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An Independence Day is an annual event commemorating the anniversary of a nation's independence or statehood, usually after ceasing to be a group or part of another nation or state; more rarely after the end of a military occupation; and in the unique case of Singapore, expulsion from Malaysia.
An anniversary is the date on which an event took place or an institution was founded in a previous year, and may also refer to the commemoration or celebration of that event. For example, the first event is the initial occurrence or, if planned, the inaugural of the event. One year later would be the first anniversary of that event. The word was first used for Catholic feasts to commemorate saints.
A nation is a stable community of people, formed on the basis of a common language, territory, history, ethnicity, or psychological make-up manifested in a common culture.
In international law, a sovereign state, sovereign country, or simply state, is a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. International law defines sovereign states as having a permanent population, defined territory, one government, and the capacity to enter into relations with other sovereign states. It is also normally understood that a sovereign state is neither dependent on nor subjected to any other power or state.
Most countries observe their respective independence days as national holidays.
A national day is a designated date on which celebrations mark the nationhood of a nation or non-sovereign country. This nationhood can be symbolized by the date of independence, of becoming a republic or a significant date for a patron saint or a ruler. Often the day is not called "National Day" but serves and can be considered as one. The national day will often be a national holiday. Many countries have more than one national day.
The following is a partial list of independence days of countries around the world:
|Country||Date of holiday||Year celebrated||Event celebrated||Name of holiday|
|August 19||1919||Independence from the United Kingdom in 1919.||Afghan Independence Day|
|November 28||1912||Declared by Ismail Qemal Vlora in 1912 and signaled the end of five centuries of Ottoman rule.||Independence Day/Dita e Pavarësisë|
|July 5||1962||Independence from France in 1962.||Independence Day (Algeria)|
|November 11||1975||Independence from Portugal in 1975.|
|May 30||1967||Independence from St. Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla in 1967.||Anguilla Day|
|November 1||1981||Independence from the United Kingdom in 1981.||Independence Day|
|July 9||1816||Independence declared from the Spanish Empire in 1816.||Independence Day|
|May 28||1918||Declaration of independence from Russian Empire in 1918.|
|September 21||1991||Independence from the Soviet Union in 1991.||Independence Day|
|October 26||1955||Restoration of sovereignty and signing of the Declaration of Neutrality in 1955.||National Day|
|May 28||1918||Independence from the Russian Empire in 1918 and declaration of the Republic.||Republic Day|
|October 18||1991||Independence re-declared from the Soviet Union in 1991.||Day of the State Independence of Azerbaijan|
|July 10||1973||Independence from the United Kingdom in 1973.||Bahamian Independence Day|
|December 16||1971||Independence from the United Kingdom in 1971.||Bahrain Independence Day|
|March 26||1971||Independence was declared from Pakistan and this led to a nine-month war ending on December 16, 1971.||Independence Day of Bangladesh|
|November 30||1966||Independence from the United Kingdom in 1966.||Independence Day|
|July 3||1944||The liberation of Minsk after several years of German occupation in 1944.||Independence Day of Belarus|
|July 21||1831||Independence from the United Netherlands (Belgian revolution) on October 4, 1830. Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld took the oath as first King of the Belgians on July 21, 1831.||Belgian National Day|
|September 21||1981||Independence from the United Kingdom in 1981.||September Celebrations|
|August 1||1960||Independence from France in 1960.|
|August 6||1825||Independence from Spain in 1825.|
|March 1||1992||Independence from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1992.||Independence Day (Bosnia and Herzegovina)|
