List of monarchs of Laos

Last updated

King of Laos
Royal Seal of the Kingdom of Laos.svg
Details
StyleHis Royal Majesty
First monarch Fa Ngum
Last monarch Savang Vatthana
Formation1353 (Kingdom of Lan Xang)
Abolition2 December 1975 (Lao People's Democratic Republic)
Residence Royal Palace, Luang Prabang, Laos
AppointerHereditary
Pretender(s) Soulivong Savang
Royal Standard of the Kingdom of Laos Royal Standard of the Kingdom of Laos.svg
Royal Standard of the Kingdom of Laos

The Lao People's Democratic Republic is the modern state derived from the final Kingdom of Laos. The political source of Lao history and cultural identity is the Tai kingdom of Lan Xang, which during its apogee emerged as one of the largest kingdoms in Southeast Asia. Lao history is filled with frequent conflict and warfare, but infrequent scholarly attention. The resulting dates and references are approximate, and rely on source material from court chronicles which survived both war and neglect, or outside sources from competing neighboring kingdoms in what are now China, Vietnam, Burma, Thailand, and Cambodia.

Contents

Lao kingship was based upon the mandala system established by the example of King Ashoka. In theory, Lao kings and their successors were chosen by agreement of the king's Sena (a council which could include senior royal family members, ministers, generals and senior members of the sangha or clergy), through the validity the king's lineage, and by personal Dharma through commitment to propagating Theravada Buddhism (the king was literally a Dharmaraja- as one who led by acts of religious virtue). Kingship was not based exclusively on primogeniture or divine right as was common in other monarchies.

The monarchy traces its lineage to Chao Fa Ngum, who founded the Kingdom of Lan Xang in 1353 and beyond that to the mythical Khun Borom who was held as the mythical father of the Tai peoples and the progenitor of the Lao Loum.

Lan Xang endured as a politically unified entity for three hundred years (1353–1694), which was then split into the kingdoms of Vientiane, Luang Prabang, and Champasak, only to be reconstituted as a unified constitutional monarchy under a French protectorate in 1946. At various times the kingdom Lan Xang fought off invasions from Burma, Siam and the Đại Việt.

The traditional capital of Lan Xang was at Luang Prabang until it was moved in 1560 by King Setthathirath to better administer the growing population and provide security in facing threats from Burma and Siam. Lan Xang entered a Golden Age during the reigns of Visunarat (1501–1520) and Sourigna Vongsa from (1637–94), during these times the cultural and economic power of the kingdom were at their greatest. In 1828 Vientiane was razed by the Siamese, in retaliation for the Chao Anouvong Rebellion, at which point the kingdom of Vientiane ceased to exist. During the French Protectorate, Luang Prabang was reestablished as the cultural and religious capital, while the French rebuilt Vientiane as the country's administrative capital.

Kingdom of Lan Xang (1353–1707)

The following is a list of Lan Xang kings from the founding in 1353 by Fa Ngum, to the succession disputes following the death of Souligna Vongsa, and partition of the Kingdom in 1707.

Kings
NamePortraitRegnal NameBirthReign
from
Reign
until
DeathRelationship
with predecessors
Notes
Fa Ngum

ພຣະເຈົ້າຟ້າງຸ້ມມະຫາຣາຊ

Fa Ngum-Vtne1.JPG Somdetch Brhat-Anya Fa Ladhuraniya Sri Sadhana Kanayudha Maharaja Brhat Rajadharana Sri Chudhana Negara ສົມເດັດ ພຣະບາດ ອັນຍາ ຟ້າ ລັດທຸຣັນຍາ ສຣີ ຣາຊະທໍຣະນາ ສຣີ ສັດຕະນາ ນະຄອນ1316

Muang Sua, Lan Xang

5 January 135313721373

Muang Nan, Nan

Aged 57

Son of Khun Phi Fa [1]
Samsenethai

ສາມແສນໄທ
(Oun Huan)

