List of national independence days

Last updated

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Independence-related national day
Unification/revolution-related national day
Other reasons for national day
No official national day National Days map.svg
  Independence-related national day
  Unification/revolution-related national day
  Other reasons for national day
  No official national day

An independence day is an annual event commemorating the anniversary of a nation's independence or statehood, usually after ceasing to be a group or part of another nation or state, or after the end of a military occupation, or after a major change in government. Many countries commemorate their independence from a colonial empire.

Contents

Not all countries mark independence as a national holiday. Many, such as Australia, Canada, Denmark, New Zealand, Ireland, Luxembourg, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Taiwan, and Turkey mark other dates of significance.

List

List of independence days of countries around the world
CountryName of holidayDate of holidayYear of eventIndependence fromEvent commemorated and notes
Flag of the Taliban.svg  Afghanistan Afghan Independence Day (Afghan Victory Day)19 August1919Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom Anglo-Afghan Treaty of 1919 or Treaty of Rawalpindi, an armistice between the United Kingdom and Afghanistan during the Third Anglo-Afghan War. [1]
Liberation Day15 February1989Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan
Flag of Albania.svg  Albania Independence Day 28 November1912Flag of the Ottoman Empire (1844-1922).svg  Ottoman Empire Albanian Declaration of Independence. The following day, 3 September 1943, 29 November, is celebrated as the Liberation Day and commemorates the end of the German occupation in 1944. [2]
Flag of Algeria.svg  Algeria Independence Day 5 July1962Flag of France.svg  France Algeria gained independence following the Algerian War and the Algerian independence referendum. France officially recognized independent Algeria on 3 July, but the Independence Day is celebrated on 5 July, the day of the fall of Algiers in 1830 and the beginning of French Algeria. [3] [4]
Flag of Angola.svg  Angola Independence Day 11 November1975Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal The Alvor Agreement, signed on 15 January 1975, granted Angola independence from Portugal on 11 November, ending the Angolan War of Independence. [5]
Flag of Antigua and Barbuda.svg  Antigua and Barbuda Independence Day 1 November1981Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom The effective date of the Antigua Termination of Association Order passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom in July. [6] [7]
Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina Independence Day 9 July1816 [8] Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg  Spanish Empire Argentine Declaration of Independence.
Flag of Armenia.svg  Armenia Republic Day 28 May1918 [9] Flag of the Transcaucasian Federation.svg Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic Declaration of Independence of Armenia (1918).
Independence Day 21 September1991Flag RSFSR 1918.svg  Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic 1991 Armenian independence referendum.
Flag of Azerbaijan.svg  Azerbaijan Independence Day 28 May1918Flag RSFSR 1918.svg  Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Declaration of Independence of Azerbaijan
Day of Restoration of Independence 18 October1991 [10] Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union Adoption of the constitutional act "On the State Independence of the Republic of Azerbaijan" [10]
Flag of the Bahamas.svg  The Bahamas Independence Day 10 July1973Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom Effective date of The Bahamas Independence Order 1973 [11]
Flag of Bahrain.svg  Bahrain Independence Day 16 December1971Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom Ascension of Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa to the throne. [12]
Flag of Bangladesh.svg  Bangladesh Independence Day 26 March1971Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan Proclamation of Bangladeshi Independence
Victory Day 16 December1971Victory over Pakistan Armed Forces in the Bangladesh Liberation War
Flag of Barbados.svg  Barbados Independence Day 30 November1966Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom Effective date of the Barbados Independence Act 1966. Also the anniversary of the formal proclamation of Barbados as a Republic in the Commonwealth in 2021.
Flag of Belarus.svg  Belarus Independence Day 3 July1944Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg  Nazi Germany The liberation of Minsk after several years of German occupation in 1944. Two other independence days – 25 March (proclamation of the Belarusian People's Republic in 1918) and 27 July (independence from the Soviet Union in 1990) – are commemorated unofficially. [13]
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium National Day 21 July1831 Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands Ascension of Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld to the throne. [14]
Flag of Belize.svg  Belize Independence Day 21 September1981Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom Effective day of the Belize Act 1981. [15]
Flag of Benin.svg  Benin Independence Day 1 August1960Flag of France.svg  France Effective date of the agreement with France signed on 11 July creating the independent Republic of Dahomey. [16]
Flag of Bhutan.svg  Bhutan National Day 17 December1907
Bandera de Bolivia (Estado).svg  Bolivia Independence Day 6 August1825Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg  Spain Bolivian Declaration of Independence.
Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg  Bosnia and Herzegovina Independence Day 1 March1992Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg  Yugoslavia 1992 Bosnian independence referendum.
Flag of Botswana.svg  Botswana Independence Day 30 September1966Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom Effective date of the Botswana Independence Act 1966. [17]
Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil Independence Day (Dia da Independência)7 September1822Flag of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarves.svg  Portugal Declaration of independence by Pedro I of Brazil (see Independence of Brazil). [18]
Flag of Brunei.svg  Brunei National Day 23 February1984Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom Brunei gained full independence effective 1 January 1984 under the Treaty of Friendship and Co-operation of 7 January 1979 between United Kingdom and Brunei. [19] However, the celebrations of the first National Day were delayed until 23 February and that day continues to be celebrated since. [20]
Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria Liberation Day 3 March1878Flag of the Ottoman Empire (1844-1922).svg  Ottoman Empire Treaty of San Stefano which created the autonomous Principality of Bulgaria. [21]
Independence Day 22 September1908 [22] Bulgarian Declaration of Independence. [22]
Flag of Burkina Faso.svg  Burkina Faso Proclamation of Independence Day 11 December1958Flag of France.svg  France Effective date when French Upper Volta became an autonomous republic in the French Community.
Independence Day 5 August1960 [23] Effective date of the agreement with France signed on 11 July and creation of the independent Republic of Upper Volta. [16]
Flag of Burundi.svg  Burundi Independence Day 1 July1962Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium Effective date of the United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1746 terminating the Ruanda-Urundi Trusteeship. [24] [25]
Flag of Cambodia.svg  Cambodia Independence Day 9 November1953Flag of France.svg  France Ceremony transferring military from French to Cambodian officials based on a military hand-over agreement reached on 17 October 1953. [26] [27]
Flag of Cameroon.svg  Cameroon National Day 20 May1960Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Flag of France.svg  France
Cameroon gained independence on 1 January 1960, but does not celebrate that date. Instead, it celebrates the National Day on 20 May commemorating the 1972 Cameroonian constitutional referendum. [28]
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada Canada Day 1 July1867Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom Canada Day on 1 July commemorates the establishment of the Dominion of Canada in 1867. [29]
Flag of Cape Verde.svg  Cape Verde Independence Day 5 July1975Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal Effective date of the Agreement Between Portugal and Partido Africano para a Independência da Guiné e Cabo Verde (PAIGC) signed on 18 December 1974. [30]
Flag of the Central African Republic.svg  Central African Republic National Day 1 December1958Flag of France.svg  France Effective date when Central African Republic became an autonomous republic of the French Community. [31]
Independence Day 13 August1960 [32] Effective date of the agreement with France signed on 12 July. [16]
Flag of Chad.svg  Chad Republic Day 28 November1958 [33] Effective date when Chad became an autonomous republic in the French Community. [34]
Independence Day 11 August1960Effective date of the agreement with France signed on 12 July. [16]
Flag of Chile.svg  Chile Independence Day (part of Fiestas Patrias)18 September1810Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg  Spanish Empire Establishment of the Government Junta of Chile. [35] The following day, 19 September, is celebrated as the Army Day. [36] The two holidays collectively are known as Fiestas Patrias. [37]
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China National Day 1 October1949 Flag of the Republic of China.svg Republic of China Mao Zedong's formal proclamation of the establishment of the People's Republic of China
Flag of Colombia.svg  Colombia Independence Day 20 July1810Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg  Spanish Empire Colombian Declaration of Independence
Flag of the Comoros.svg  Comoros Independence Day 6 July1975Flag of France.svg  France Unilateral declaration of independence by the Chamber of Deputies of Comoros following the 1974 Comorian independence referendum. [38]
Flag of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.svg  Congo, Democratic Republic of the Independence Day 30 June1960Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium Effective date of the Treaty of Friendship, Assistance and Co-operation between Belgium and the Congo concluded on 29 June 1960. [39]
Flag of the Republic of the Congo.svg  Congo, Republic of the Republic Day 28 November1958 [40] Flag of France.svg  France Effective date when Congo became an autonomous republic in the French Community. [40]
Independence Day 15 August1960Flag of France.svg  France
Flag of Costa Rica.svg  Costa Rica Independence Day 15 September1821Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg  Spanish Empire Act of Independence of Central America.[ citation needed ]
Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia National Day 30 May [41] 1990 [42] Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg  Yugoslavia First session of the Croatian Parliament following the 1990 Croatian parliamentary election. [42] 8 October (when the parliament adopted a decision to sever constitutional relations with Yugoslavia in 1991) and 25 June (when the parliament voted for independence in 1991) were also celebrated as independence days. After the 2019 changes to the law on public holidays, 8 October is the Parliament Day and 25 June is the Independence Day, but they are memorial days and not public holidays. [41]
Flag of Cuba.svg  Cuba Commencement of the Wars of Independence [43] 10 October1868 [44] Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg  Spanish Empire Call to rebellion (known as Grito de Yara) by sugar planter Carlos Manuel de Cespedes that led to the Ten Years' War for independence. [45]
Flag of Cyprus.svg  Cyprus Independence Day 1 October1960Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom Effective date of the London-Zürich Agreements was 16 August 1960, but the public holiday was moved to 1 October to avoid summer heat and tourist season. [46]
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic Independence 28 October1918Flag of Austria-Hungary (1867-1918).svg  Austria-Hungary Independence declaration by the Czechoslovak National Council. [47] Official day of independence of the Czech Republic
Restoration Day 1 January1993 [48] Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czechoslovakia Effective date of the Peaceful Dissolution of Czechoslovakia into Czech Republic and Slovakia. [49]
Flag of Djibouti.svg  Djibouti Independence Day 27 June1977Flag of France (lighter variant).svg  France
Flag of Dominica.svg  Dominica Independence Day 3 November1978Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg  Dominican Republic Independence Day 30 November1821Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg  Spanish Empire Independence from Spain in November 1821. [50]
27 February1844Flag of Haiti (civil).svg  Haiti Independence re-declared from Haiti in 1844, after a 22-year occupation. Start of the Dominican War of Independence.
Restoration Day 16 August1865Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg  Spanish Empire Independence restored from Spain in 1865 after brief return to colonial status.
Flag of East Timor.svg  East Timor Proclamation of Independence Day 28 November1975Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal East Timor Unilateral Declaration of Independence from the Portuguese rule in 1975.