|September 30||1966||Independence from the United Kingdom in 1966||Independence Day (Botswana)|
|September 7||1822||Independence from the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves on September 7, 1822. Recognized on August 29, 1825.||Dia da Independência or Sete de Setembro|
|January 1||1984||Independence from the United Kingdom in 1984. National Day celebrations are held on February 23.||National Day|
|March 3||1878||Independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1878.|
|August 5||1960||Independence from France in 1960.|
|July 1||1962||Independence from Belgium in 1962.||Independence Day|
|November 9||1953||Independence from France in 1953.|
|January 1||1960||Independence from France and United Kingdom in 1960.|
|July 1||1867||Granted nominal independence from United Kingdom in 1867. However, as the current province of Newfoundland and Labrador was a former British dominion, it celebrates Discovery Day on June 24 and mourns on July 1 for their World War I war dead. See Memorial Day (Newfoundland and Labrador).||Canada Day (Prior to 1982 known as Dominion Day)|
|July 5||1975||Independence from Portugal in 1975.|
|September 11||Catalonian national day.|
|August 13||1960||Independence from France in 1960.|
|August 11||1960||Independence from France in 1960.|
|September 18||1810||Chileans celebrate the date of the first Government Junta, September 18, 1810. This date was not recognized as such until April 25, 1844.[ clarification needed ]||Fiestas Patrias|
|February 12||1818||Independence from Spain in 1818.||Not a holiday|
|October 1||1949||Independence from Kuomintang and establishment of People's Republic of China by the Chinese Communist Party.||National Day of the People's Republic of China|
|July 20 and August 7||1810 and 1819||Independence from Spain in 1810.|
|July 6||1975||Independence from France in 1975.|
|June 30||1960||Independence from Belgium in 1960.|
|August 15||1960||Independence from France in 1960.|
|September 15||1821||Independence from Spain in 1821.|
|August 7||1960||Independence from France in 1960.|
|October 8||1991||Independence from SFR Yugoslavia in 1991.||Independence Day (Croatia)|
|January 1||1959||Independence from Spain in 1902, but Cuba National Day is celebrated on January 1 (Anniversary of the Revolution).|
|October 1||1960||Independence from the United Kingdom on August 16, 1960, but Cyprus Independence Day is commonly celebrated on October 1.||Independence Day (Cyprus)|
|October 28||1918||As Czechoslovakia, marking foundation and declaration of independence from Austria-Hungary on October 28, 1918.|
|January 1||1993||As the Czech Republic after the split of Czechoslovakia in 1993.|
|June 27||1977||Independence from France in 1977.|
|November 3||1978||Independence from the United Kingdom in 1978.|
|February 27||1821 and 1844||Independence from Spain on December 1821. |
Independence re-declared from Haiti in 1844, after a 22-year occupation.
|May 20||2002||Independence from Portugal in 2002 (recognition, East Timor was invaded by Indonesia from 1975 to 1999, officially it never ceased to be considered as administrated by Portugal).|
|August 10||1809||Proclaimed independence from Spain on August 10, 1809, but failed with the execution of all the conspirators of the movement on August 2, 1810.|
|May 24||1822||Independence finally occurred on May 24, 1822 at the Battle of Pichincha.|
|September 15||1821||Independence from Spain in 1821.|
|October 12||1968||Independence from Spain in 1968.|
|May 24||1993||Independence from Ethiopia in 1993.||Independence Day (Eritrea)|
|February 24||1918||Independence from the Russian Empire in 1918.||Independence Day (Estonia)|
|August 20||1991||Independence re-declared from the Soviet Union in 1991.|
|September 6||1968||Independence from the United Kingdom in 1968.||Somhlolo Day|
|October 10||1970||Independence from the United Kingdom in 1970.||Fiji Day|
|December 6||1917||Independence from Russia in 1917. Recognized on January 4, 1918.||Independence Day (Finland)|
|July 11||Flemish national day||Vlaamse Feestdag|
|July 14||1789||Storming and Destruction of the Bastille by the French troops.||Bastille Day|
|August 17||1960||Independence from France in 1960.|
|February 18||1965||Independence from the United Kingdom in 1965.|
|May 26||1918||Day of the proclamation of the Democratic Republic of Georgia in 1918.||Independence Day|