ອຸ່ນເຮືອນ

Airavata emblem transparent.png Samdach Brhat-Anya Samu Sena Daya Daya Buvana Natha Adipati Sri Sadhana Kanayudha

ສົມເດັຈພຣະຍາ ສາມແສນໄທ ໄຕຣ໌ພູວະນາທອາທິປັຕ ສຼີສັຕນາຄະນາຫຸທ

1357

Muang Sua, Lan Xang

13721416

Muang Sua, Lan Xang

Aged 60

Son of Fa Ngum [2]
Lan Kham Deng

ພະເຈົ້າລ້ານຄຳແດງ

Airavata emblem transparent.png Samdach Brhat-Anya Chao Lamakamadinga1387

Muang Sua, Lan Xang

14171428

Muang Sua, Lan Xang

Aged 41

Son of Samsenethai [3]
Phommathat

ພະຍາພົມມະທັດ

Airavata emblem transparent.png Samdach Brhat-Anya Chao Brahma-kumara Bhumadaraja?

Muang Sua, Lan Xang

14281429

Muang Sua, Lan Xang

Lan Kham Deng's oldest sonReigned 10 months[ citation needed ]
Yukhon
(Meunsai)
Airavata emblem transparent.png Samdach Brhat-Anya Chao Yugandhara?

Muang Sua, Lan Xang

14291430

Phadao, Lan Xang

Younger brother of Phommathat Reigned 8 months [4]
Khon Kham Airavata emblem transparent.png Samdach Brhat-Anya Chao Kunikama?

Muang Sua, Lan Xang

14301432

Kokrua, Lan Xang

Son of King Samsenthai Reigned 18 months [5]
Kham Tam Sa
(Kham Teu n, Khamtum)
Airavata emblem transparent.png Samdach Brhat-Anya Chao Kama Dharmasara?

Muang Sua, Lan Xang

1429(?); 1432

Pak Houei Luang, Lan Xang

Son of Samsenthai Reigned 5 months [6]
Lusai Airavata emblem transparent.png Samdach Brhat-Anya Chao Luvana Jaya Chakrapati Phen-Pheo?

Muang Sua, Lan Xang

14321433

Palace Gardens, Muang Sua, Lan Xang

Son of Samsenthai Reigned 6 months
[7]
Khai Bua Ban Airavata emblem transparent.png Samdach Brhat-Anya Chao Kaya Buvanabana?

Muang Sua, Lan Xang

143314361438

Sop Kham, Lan Xang

Grandson of Samsenthai [8]
Kham Keut
(Kham-Kert, Kham Keul)
Airavata emblem transparent.png Samdach Brhat-Anya Chao Kama Kirti?

Muang Sua, Lan Xang

14361438

Muang Sua, Lan Xang

Illegitimate son of Samsenethai [ citation needed ]
Nang Keo Phimpha

ນາງແກ້ວພິມພາ

Airavata emblem transparent.png Samdach Brhat-Anya Sadu Chao Nying Kaeva Bhima Fa Mahadevi

ສົມເດັຈພຣະຍາ ສາທຸເຈົ້າຍິງ ແກ້ວພິມພາ ມະຫາເທວີ

13431438

Pha-Dieo, Muang Sua

Aged 95

[9]
Interregnum (1438–1441, rule by Sena and members of Sangha) [10]
Chakkaphat Phaen Phaeo
(Sai Tia Kaphut or Xainyachakkaphat)
Airavata emblem transparent.png Samdach Brhat-Anya Chao Sanaka Chakrapati Raja Phen-Phaeo Bhaya Jayadiya Kabuddha1415

Muang Sua, Lan Xang

144114791481

Muang Xieng Khane, Lan Xang

Aged 66

Son of Samsenthai [11]
Souvanna Banlang Airavata emblem transparent.png Samdach Brhat-Anya Chao Suvarna Panya Lankara Raja Sri Sadhana Kanayudha1455