Flag of Ecuador.svg  Ecuador Independence Day 10 August1809Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg  Spanish Empire Proclaimed independence on 10 August 1809, but failed with the execution of all the conspirators of the movement on 2 August 1810.
Flag of Egypt.svg  Egypt Revolution Day 23 July1952Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Flag of El Salvador.svg  El Salvador Independence Day 15 September1821Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg  Spanish Empire Act of Independence of Central America.[ citation needed ]
Flag of Equatorial Guinea.svg  Equatorial Guinea Independence Day 12 October1968Flag of Spain (1945-1977).svg  Spain
Flag of Eritrea.svg  Eritrea Independence Day 24 May1991Flag of Ethiopia (1991-1996).svg  Ethiopia Eritrean War of Independence.
Flag of Estonia.svg  Estonia Independence Day 24 February1918Flag RSFSR 1918.svg  Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Estonian Declaration of Independence.
Day of Restoration of Independence [51] 20 August1991Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union [51] Estonian Restoration of Independence.
Flag of Eswatini.svg  Eswatini Independence Day (Somhlolo Day)6 September1968Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom Commemorates independence. [52] Also called Somhlolo Day or Subhuza Day, after the 19th-century leader Sobhuza I. [53]
Flag of Fiji.svg  Fiji Fiji Day 10 October1970Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom Instruments of Independence
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland Independence Day 6 December1917Flag RSFSR 1918.svg  Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Finnish Declaration of Independence
Flag of Gabon.svg  Gabon Independence Day 16–17 August1960Flag of France.svg  France Effective date of the agreement with France signed on 15 July. [16]
Flag of The Gambia.svg  Gambia, The Independence Day 18 February1965Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom Effective date of the Gambia Independence Act 1964.
Flag of Georgia.svg  Georgia Independence Day 26 May1918Flag RSFSR 1918.svg  Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Day of the proclamation of the Democratic Republic of Georgia in 1918.
National Unity Day 9 April1991Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany German Unity Day 3 October1990Flag of Germany.svg  West Germany
Flag of East Germany.svg  East Germany
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
It commemorates German reunification in 1990 when the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) were unified.
Flag of Ghana.svg  Ghana Independence Day 6 March1957Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Flag of Greece.svg  Greece Independence Day 25 March1821Flag of the Ottoman Empire (1517-1844).svg  Ottoman Empire Declaration of independence 1821. Start of the Greek War of Independence.
Flag of Grenada.svg  Grenada Independence Day 7 February1974Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Flag of Guatemala.svg  Guatemala Independence Day 15 September1821Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg  Spanish Empire Act of Independence of Central America.[ citation needed ]
Flag of Guinea.svg  Guinea Independence Day 2 October1958Flag of France.svg  France
Flag of Guinea-Bissau.svg  Guinea-Bissau Independence Day 24 September1973Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal
Flag of Guyana.svg  Guyana Independence Day 26 May1966Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Flag of Haiti.svg  Haiti Independence Day 1 January1804Flag of France official.svg  France
Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg  Spain
Haitian Declaration of Independence.
Flag of Honduras.svg  Honduras Independence Day 15 September1821Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg  Spanish Empire Act of Independence of Central America.[ citation needed ]
Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary Day of Hungarian Freedom (A magyar szabadság napja)Last Saturday of June1991Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungarian People's Republic
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
Restoration of Hungary's sovereignty after the withdrawal of Soviet troops in June 1991. [54] [55]
Flag of Iceland.svg  Iceland National Day 17 June1944Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark Effective date of the dissolution of the Danish–Icelandic Act of Union following the 1944 Icelandic constitutional referendum. [56]
Flag of India.svg  India Independence Day (Swatantra Diwas)15 August1947Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom Effective date of the Indian Independence Act 1947.
Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia Independence Day (Hari Kemerdekaan)17 August1945Merchant flag of Japan (1870).svg  Empire of Japan
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands
Proclamation of Indonesian Independence.
Flag of Iran.svg  Iran Iranian Islamic Republic Day 1 April1979State flag of Iran (1964-1980).svg  Imperial State of Persia After holding a referendum, Iran officially became an Islamic republic in April 1979. [57]
Flag of Iraq.svg  Iraq Independence Day 3 October1932Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Flag of Israel.svg  Israel Independence Day (Yom Ha'atzmaut)Iyar 5 (On or between 15 April and 15 May, depending on the Hebrew calendar).1948Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Mandatory Palestine
Symbol of the League of Nations.svg British Mandate for Palestine
Israeli Declaration of Independence on 14 May 1948 (5 Iyar 5708 in the Hebrew calendar). Yom Ha'atzmaut is celebrated on the Tuesday, Wednesday or Thursday nearest to 5 Iyar, so it occurs between 3 and 6 Iyar each year; this means that the holiday can fall any time between and including 15 April and 15 May, according to the Gregorian calendar.
Flag of Cote d'Ivoire.svg  Ivory Coast Independence Day 7 August1960Flag of France.svg  France Effective date of the agreement with France signed on 11 July. [16]
Flag of Jamaica.svg  Jamaica Independence Day 6 August1962Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom Independence of Jamaica.
Flag of Japan.svg  Japan National Foundation Day 11 February660 BCE
Flag of Jordan.svg  Jordan Independence Day 25 May1946Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Flag of the Emirate of Transjordan.svg  Emirate of Transjordan
Symbol of the League of Nations.svg Mandate for Palestine
Ascension of Abdullah I of Jordan to the throne. [56]
Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan Independence Day 16 December1991Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
Flag of Kenya.svg  Kenya Jamhuri Day 12 December1963Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Flag of Kiribati.svg  Kiribati Independence Day 12 July1979
Flag of North Korea.svg  North Korea National Liberation Day of Korea