|April 9||1991||Independence from the Soviet Union in 1991.||Day of National Unity|
|March 6||1957||Independence from the United Kingdom in 1957.|
|March 25||1821||Declaration of independence from Ottoman Empire in 1821. Start of the Greek War of Independence.|
|February 7||1974||Independence from the United Kingdom in 1974.||Independence Day (Grenada)|
|September 15||1821||Independence from Spain in 1821.|
|October 2||1958||Independence from France in 1958.|
|September 24||1973||Declaration of independence from Portugal in 1973.|
|May 26||1966||Independence from the United Kingdom in 1966.|
|January 1||1804||Declaration of independence from France in 1804.|
|September 15||1821||Independence from Spain in 1821.|
|July 1||1997||Transfer of sovereignty from the United Kingdom to China in 1997.||Establishment Day (of the Special Administrative Region of Hong Kong)|
|October 23||1989||Opening of its previously-restricted border with Austria in 1989, and establishment as a democratic parliamentary republic.|
|June 17||1944||Foundation of republic in 1944.|
|August 15||1947||Independence from the United Kingdom in 1947.||Independence Day (India)|
|August 17||1945||Declaration of Independence day (Hari Proklamasi Kemerdekaan R.I.) from the Netherlands on August 17, 1945. The Netherlands acknowledged Indonesian independence and sovereignty in 1949. The Dutch government formally acknowledged August 17, 1945 as the only true date of Indonesian Independence in 2008. [ failed verification ]||Hari Kemerdekaan Republik Indonesia, or Hari Ulang Tahun Kemerdekaan Indonesia (Independence Anniversary Day of Indonesia)|
|April 1||1979||After holding a referendum, Iran officially became an Islamic republic in April 1979.|
|October 3||1932||Independence from the United Kingdom in 1932.|
|April 24||1916||Proclamation of the Irish Republic commencing the Easter Rising on April 24, 1916. Independence from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Usually celebrated on Easter Monday.|
(On or between April 15 and May 15, depending on the Hebrew calendar).
|1948||Independence from the British Mandate for Palestine, which took place on May 14, 1948 (5 Iyar 5708 in the Hebrew calendar). Yom Ha'atzmaut is celebrated on the Tuesday, Wednesday or Thursday nearest to 5 Iyar, so it occurs between 3 and 6 Iyar each year; this means that the holiday can fall any time between and including April 15 and May 15, according to the Gregorian calendar.||Yom Ha'atzmaut|
|August 6||1962||Independence from the United Kingdom in 1962.|
|May 25||1946||Independence from the United Kingdom in 1946.|
|December 16||1991||Independence from the Soviet Union in 1991.||Kazakhstan Independence Day|
|December 12||1963||Independence from the United Kingdom in 1963.||Jamhuri Day|
|July 12||1979||Independence from the United Kingdom in 1979.|
|August 15||1945||Founding of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea in 1948. Korean War 1950-1953.||Chogukhaebangŭi nal|
|March 1||1919||Korean Declaration of Independence in 1919. This day is celebrated as Samiljeol, or Independence Proclamation Day.||Samiljeol|
|August 15||1945||Liberation from the Empire of Japan in 1945. See Japanese Occupation of Korea. The Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was founded in 1919. Korean War 1950-1953.||Gwangbokjeol|
|February 17||2008||Independence from Serbia in 2008. (Only partially recognized)|
|February 25||1961||Independence from the United Kingdom in 1961.|
|August 31||1991||Independence from USSR in 1991.||Independence Day (Kyrgyzstan)|
|October 22||1953||Independence from France on October 22, 1953.|
|November 18||1918||Proclamation of independence on November 18, 1918. Latvia was part of Russian Empire prior to the WWI, but its territory had been ceded to German Empire in March 1918||Proclamation Day of the Republic of Latvia|
|May 4||1990||Restoration of independence from Soviet Union on May 4, 1990.|
|November 22||1943||Independence from France in 1943.||Lebanese Independence Day|
|October 4||1966||Independence from the United Kingdom in 1966.|
|July 26||1847||Independence from the American Colonization Society in 1847.|
|December 24||1951||Independence from Italy on 10 February 1947, released from British and French on December 24, 1951.|