Xieng-Thong, Lan Xang

14791485

Xieng-Thong, Lan Xang

Aged 30

Son of Chakkaphat Phaen Phaeo [ citation needed ]
La Sen Thai
(La Sen Thai Puvanart)
Airavata emblem transparent.png Samdach Brhat-Anya Chao Lankasena Daya Buvananatha Raja Sri Sadhana Kanayudha1462

Xieng-Thong, Lan Xang

14861495

Xieng-Thong, Lan Xang

Aged 33

Youngest brother of Suvarna
Banlang
[12]
Somphou Airavata emblem transparent.png Samdach Brhat-Anya Chao Jumbuya Raja Sri Sadhana Kanayudha1486

Xieng-Thong, Lan Xang

149515001501

Muang Sua, Lan Xang

Aged 15

Son of La Sen Thai1495-1497, under regency by his uncle [13]
Visoun
(also Vixun or Visunarat)
Wat Visoun, Luang Prabang Laos by Louis Delaporte.jpg Samdach Brhat-Anya Chao Visunha Rajadipati Pada Sri Sadhana Kanayudha1465

Xieng-Thong, Lan Xang

15001520

Vientianne, Lan Xang

Aged 55

Son of Sai Tia Kaphut [14]
Photisarath I
(also Phothisarath, Phothisarat, or Potisarat)ພະເຈົ້າໂພທິສະລາດ
Phra That Phanom 02.jpg Samdach Brhat-Anya Budhisara Maha Dharmikadasa Lankanakuna Maharaja Adipati Chakrapati Bhumina Narindra Raja Sri Sadhana Kanayudha1505

Xieng-Thong, Lan Xang

15208 August 1548

Xieng-Mai Nhotnakorn Palace, Vientiane, Lan Xang

Aged 43

Son of Visoun [6]
Setthathirath
ເສດຖາທິຣາດ

(also Xaysettha, Chaiyachettha,
Chaiyaset or Jayajestha)

ໄຊເສດຖາ

Setthathirat.JPG Samdach Brhat-Anya Chao Udaya Budhara Buvana Brhat Jaya Setha Maharajadiraja Buvanadi Adipati Sri Sadhana Kanayudha24 January 1534

Muang Sua, Lan Xang

8 August 15481571

Muang Ong-Kan, Attapeu, Lan Xang

Aged 37

Son of Photisarath Also King of Lanna
r. 1546-1551
[15]
Nokeo Koumane Airavata emblem transparent.png Samdach Brhat Vora Ratana Dharmapasuta Sethakassa Atsanachandra Suvarna Samudhi Khakharattanasara Raja Bupati1571

Vientianne, Lan Xang

15711596

Aged 25

Son of SetthathirathFirst reign as a baby under regency
Sen Soulintha
(also Saen Surintha or Sen Sourintha,
born Chane Tian)
Airavata emblem transparent.png Samdach Brhat-Anya Chao Sumangala Ayaka Budhisana Raja Sri Sadhana Kanayudha1511

Nong-Khai, Siam

157215751582

Vientianne, Lan Xang

Aged 71

Not of royal descentFirst reign.
[16]
Voravongsa I Airavata emblem transparent.png Samdach Brhat-Anya Chao Brhatasena Vora Varman Raja Sri Sadhana Kanayudha?15751579

Keng Chane pass, Vientiane, Lan Xang

Son of Photisarath Burmese vassal [17]
Sen Soulintha
(also Saen Surintha or Sen Sourintha,
born Chane Tian)
Airavata emblem transparent.png Samdach Brhat-Anya Chao Sumangala Ayaka Budhisana Raja Sri Sadhana Kanayudha1511

Nong-Khai, Siam

15801582

Vientianne, Lan Xang

Aged 71

Not of royal descentSecond reign
[18]
Nakhon Noi Airavata emblem transparent.png Samdach Brhat Chao Samdach Brhat Chao Negara Nawi Raja Sri Sadhana Kanayudha?15821583?