(Chogukhaebangŭi na)

15 August1945Merchant flag of Japan (1870).svg  Empire of Japan Liberation from the Empire of Japan in 1945. See Japanese Occupation of Korea. The Democratic People's Republic of Korea was founded in 1948.
Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea March 1st Movement (Samiljeol)1 March1919 Korean Declaration of Independence in 1919. This day is celebrated as Samiljeol, or Independence Proclamation Day.
National Liberation Day of Korea (Gwangbokjeol)15 August1945Liberation from the Empire of Japan in 1945. See Japanese Occupation of Korea. The Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was founded in 1919.
Flag of Kosovo.svg  Kosovo Independence Day 17 February2008Flag of Serbia.svg  Serbia February 17th is celebrated as Independence Day in Kosovo, commemorating the declaration of independence from Serbia in 2008, marking a significant milestone in the nation's history.
Flag of Kuwait.svg  Kuwait National Day 25 February1961Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom Independence actually occurred on 19 June 1961, but celebrate on 25 February each year to honor Sheikh Abdullah Al-Salim, who is credited with ending the treaties with Britain and instigating democratic life in Kuwait.
Flag of Kyrgyzstan (2023).svg  Kyrgyzstan Independence Day 31 August1991Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
Flag of Latvia.svg  Latvia Proclamation Day of the Republic of Latvia 18 November1918Flag RSFSR 1918.svg  Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
Flag of the German Empire.svg  German Empire
Proclamation of independence on 18 November 1918. Latvia was part of Russian Empire prior to World War I, but its territory had been ceded to German Empire in March 1918.
Day of Restoration of Independence 4 May1990Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union On the Restoration of Independence of the Republic of Latvia.
Flag of Lebanon.svg  Lebanon Independence Day 22 November1943Flag of France (1794-1958).svg  Vichy France
Flag of Lesotho.svg  Lesotho Independence Day 4 October1966Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Flag of Liberia.svg  Liberia Independence Day 26 July1847Emblem of American Colonization Society.svg American Colonization Society Liberian Declaration of Independence.
Flag of Libya.svg  Libya Independence Day 24 December1951Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy
Flag of France.svg  France
Independence from Italy on 10 February 1947, released from British and French on 24 December 1951.
Flag of Liechtenstein.svg  Liechtenstein National Day 15 August1866Flag of the German Confederation (war).svg  German Confederation
Flag of Lithuania.svg  Lithuania Statehood Restoration Day 16 February1918Flag RSFSR 1918.svg  Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
Flag of the German Empire.svg  German Empire
Act of Independence of Lithuania.
Independence Restoration Day 11 March1990Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union Act of the Re-Establishment of the State of Lithuania.
Flag of Madagascar.svg  Madagascar Independence Day 26 June1960Flag of France.svg  France
Flag of Malawi.svg  Malawi Independence Day 6 July1964Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia Independence Day/National Day (Hari Kemerdekaan/Hari Kebangsaan)31 August1957 Malayan Declaration of Independence.
Malaysia Day (Hari Malaysia)16 September1965 Malaysia Agreement
Flag of Maldives.svg  Maldives Independence Day 26 July1965Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Flag of Mali.svg  Mali Independence Day 22 September1960Flag of France.svg  France
Flag of Malta.svg  Malta Independence Day 21 September1964Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Flag of the Marshall Islands.svg  Marshall Islands Constitution Day1 May1979Flag of the United States (Pantone).svg  United States
Flag of Mauritania.svg  Mauritania Independence Day 28 November1960Flag of France.svg  France Effective date of the agreement with France signed on 19 October. [16]
Flag of Mauritius.svg  Mauritius Independence Day 12 March1968Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico Cry of Dolores Grito de Dolores
Independence Day Día de la Independéncia
16 September1810Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg  Spanish Empire Start of the Mexican War of Independence.
Flag of the Federated States of Micronesia.svg  Micronesia Independence Day 3 November1986Flag of the United States (Pantone).svg  United States Effective date of the Compact of Free Association.
Flag of Moldova.svg  Moldova Independence Day 27 August1991Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union Moldovan Declaration of Independence.
Flag of Mongolia.svg  Mongolia Independence Day 29 December [58] 1911Flag of the Qing Dynasty (1889-1912).svg  Qing dynasty [59] [60] Independence declared in 1911 during the Xinhai Revolution. However, Mongolian independence was neither recognized by Qing China nor its successor state, the Republic of China. The Imperial Edict of the Abdication of the Qing Emperor issued in 1912 provided the legal basis for the Republic of China to inherit all Qing territories, including Mongolia. [61] [62] [63] The Republic of China later established de facto control over Mongolia in 1919. Mongolia subsequently re-asserted its independence in 1921.