|February 16||1918||Act of Independence of Lithuania: Independence from the Russian and German Empires in February 1918.|
|March 11||1990||Act of the Re-Establishment of the State of Lithuania: independence from the Soviet Union in March 1990.|
|December 20||1999||Transfer of sovereignty from Portugal to China in 1997.||Establishment Day (of the Special Administrative Region of Macau)|
|June 26||1960||Independence from France in 1960.|
|July 6||1964||Independence from the United Kingdom in 1964.|
|August 31||1957||Independence of the Federation of Malaya from the United Kingdom in 1957.||Hari Merdeka|
|July 26||1965||Independence from the United Kingdom in 1965.|
|September 22||1960||Independence from France in 1960.|
|September 21||1964||Independence from the United Kingdom in 1964.||Independence Day|
|November 28||1960||Independence from France in 1960.|
|March 12||1968||Independence from the United Kingdom in 1968.|
|September 16||1810||Independence from Spain declared in 1810. ("grito" ceremony at night of Sep 15; military parade at midday of Sep 16). Recognized on September 27, 1821.||Grito de Dolores|
|August 27||1991||Declaration of Independence from the Soviet Union in 1991.||Independence Day|
|December 29||1911||Independence from the Great Qing in 1911. However, the newly established Mongolian government was too weak to resist the occupation of the Republic of China in 1919 and later White Russia in early 1921. After ousting Roman von Ungern-Sternberg's forces, the new communist government was officially established on June 11, 1921.||Independence Day (Mongolia)|
|May 21||2006||Referendum on independence from Serbia and Montenegro in 2006.|
|November 18||1956||Independence from France and Spain in 1956.||Independence Day|
|June 25||1975||Independence from Portugal in 1975.|
|January 4||1948||Independence from the United Kingdom in 1948.||Independence Day (Myanmar)|
|March 21||1990||Independence from South Africa mandated in 1990.|
|January 31||1968||Independence from Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom in 1968.|
|July 26||1581||Declaration of Independence from Spanish Empire in 1581 as the Dutch Republic.|
|September 15||1821||Independence from Spain in 1821.|
|August 3||1960||Independence from France in 1960.||Independence Day (Niger)|
|October 1||1960||Independence from the United Kingdom in 1960.||Independence Day (Nigeria)|
|September 8||1991||Independence from Yugoslavia in 1991.||Den na nezavisnosta or Ден на независноста|
|May 17||1814||Independence from Denmark (1814) and the Constitution of Norway (May 17, 1814).||National day/Constitution Day|
|June 7||1905||Finally independence from Sweden in 1905. The Norwegian Royal Family's return from exile during WWII in 1945.||Independence Day/Union Dissolution Day|
|November 18||1650||Independence from Portugal in 1650.||National Day|
|August 14||1947||Independence from the United Kingdom in 1947.||Youm-e-Azadi|
|November 15||1988||Declared independence from Israel.|
|November 28||1821||Independence from Spain in 1821.|
|November 3||1903||Panama was member of the "Gran Colombia" until 1903. The 1903 separation from Colombia is celebrated as an official holiday day on November 3.|
|September 16||1975||Independence from Australia of the former Territory of Papua and New Guinea in 1975.|
|May 15||1811||Independence from Spain in 1811.||Día de Independencia|
|July 28||1821||Independence from Spain in 1821.||Fiestas Patrias|
|June 12||1898||Commemorates 1898 declaration by Emilio Aguinaldo during the Philippine Revolution against Spain. The Philippines achieved self-rule from the United States on July 4, 1946, and celebrated July 4 as Independence Day until 1964.||Araw ng Kalayaan or Araw ng Kasarinlan|
|November 11||1918||Restoration of Poland's independence in 1918 after 123 years of partitions by Russia, Prussia, and Austria.||Święto Niepodległości (Independence Day)|
|December 1||1640||Portugal was officially an autonomous state, but the country was in a personal union with the Spanish crown from 1580 to 1640 - date of the restoration of full Portuguese autonomy from Iberian Union with Spain.||Restoration of Independence Day|
|December 18||1971||Original independence from the United Kingdom on 7 September.||Qatar National Day|
|May 9||1877||Romania's declaration of its independence, while the ultimately victorious independence war against the Ottoman Empire in 1877–1878 alongside Russia, was just beginning.|