Toungoo Empire

Son of Sen Soulintha.
Not of royal descent.
[19]
Interregnum (1583–1591)[ citation needed ]
Nokeo Koumane Airavata emblem transparent.png Samdach Brhat Vora Ratana Dharmapasuta Sethakassa Atsanachandra Suvarna Samudhi Khakharattanasara Raja Bupati1571

Vientianne, Lan Xang

15911596

Aged 25

Son of Setthathirath [20]
Voravongsa II
(Thammikarath)
Airavata emblem transparent.png Vara Varman Dharmika Raja Jaya1585159616211622

Aged 37

Nephew of Setthathirath [21]
Oupagnouvarath Airavata emblem transparent.png Samdach Brhat Chao Maha Upayuvaraja159716211622

Aged 25

Son of Voravongsa [22]
Photisarath II Airavata emblem transparent.png Samdach Brhat-Anya Chao Bandita Buddhisa Raja Sri Sadhana Kanayudha155216221627

Aged 75

Son or grandson of Sen Soulintha
Not of royal descent
[23]
Mon Keo
(Mongkeo)
Airavata emblem transparent.png Samdach Brhat-Anya Chao Manikya Kaeva Raja Sri Sadhana Kanayudha?16271633Son of Voravongsa [24]
Tone Kham Airavata emblem transparent.png SamdachBrhatChaoDharmakamaRajaSriSadhanaKanayudha?16331637Son of Mon Keo [25]
Vichai Airavata emblem transparent.png SamdachBrhatChaoVijayaRajaSriSadhanaKanayudha?16371638Son of Mon Keo [25]
Souligna Vongsa
(Sourinyavongsa)ສຸຣິຍະວົງສາທັມມິກຣາດ
Airavata emblem transparent.png Samdach Brhat Chao Suriyalinga Varman Dharmika Raja Parama Pavitra Prasidhadhiraja Sri Sadhana Kanayudha1618

Vientiane, Lan Xang

16381694

Vientiane, Lan Xang

Aged 76

Son of Tone Kham2nd Golden Age of Lan Xang
[26]
Tian Thala Airavata emblem transparent.png Samdach Brhat Chao Devaniasena Chandralaya Raja Sri Sadhana Kanayudha?169416951696Not of royal descent.Senior minister who usurped the throne
reigning for 6 months. [27]
Nan Tharat Airavata emblem transparent.png Samdach Brhat Chao Phya Nanda Raja Sri Sadhana Kanayudha?16951698

Vientiane, Lan Xang

Grandson of Vichai [28]
Setthathirath II
ພຣະເຈົ້າໄຊອົງເວ້

(Sai Ong Hue; Ong Lo; Trieu Phuc)

ໄຊອົງເວ້

Airavata emblem transparent.png Somdetch BrhatChaoMaha Sri Jaya Setha Adiraja Darmikaraja Chandrapuri Sri Sadhana Kanayudha1685

Huế, Đại Việt

169817061730

Royal Palace, Vientiane

Aged 45

Nephew of Souligna Vongsa
(whose father was exiled to Vietnam)
[29]

Kingdom of Vientiane (1707–1828)

Flag of the Kingdom of Vientiane (1707-1828) Flag of the Kingdom of Vientiane (1707 - 1828).svg
Flag of the Kingdom of Vientiane (1707–1828)

Kingdom of Vientiane was formed in 1707 as a result of the succession dispute between Sai Ong Hue with his backing from the Vietnamese court at Huế and Kingkitsarat (a grandson of Souligna Vongsa) who was backed by the Tai Lü kingdom of Sipsong Panna. From 1707 until the annihilation of Vientiane in 1828, the kingdom would at various times be in rivalry with the kingdoms of Luang Prabang and Champasak, although they remained loosely confederated by cultural and historic affinity. By the mid-eighteenth century, the individual Lao kingdoms were simultaneously paying tribute to Burma, China, Siam and Vietnam. Following the Rebellion of Chao Anouvong in 1828, Vientiane was destroyed and both the kingdoms of Vientiane and Champasak falls to the Siamese in 1828. The kingship of Vientiane ends and all territories are annexed to Siam. [30] General Ratchasuphawadi oversees the depopulation of the kingdom and forced relocation to Isaan. The city itself was leveled leaving only Wat Si Saket standing, along with the partial ruins of the Ha Pra Keo, That Dam Stupa, and That Luang Stupa. In 1867, Louis de Carne a part of the Francis Garnier exploratory mission noted that:

