clerks is one of the Guilds of the City of London. It has no livery, because "[i]n the 16th century, the Parish Clerks declined to take the Livery on the grounds that the surplice was older than the Livery and was the proper garb of members of the Company." It is not, therefore, technically a livery company although to all intents and purposes it acts as such. It is one of two such historic companies without livery, the other being the Company of Watermen and Lightermen.

Coleman Street Ward Human settlement in England

Coleman Street is one of the 25 ancient wards of the City of London and lies on the City's northern boundary with the London Borough of Islington.

Glasshouse Yard

The Liberty of Glasshouse Yard was an extra-parochial liberty adjacent to the City of London. The liberty took its name from a glass manufacturing works established there. The area now forms part of the London Borough of Islington.

St Luke Workhouse Workhouse in London

The St. Luke Workhouse stood on City Road between Wellesley Terrace and Shepherdess Walk in what is today the London Borough of Hackney.

References

  1. 1 2 Mills, D. (2000). Oxford Dictionary of London Place Names. ISBN   0-19-860957-4.
  2. Recorded by William FitzStephen, writing in the 1170s; a discussion on the extent of the marsh is included in Reclaiming the Marsh: Archaeological Excavations at Moor House, City of London, Pre-construct Archaeology Monograph, J. Butler (2006)
  3. London Encyclopaedia, Weinreb and Hibbert, 1983
  4. London, its origin and early development, William Page 1923, p129-30
  5. London 800-1216, Brooke and Keir, p144-146. Matildas devotion to St Giles is described and links to the process by which the several St Botolphs dedications appeared in London
  6. Archaeological Excavations at Moor House, Jeremy Haslam p48
  7. Records of St Giles without Cripplegate, Chapter 6 see https://archive.org/stream/recordsstgilesc01dentgoog/recordsstgilesc01dentgoog_djvu.txt
  8. The development of Moorfields [London], the historical background’, in Reclaiming the Marsh: Archaeological excavations at Moor House, City of London, 1998-2004 (ed. J Butler), PCA Monograph 6 (London)
  9. Stow, writing in 1603 describes the boundaries of Cripplegate and Coleman Street Wards and the area is in neither at that time. The Ogilby and Morgan Map of 1676 shows the Little and Lower Moorfields as part of Coleman Street Ward
  10. 'Religious Houses: Houses of Augustinian canonesses', in A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 1, Physique, Archaeology, Domesday, Ecclesiastical Organization, the Jews, Religious Houses, Education of Working Classes To 1870, Private Education From Sixteenth Century, ed. J S Cockburn, H P F King and K G T McDonnell (London, 1969), pp. 170-182. British History Online http://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/middx/vol1/pp170-182 [accessed 13 August 2020].
  11. Remembrancia, compiled by W.H. and H.C. Overall p274
  12. Online dictionary of heraldry https://www.heraldryclipart.com/dictionary/dm.html
  13. Civic heraldry website http://www.civicheraldry.co.uk/lcc.html
  14. Weinreb, B. and Hibbert, C. (eds.) (1983) The London Encyclopaedia. Macmillan ISBN   0-333-57688-8
  15. Black, Nick (2007). "The lost hospitals of St Luke's". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 100 (3): 125–129. doi:10.1177/014107680710000310. PMC   1809165 . PMID   17339307.