|June 12||1992||It commemorates the adoption of the Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR) on June 12, 1990. The passage of this Declaration by the First Congress of People's Deputies marked the beginning of constitutional reform in the Russian Soviet state.||Russia Day|
|July 1||1962||Independence from Belgium in 1962.|
|September 19||1983||Independence from the United Kingdom in 1983.|
|February 22||1979||Independence from the United Kingdom in 1979.||Independence Day|
|October 27||1979||Independence from the United Kingdom in 1979.|
|January 1||1962||Independence from New Zealand in 1962.|
|July 12||1975||Independence from Portugal in 1975.|
|April 4||1960||Independence from France in 1960.|
|February 15||1804||The beginning of First Serbian Uprising in 1804, it evolved into a Serbian Revolution, war for independence from Ottoman Empire; and the adoption of the first Constitution in 1835.||Statehood Day|
|June 29||1976||Independence from the United Kingdom in 1976.|
|April 27||1961||Independence from the United Kingdom in 1961.|
|August 9||1965||Marks expulsion from the Malaysian Federation in 1965. Only independent state to have an Independence Day due to its expulsion.||National Day (Singapore)|
|July 17||1992||Declaration of Independence in 1992 (only a remembrance day), de jure independence came on January 1, 1993 after the division of Czechoslovakia (public holiday).|
|December 26 and June 25||1991||Date of the release of the official results of the independence plebiscite in 1990, confirming secession from Yugoslavia. (Statehood Day) Declared independence from Yugoslavia in 1991.||Independence and Unity Day|
|July 7||1978||Independence from the United Kingdom in 1978.|
|July 1||1960||Union of the Trust Territory of Somalia (former Italian Somaliland) and British Somaliland to form the Somali Republic. Event commemorated annually.||Independence Day (Somalia)|
|December 11||1931||Independence from the United Kingdom in 1931 in terms of the Balfour Declaration of 1926 which is not a public holiday. The Union of South Africa formed on May 31, 1910 and the Republic of South Africa declared on May 31, 1961 under minority rule during Apartheid. Majority rule achieved on April 27, 1994, which is celebrated annually as Freedom Day.|
|July 9||2011||Independence from Sudan in 2011.|
|February 4||1948||Independence from the United Kingdom in 1948.||Independence Day (Sri Lanka)|
|January 1||1956||Independence from Egypt and the United Kingdom in 1956.|
|November 25||1975||Independence from the Netherlands in 1975.|
|June 6||1523||Celebrates the election of King Gustav Vasa in 1523 and the new constitutions in 1809 and 1974. The election of King Gustav Vasa was the de facto end of the Kalmar Union and has been seen as a formal declaration of independence.||National Day of Sweden|
|August 1||1291||Alliance against the Holy Roman Empire in 1291.||Swiss National Day|
|April 17||1946||End of the French Mandate of Syria in 1946.||Evacuation Day|
|October 10||1911||Independence from the Great Qing in 1911. The Republic of China was founded on the mainland on 1 January 1912 while Taiwan was under Japanese rule.||National Day of the Republic of China|
|September 9||1991||Independence from the Soviet Union in 1991.||Independence Day (Tajikistan)|
|December 9||1961||Independence of Tanganyika from the United Kingdom in 1961.|
|April 27||1960||Independence from France in 1960.|
|February 13||1913||Independence from Manchu's Qing Dynasty in 1913. Later invaded in October 1950 by China and currently administered by China.||Tibetan Independence Day|
|June 4||1970||Termination of protectorate status under the United Kingdom in 1970.|
|August 31||1962||Independence from the United Kingdom in 1962.|
|March 20||1956||Independence from France in 1956.|
|October 27||1991||Declaration of independence from the Soviet Union in 1991.||Independence Day (Turkmenistan)|
|October 1||1978||Independence from the United Kingdom in 1978.|
|October 9||1962||Independence from the United Kingdom in 1962.|
|August 24||1991||Declaration of Independence of Ukraine from the Soviet Union in 1991.||Independence Day of Ukraine|
|January 22||1919||Unification of Ukraine on January 22, 1919.||Day of Unity of Ukraine|