“A flourishing capital has been annihilated in our own days, and an entire people has, in some sort, disappeared, without Europe even having suspected such scenes of desolation-without even a solitary echo of this long cry of despair having reached her.” [31]

Kings
NamePortraitRegnal NameBirthReign
from
Reign
until
DeathRelationship
with predecessors
Notes
Setthathirath II

ພຣະເຈົ້າໄຊອົງເວ້
(Sai Ong Hue; Ong Lo; Trieu Phuc)

ໄຊອົງເວ້

Flag of the Kingdom of Vientiane (1707-1828).svg Samdach BrhatChaoMaha Sri Jaya Setha Adiraja Darmikaraja Chandrapuri Sri Sadhana Kanayudha1685

Huế, Annam

17071730

Royal Palace, Vientiane

Aged 45

Nephew of Souligna Vongsa
Ong Long

ເຈົ້າອົງລອງ

Flag of the Kingdom of Vientiane (1707-1828).svg Samdach BrhatChaoMaha Sri UngalankayaChandapuri Sri Sadhana Kanayudha?

Vientiane

17301767Son of Sai Ong HueBurmese vassal, 1765–1768
Ong Boun

ອົງບຸນ
(Siribunyasarn)(Ong Bun Setthathirath III)

Phrachao Siribounyasan

ພຣະເຈົ້າສິຣິບຸນຍະສາຣ

Flag of the Kingdom of Vientiane (1707-1828).svg Samdach BrhatChaoDharma Adi Varman Maha Sri Bunyasena Jaya Setha Adiraja Chandrapuri Sri Sadhana Kanayudha?

Vientiane

1767177928 November 1781

Lanchang

Son of Sai Ong Hue1st reign. Burmese vassal) [32]
Interregnum (1778–1780).
Phraya Supho appointed governor by Siamese, led by General Taksin. Vientiane falls and is sacked by the Siamese (1779)
Ong Boun

ອົງບຸນ
(Siribunyasarn)(Ong Bun Setthathirath III)

Phrachao Siribounyasan

ພຣະເຈົ້າສິຣິບຸນຍະສາຣ

Flag of the Kingdom of Vientiane (1707-1828).svg Samdach BrhatChaoDharma Adi Varman Maha Sri Bunyasena Jaya Setha Adiraja Chandrapuri Sri Sadhana Kanayudha?

Vientiane

178028 November 1781

Lanchang

Son of Sai Ong Hue2nd reign, returns as vassal to Siam
Nanthasen

ພຣະເຈົ້ານັນທະເສນ

Flag of the Kingdom of Vientiane (1707-1828).svg Samdach BrhatChaoAnandasenaBungmalayaChandapuri Sri Sadhana Kanayudha Visudhirattana Rajadhanipuri Rama Lanjang Krum Klao?28 November 1781January 1795June/July 1795

Bangkok, Siam

Son of Ong BounReturns Pra Bang to Vientiane, vassal to Siam,
but recalled for plotting a rebellion
Intharavong

ເຈົ້າອິນທະວົງສ໌
(Intharavong Setthathirath IV)

Flag of the Kingdom of Vientiane (1707-1828).svg Samdach BrhatChaoIndra VarmanJaya SetthadirajaChandapuri Sri Sadhana Kanayudha Visudhirattana Rajadhanipuri Rama Lanjang Krum Klao?2 February 17957 February 1805