Flag of Montenegro.svg  Montenegro Independence Day 21 May2006Flag of Yugoslavia (1992-2003); Flag of Serbia and Montenegro (2003-2006).svg  Serbia and Montenegro 2006 Montenegrin independence referendum.
Flag of Morocco.svg  Morocco Proclamation of Independence Day 11 January1944Flag of France.svg  France
Flag of Spain (1938-1945).svg  Spain
Proclamation of Independence.
Independence Day 18 November1955Return of Mohammed V of Morocco from exile.
Flag of Mozambique.svg  Mozambique Independence Day
Dia da Independência Nacional
25 June1975Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal In September 1964 the Mozambique Liberation Front (FRELIMO) began an armed guerilla campaign against the Portuguese. FRELIMO took control of Maputo in April 1974 in a coup. Independence for Mozambique was officially declared a year later on 25 June 1975. [64]
Flag of Myanmar.svg  Myanmar Independence Day 4 January1948Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom Burmese Declaration of Independence.
Flag of Namibia.svg  Namibia Independence Day 21 March1990Flag of South Africa (1982-1994).svg  South Africa
Flag of Nauru.svg  Nauru Independence Day 31 January1968Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand
End of Nauru's status as a United Nations trust territory. Also marks the date of the return of the Nauruans from Truk island after the Japanese occupation of Nauru during World War II. [65]
Flag of Nicaragua.svg  Nicaragua Independence Day 15 September1821Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg  Spain Act of Independence of Central America.[ citation needed ]
Flag of Niger.svg  Niger Independence Day 3 August1960Flag of France.svg  France Effective date of the agreement with France signed on 11 July. [16]
Flag of Nigeria.svg  Nigeria Independence Day 1 October1960Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Flag of North Macedonia.svg  North Macedonia Republic Day 2 August1903Flag of the Ottoman Empire (1844-1922).svg  Ottoman Empire Republic Day: Recognition of the establishment of the short-lived Kruševo Republic during the Ilinden Uprising.
Independence Day (Den na nezavisnosta)8 September1991Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg  Yugoslavia
Flag of Norway.svg  Norway Constitution Day 17 May1814Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark National Day: Independence and the Constitution of Norway (17 May 1814).
Independence Day 7 June1905Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden Union Dissolution and Independence Day (7 June 1905).
Flag of Oman.svg  Oman National Day 18 November1650Flag Portugal (1640).svg  Portugal
Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan Independence Day (Youm-e-Azadi)14 August1947Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom Effective date of the Indian Independence Act 1947; [66] see also: Pakistan Day (23 March).
Flag of Palau.svg  Palau Independence Day 1 October1994Flag of the United States (23px).png  United States 9 July (1980) is Palau's Constitution Day usually commemorated with formal events. Independence Day celebrations are more elaborate and last several days.
Flag of Panama.svg  Panama Independence Day 28 November1821Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg  Spanish Empire Independence Act of Panama
Separation Day3 November1903Flag of Colombia.svg  Colombia Panama was member of the "Gran Colombia" until 1903. The 1903 separation from Colombia is celebrated as an official holiday day on 3 November.
Flag of Papua New Guinea.svg  Papua New Guinea Independence Day 16 September1975Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Papua and New Guinea
Flag of Paraguay.svg  Paraguay Independence Day 14 and 15 May1811Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg  Spanish Empire [67]
Flag of Peru.svg  Peru Fiestas Patrias 28 July1821Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg  Spanish Empire
Flag of the Philippines.svg  Philippines Independence Day (Araw ng Kalayaan or Araw ng Kasarinlan)12 June1898 Philippine Declaration of Independence by Emilio Aguinaldo during the Philippine Revolution against Spain. The Philippines achieved self-rule from the United States on 4 July 1946, and celebrated 4 July as Independence Day until 1964. [70]
Republic Day 4 July1946Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States
Flag of Poland.svg  Poland Independence Day (Święto Niepodległości)11 November1918Flag of Russia.svg  Russian Republic
Flag of Austria-Hungary (1867-1918).svg  Austria-Hungary
Flag of the German Empire.svg  German Empire
Restoration of Poland's independence in 1918 after 123 years of partitions by Russia, Prussia, and Austria.
Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal Restoration of Independence Day 1 December1640Flag of Cross of Burgundy.svg  Spanish Empire Portugal was officially an autonomous state, but the country was in a personal union with the Spanish crown from 1580 to 1640 – date of the restoration of full Portuguese autonomy from Iberian Union with Spain. [71]
Flag of Qatar.svg  Qatar National Day 18 December1878Flag of the Ottoman Empire (1844-1922).svg  Ottoman Empire
Flag of Romania.svg  Romania National Independence Day
(Ziua Independenței Naționale)
10 May1876Flag of the Ottoman Empire (1844-1922).svg  Ottoman Empire Romania's declaration of its independence and subsequent victory in the Romanian War of Independence, part of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878, against the Ottoman Empire. [72]
Great Union Day