|December 2||1971||Independence from the United Kingdom in 1971.||National Day|
|July 4||1776||Declaration of Independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain (now the United Kingdom) in 1776.||Independence Day (United States) or Fourth of July|
|August 25||1825||Declaration of independence from the Empire of Brazil and union with the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata.||Declaratoria de la Independencia|
|September 1||1991||Independence from Soviet Union in 1991.||Independence Day (Uzbekistan)|
|July 30||1980||Independence from the United Kingdom and France in 1980.|
|July 5||1811||Declaration of independence from Spain in 1811.|
|September 2||1945||Proclamation of independence from Japan and France in 1945.||Independence Day (Vietnam)|
|November 30||1967||South Yemen Declaration of independence from the United Kingdom in 1967.|
|October 24||1964||Independence from the United Kingdom in 1964.|
|April 18||1980||Independence from the United Kingdom in 1980.|
A declaration of independence or declaration of statehood is an assertion by a defined territory that it is independent and constitutes a state. Such places are usually declared from part or all of the territory of another nation or failed nation, or are breakaway territories from within the larger state. In 2010, the UN's International Court of Justice ruled in an advisory opinion in Kosovo that "International law contains no prohibition on declarations of independence", though the state from which the territory wishes to secede may regard the declaration as rebellion, which may lead to a war of independence or a constitutional settlement to resolve the crisis.
Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy was a Filipino revolutionary, politician and military leader who is officially recognized as the first and the youngest President of the Philippines (1899–1901) and first president of a constitutional republic in Asia. He led Philippine forces first against Spain in the latter part of the Philippine Revolution (1896–1898), and then in the Spanish–American War (1898), and finally against the United States during the Philippine–American War (1899–1901).
The National Flag of the Philippines is a horizontal flag bicolor with equal bands of royal blue and crimson red, with a white, equilateral triangle at the hoist. In the center of the triangle is a golden-yellow sun with eight primary rays, each representing a Philippine province. At each vertex of the triangle is a five-pointed, golden-yellow star, each of which representing one of the country's three main island groups—Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao. A unique feature of this flag is its usage to indicate a state of war if it is displayed with the red side on top, which is effectively achieved just by flipping the flag upside-down.
This is a list of public holidays in the Philippines.
Public holidays in South Korea each belong to one or more of three categories:
Diosdado Pangan Macapagal Sr. was the ninth President of the Philippines, serving from 1961 to 1965, and the sixth Vice-President, serving from 1957 to 1961. He also served as a member of the House of Representatives, and headed the Constitutional Convention of 1970. He is the father of Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, who was the 14th President of the Philippines from 2001 to 2010.
A Republic Day is a holiday to commemorate the day when a country became republic. In some countries, it is known as National Day or Proclamation Day, or by some other sort of name.
Philippine Republic Day, also known as Filipino-American Friendship Day, is a commemoration in the Philippines held annually on July 4. It was formerly an official holiday designated as Independence Day, celebrating the signing of the Treaty of Manila, which granted Philippine Independence from the United States of America in 1946.
Independence Day is a federal holiday in the United States commemorating the Declaration of Independence of the United States, on July 4, 1776. The Continental Congress declared that the thirteen American colonies were no longer subject to the monarch of Britain and were now united, free, and independent states. The Congress had voted to declare independence two days earlier, on July 2, but it was not declared until July 4.