(Ziua Unirii Mare)

1 December1918 Unification of Romania on 1 December 1918
Flag of Rwanda.svg  Rwanda Independence Day 1 July1962Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium Effective date of the United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1746 terminating the Rwanda-Urundi Trusteeship. [24] [25]
Flag of Saint Kitts and Nevis.svg  Saint Kitts and Nevis Independence Day 19 September1983Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Flag of Saint Lucia.svg  Saint Lucia Independence Day 22 February1979
Flag of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.svg  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Independence Day 27 October1979
Flag of Samoa.svg  Samoa Independence Day 1 June1962Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand
Flag of Sao Tome and Principe.svg  São Tomé and Príncipe Independence Day 12 July1975Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal Effective date of the agreement with Portugal reached on 26 November 1974. [73] [74]
Flag of Senegal.svg  Senegal Independence Day 4 April1960Flag of France.svg  France
Flag of Serbia.svg  Serbia Statehood Day 15 February1804 and 1835Flag of the Ottoman Empire (1844-1922).svg  Ottoman Empire The beginning of First Serbian Uprising in 1804, it evolved into a Serbian Revolution, war for independence from Ottoman Empire; and the adoption of the first Constitution in 1835.
Flag of Seychelles.svg  Seychelles Independence Day 29 June1976Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Flag of Sierra Leone.svg  Sierra Leone Independence Day 27 April1961
Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore National Day 9 August1965Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia Proclamation of Singapore.
Flag of Slovakia.svg  Slovakia Independence Day 28 October1918Flag of Austria-Hungary (1867-1918).svg  Austria-Hungary Independence declaration by the Czechoslovak National Council. [75]
Independence Day 17 July1992Flag of the Czech Republic.svg Czechoslovakia Declaration of Independence in 1992 (only a remembrance day), de jure independence came on 1 January 1993, after the division of Czechoslovakia (public holiday).
Restoration Day 1 January1993Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czechoslovakia Effective date of the Dissolution of Czechoslovakia into Czech Republic and Slovakia. [76]
Flag of Slovenia.svg  Slovenia Statehood Day 25 June1991Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg  Yugoslavia Date of Slovenia's declaration of independence from Yugoslavia in 1991.
Independence and Unity Day 26 December1990Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg  Yugoslavia Date of the release of the official results of the independence plebiscite in 1990, confirming secession from Yugoslavia.
Flag of the Solomon Islands.svg  Solomon Islands Independence Day 7 July1978Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Flag of Somalia.svg  Somalia Independence Day 26 June1960Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Flag of Somaliland.svg  Somaliland Independence Day 26 June1960Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Independence Day 18 May1990Flag of Somalia.svg  Somalia
Flag of Sri Lanka.svg  Sri Lanka Independence Day 4 February1948Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom Celebrates to commemorate the country’s political independence from British rule in 1948. [77] Event celebrated annually.
Flag of Sudan.svg  Sudan Independence Day 1 January1956Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Flag of Egypt (1952-1958).svg  Egypt
Flag of South Sudan.svg  South Sudan Independence Day 9 July2011Flag of Sudan.svg  Sudan
Flag of Suriname.svg  Suriname Independence Day 25 November1975Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands
Flag of Switzerland (Pantone).svg   Switzerland Swiss National Day 1 August1291Flag of the Holy Roman Empire (1200-1350).svg  Holy Roman Empire Alliance against the Holy Roman Empire in 1291.
Flag of Syria.svg  Syria Evacuation Day 17 April1946Flag of France (1794-1815, 1830-1974, 2020-present).svg  France End of the French Mandate of Syria in 1946.
Flag of Tajikistan.svg  Tajikistan Independence Day 9 September1991Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
Flag of Tanzania.svg  Tanzania Independence Day 9 December1961Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom Independence as Tanganyika.
Flag of Togo.svg  Togo Independence Day 27 April1960Flag of France.svg  France
Flag of Tonga.svg  Tonga Emancipation Day 4 June1970Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom Termination of protectorate status in 1970.
Flag of Trinidad and Tobago.svg  Trinidad and Tobago Independence Day 31 August1962Effective date of the Trinidad and Tobago Independence Act 1962.
Flag of Tunisia.svg  Tunisia Independence Day 20 March1956Flag of France.svg  France
Flag of Turkmenistan.svg  Turkmenistan Independence Day 27 September1991Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union [78]
Flag of Tuvalu.svg  Tuvalu Independence Day 1 October1978Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Flag of Uganda.svg  Uganda Independence Day 9 October1962Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine Independence Day 24 August1991Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union Declaration of Independence of Ukraine
Day of Unity 22 January1919Flag RSFSR 1918.svg  Russian SFSR
Flag of Austria-Hungary (1867-1918).svg  Austria-Hungary
Unification of Ukraine on 22 January 1919. [79]
Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg  United Arab Emirates National Day 2 December1971Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Flag of the United States.svg  United States Independence Day or Fourth of July 4 July1776Union flag 1606 (Kings Colors).svg  Kingdom of Great Britain United States Declaration of Independence
Flag of Uruguay.svg  Uruguay Independence Day 25 August1825Flag of Empire of Brazil (1822-1870).svg  Empire of Brazil Declaration of independence and union with the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata
Flag of Uzbekistan.svg  Uzbekistan Independence Day 1 September1991Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
Flag of Vanuatu.svg  Vanuatu Independence Day 30 July1980Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Flag of France (lighter variant).svg  France
Flag of Vatican City (2023-present).svg  Vatican City Independence Day 11 February1929Flag of Italy (1861-1946) crowned.svg  Kingdom of Italy Lateran Treaty
Flag of Venezuela.svg  Venezuela Independence Day 5 July1811Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg  Spanish Empire Venezuelan Declaration of Independence.
Flag of Vietnam.svg  Vietnam National Day 2 September1945Merchant flag of Japan (1870).svg  Empire of Japan
Flag of France.svg  France
Proclamation of Independence of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.
Flag of Yemen.svg  Yemen Independence Day 30 November1967Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom Declaration of independence as Kingdom of Yemen
Flag of Zambia.svg  Zambia Independence Day 24 October1964Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom Effective date of the Zambia Independence Act 1964.
Flag of Zimbabwe.svg  Zimbabwe Independence Day 18 April1980Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom Granting of independence by the United Kingdom in 1980