The Emilio F. Aguinaldo Shrine is a national shrine located in Kawit, Cavite in the Philippines, where the Philippine Declaration of Independence from Spain was declared on June 12, 1898. To commemorate the event, now known as Araw ng Kalayaan or Independence Day, a national holiday, the Philippine flag is raised here by top government officials on June 12 each year. The house is now a museum
The Maura Law may refer to two different decrees named after Don Antonio Maura, the Spanish Minister of Colonies at the time.
The Philippine Declaration of Independence was proclaimed on June 12, 1898 in Cavite II el Viejo, Philippines. With the public reading of the Act of the Proclamation of Independence of the Filipino People, Filipino revolutionary forces under General Emilio Aguinaldo proclaimed the sovereignty and independence of the Philippine Islands from the colonial rule of Spain.
A national hero of the Philippines is a Filipino who has been recognized as a national hero for his or her role in the history of the Philippines. Loosely, the term may refer to all Filipino historical figures recognized as heroes, but the term more strictly refers to those officially designated as such. In 1995 the Philippine National Heroes Committee officially recommended several people for the designation, but this was not acted upon. As of 2007, no one had ever been officially recognized as a Philippine national hero.
Independence Day is an annual national holiday in the Philippines observed on June 12, commemorating the independence of the Philippines from Spain.
This article covers the history of the Philippines from the recognition of independence in 1946 to the end of the presidency of Diosdado Macapagal, which covered much of the Third Republic of the Philippines which ended on January 17, 1973 with the ratification of the 1973 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines.
The decolonisation of Asia was the gradual growth of independence movements in Asia, leading ultimately to the retreat of foreign powers and the creation of a number of nation-states in the region. A number of events were catalysts for this shift, most importantly the Second World War. Prior to World War II, some countries had already proclaimed independence.
The Sovereignty of the Philippines refers to the status of the Philippines as an independent nation. This article covers sovereignty transitions relating to the Philippines, with particular emphasis on the passing of sovereignty from Spain to the United States in the Treaty of Paris (1898), signed on December 10, 1898 to end the Spanish–American War.
The Philippine two hundred-peso note (₱200) is a denomination of Philippine currency. Philippine president Diosdado Macapagal is currently featured on the front side of the note, and since 2017, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo's inauguration as the 14th President of the Philippines is on the lower-left side on the note just in front of the scene of the Declaration of Philippine Independence, and the scene of the opening of the Malolos Congress is also present on the obverse side of the note. From 2010 to 2017, the Aguinaldo Shrine and the Barasoain Church were featured on the front side of the note. The Chocolate Hills and the Philippine tarsier is featured on the reverse side. Currently, it is the rarest denomination circulating in the country.
Independence Day of the Republic of Belarus, also known as Republic Day or Liberation Day is a public holiday, the independence day of Belarus and is celebrated each year on July 3. Independence Day is a non-working day.
Gabriel Fabrero Fabella was a prominent Filipino historian during the 20th century. He is primarily known as the historian behind Philippine President Diosdado Macapagal's decision to issue Proclamation No. 28 on May 12, 1962, which changed the date of Philippine independence from July 4, 1946 to June 12, 1898 — the date when Philippine President Emilio Aguinaldo proclaimed the country's independence from Spain in Kawit, Cavite. For this achievement, Fabella became known as the "Father of June 12 Independence Day."
On October 27, 1991, the Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic declared its independence from the Soviet Union.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked with maintaining international peace and security, developing friendly relations among nations, achieving international co-operation, and being a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations. It was established after World War II, with the aim of preventing future wars, and succeeded the ineffective League of Nations. Its headquarters, which are subject to extraterritoriality, are in Manhattan, New York City, and it has other main offices in Geneva, Nairobi, Vienna and The Hague. The organization is financed by assessed and voluntary contributions from its member states. Its objectives include maintaining international peace and security, protecting human rights, delivering humanitarian aid, promoting sustainable development, and upholding international law. The UN is the largest, most familiar, most internationally represented and most powerful intergovernmental organization in the world. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; there are now 193.