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Colony</span> Territory governed by another country

A colony is a territory subject to a form of foreign rule. Though dominated by the foreign colonizers, the rule remains separate to the original country of the colonizers, the metropolitan state, which together have often been organized as colonial empires, particularly with the development of modern imperialism and its colonialism. This coloniality and possibly colonial administrative separation, while often blurred, makes colonies neither annexed or integrated territories nor client states. Colonies contemporarily are identified and organized as not sufficiently self-governed dependent territories. Other past colonies have become either sufficiently incorporated and self-governed, or independent, with some to a varying degree dominated by remaining colonial settler societies or neocolonialism.

The foreign relations of Ireland are substantially influenced by its membership of the European Union, although bilateral relations with the United States and United Kingdom are also important to the state. It is one of the group of smaller nations in the EU and has traditionally followed a non-aligned foreign policy. Ireland has historically tended towards independence in foreign military policy, thus it is not a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation and has a longstanding policy of military neutrality.

The Foreign Relations of the Philippines are administered by the President of the Philippines and the Department of Foreign Affairs. Philippine international affairs are influenced by ties to its Southeast Asian neighbors, China, the United States, and the Middle East.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Independence</span> Condition of a nation with self-governance

Independence is a condition of a nation, country, or state, in which residents and population, or some portion thereof, exercise self-government, and usually sovereignty, over its territory. The opposite of independence is the status of a dependent territory or colony. The commemoration of the independence day of a country or nation celebrates when a country is free from all forms of colonialism; free to build a country or nation without any interference from other nations.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Columbus Day</span> National holiday in the Americas

Columbus Day is a national holiday in many countries of the Americas and elsewhere, and a federal holiday in the United States, which officially celebrates the anniversary of Christopher Columbus's arrival in the Americas. Columbus went ashore at Guanahaní, an island in the Bahamas, on October 12, 1492. On his return in 1493, Columbus moved his coastal base of operations 70 miles east to the island of Hispaniola, what is now the Dominican Republic and established the settlement of La Isabela, the first permanent Spanish settlement in the Americas.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Veterans Day</span> Federal holiday in the United States

Veterans Day is a federal holiday in the United States observed annually on November 11, for honoring military veterans of the United States Armed Forces. It began, and now coincides with other holidays, including Armistice Day and Remembrance Day, which are commemorated in other countries, marking the anniversary of the end of World War I. Major hostilities of World War I were formally ended at the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month of 1918 when the Armistice with Germany went into effect. At the urging of major U.S. veteran organizations, Armistice Day was renamed Veterans Day in 1954.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Victory in Europe Day</span> Public holiday commemorating the surrender of Nazi Germany (8 May 1945)

Victory in Europe Day is the day celebrating the formal acceptance by the Allies of World War II of Germany's unconditional surrender of its armed forces on Tuesday, 8 May 1945; it marked the official end of World War II in Europe in the Eastern Front, with the last known shots fired on 11 May.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Decolonization</span> Undoing political, economic and cultural legacies of colonisation

Decolonization is the undoing of colonialism, the latter being the process whereby imperial nations establish and dominate foreign territories, often overseas. The meanings and applications of the term are disputed. Some scholars of decolonization focus especially on independence movements in the colonies and the collapse of global colonial empires.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">National day</span> Designated date on which celebrations mark the nationhood of a nation

A national day is a day on which celebrations mark the statehood or nationhood of a state or its people. It may be the date of independence, of becoming a republic, of becoming a federation, or a significant date for a patron saint or a ruler.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Republic Day (Philippines)</span> Commemoration in the Philippines

Philippine Republic Day, also known as Philippine–American Friendship Day, is a commemoration in the Philippines held annually on July 4. It was formerly an official holiday designated as Independence Day, celebrating the signing of the Treaty of Manila, which granted Philippine independence from the United States of America in 1946.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Independence Day (United States)</span> Public holiday celebrated on July 4

Independence Day, known colloquially as the Fourth of July, is a federal holiday in the United States which commemorates the ratification of the Declaration of Independence by the Second Continental Congress on July 4, 1776, establishing the United States of America.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Human Rights Day</span> International annual celebration of human rights

Human Rights Day (HRD) is celebrated annually around the world on 10 December every year.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Decolonisation of Africa</span> Independence of African colonies from European powers

The decolonisation of Africa was a series of political developments in Africa that spanned from the mid-1950s to 1975, during the Cold War. Colonial governments gave way to sovereign states in a process often marred by violence, political turmoil, widespread unrest, and organised revolts. Major events in the decolonisation of Africa included the Mau Mau rebellion, the Algerian War, the Congo Crisis, the Angolan War of Independence, the Zanzibar Revolution, and the events leading to the Nigerian Civil War.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Independence Day (India)</span> Public holiday celebrated on 15 August

Independence Day is celebrated annually on 15 August as a public holiday in India commemorating the nation's independence from the United Kingdom on 15 August 1947, the day when the provisions of the Indian Independence Act, which transferred legislative sovereignty to the Indian Constituent Assembly, came into effect. India retained King George VI as head of state until its transition to a republic, when the Constitution of India came into effect on 26 January 1950 and replaced the dominion prefix, Dominion of India, with the enactment of the sovereign law Constitution of India. India attained independence following the independence movement noted for largely non-violent resistance and civil disobedience led by Indian National Congress under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi who adopted these values from one of the early movements in India led by Ram Singh Kuka.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Decolonization of the Americas</span>

The decolonization of the Americas occurred over several centuries as most of the countries in the Americas gained their independence from European rule. The American Revolution was the first in the Americas, and the British defeat in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) was a victory against a great power, aided by France and Spain, Britain's enemies. The French Revolution in Europe followed, and collectively these events had profound effects on the Spanish, Portuguese, and French colonies in the Americas. A revolutionary wave followed, resulting in the creation of several independent countries in Latin America. The Haitian Revolution lasted from 1791 to 1804 and resulted in the independence of the French slave colony. The Peninsular War with France, which resulted from the Napoleonic occupation of Spain, caused Spanish Creoles in Spanish America to question their allegiance to Spain, stoking independence movements that culminated in various Spanish American wars of independence (1808–33), which were primarily fought between opposing groups of colonists and only secondarily against Spanish forces. At the same time, the Portuguese monarchy fled to Brazil during the French invasion of Portugal. After the royal court returned to Lisbon, the prince regent, Pedro, remained in Brazil and in 1822 successfully declared himself emperor of a newly independent Brazilian Empire.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sahrawi nationality law</span>

Sahrawi nationality law is the law of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic's (SADR) governing nationality and citizenship. The SADR is a partially recognized state which claims sovereignty over the entire territory of Western Sahara, but only administers part of it. The SADR also administers Sahrawi refugee camps.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Foreign relations of the Bahamas</span>

The Bahamas has a strong bilateral relationship with the United Kingdom, represented by a High Commissioner in London. The Bahamas also associates closely with other nations of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Special Committee on Decolonization</span> UN General Assembly special committee

The United Nations Special Committee on the Situation with Regard to the Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples, or the Special Committee on Decolonization (C-24), is a committee of the United Nations General Assembly that was established in 1961 and is exclusively devoted to the issue of decolonization.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Independence Day (Ghana)</span> Holiday in Ghana

The Independence Day of Ghana is a national holiday celebrated yearly. This day is an official state holiday for the citizens of Ghana both within and in the diaspora to honour and celebrate the Heroes of Ghana who led the country to attain its independence. The Independence Day is celebrated on March 6 every year. Independence Day is also remembrance of the day that marks the declaration of Ghanaian independence from the British colonial rule. The first Prime Minister of Ghana, Kwame Nkrumah, became the Head of Government from 1957 to 1960. On Wednesday, 6 March 1957 Kwame Nkrumah declared to the people of Ghana about their freedom, he added that, "the African People are capable of managing their own affairs and Ghana our beloved country is free forever." Ghana was the first country in sub-Saharan Africa to achieve its independence from European colonial rule. Many Ghanaians who have had the opportunity to serve as president have remembered the occasion and made Ghana Independence Day a public holiday to celebrate. Granting the day as a national holiday is well recognized such that, if 6 March of a year fell on a weekend of the Independence Day celebration, the working day that follows which is a Monday will be granted and observed as a holiday by the whole nation. Many Presidents from other African countries and Europe have been invited to Ghana to join in the celebration either as Guest Speakers or Invited Guests since the reign of former President Kwame Nkrumah till now.

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