Vientiane

Son of Ong BounVassal to Siam
Anouvong

ເຈົ້າອານຸວົງສ໌ (Anouvong or Anurath, Setthahirath V)

Flag of the Kingdom of Vientiane (1707-1828).svg Samdach Paramanadha Parama Bupati Samdach Brhat Pen Chao Singhadhanuraja, Samdach Brhat Parama Bupati Brhat Maha Kashatriya Khatiya Adipati Jayasettha Jatikasuriya Varman,Angga Penh Brhat Yuhuanaya MahanegaraChandrapuri Sri Sadhana Kanayudha Visudhirattana Rajadhanipuri Rama Lanjang Krum Klao1767

Vientiane

7 February 180519 December 182825th/26 January 1829

Bangkok, Siam

Aged 628

Son of Ong Boun and Brother of InthavongLed the Lao rebellion (1826–1828) against Siam

Kingdom of Champasak (Bassac) (1713–1904)

Flag of the Kingdom of Champasak (1713-1904) Flag of the Kingdom of Champasak (1713-1947).svg
Flag of the Kingdom of Champasak (1713–1904)

The Kingdom of Champasak declared itself independent from the Kingdom of Vientiane in 1713. The Kingdom of Champasak comprised the area south of the Xe Bang River as far as Stung Treng together with the areas of the lower Mun and Xi rivers on the Khorat Plateau (now the Isaan area of modern Thailand). The Kingdom was annexed by Siam in 1829 following the Chao Anouvong Rebellion, and subsequent kings were confirmed in Bangkok. From 1893 French took administrative control over parts of the kingdom, in 1904 the kingdom was reduced to a provincial governorship but still included the political involvement of the Na Champasak royal family. From 1941–45 Thailand exploited France's weakness during World War II to acquire Champasak and other Lao lands on the right bank of the Mekong. In 1946 Champasak was ceded back to France and Chao Boun Oum remitted all claims to an independent kingship in order to unify Laos. The Kingdom of Laos (1946–75) was then formed under the Luang Prabang line of kingship.

Kings
NamePortraitRegnal NameBirthReign
from
Reign
until
DeathRelationship
with predecessors
Notes
Nokasad
(Soysisamut Phutthangkun)
Flag of the Kingdom of Champasak (1713-1947).svg Somdetch BrhatChaoJaya Sri Samudra Buddhangkura1693

Poosangor Horkam

17131738

Khorat Plateau

Aged 45

Grandson of Sourigna Vongsa
Sayakumane

(Pha Photi Chao)

Flag of the Kingdom of Champasak (1713-1947).svg Somdetch BrhatChaoBrhatBodhiChao Angka Luang Jaya Kumara171017381791

Champa Nagapurisiri

Aged 81

Son of Nokasat
Fay Na

(Vichaiyarat Khattiyawongsa)

Flag of the Kingdom of Champasak (1713-1947).svg Brhat Vijaya King Khatiya Varman?17911811Not of royal descentAppointed by Siam
No Muong Flag of the Kingdom of Champasak (1713-1947).svg Somdetch BrhatChaoAnuya?18111811Son of Sayakumane Died after 3 days of rule
1811 – 1813 Interregnum
Manoi Flag of the Kingdom of Champasak (1713-1947).svg Somdetch BrhatChaoBhumi Maha Nawi?181318201821

Bangkok, Siam

Nephew of Sayakumane
Nho Flag of the Kingdom of Champasak (1713-1947).svg Chao Raja Putra Sadet Chaofa Jaya Nyô?

Vientiane

182018271828

Bangkok, Siam

Son of Anouvong, King of Vientiane Chao Yo, House of Vientiane.
1829–93 Siam annexes Champasak following the Chao Anouvong Rebellion and confirms subsequent kings
Huy Flag of the Kingdom of Champasak (1713-1947).svg H'ui, Brhat Chao178018271841

Himlot, Champassak

Aged 61-63

Great grandson of Nokasad
Nark Flag of the Kingdom of Champasak (1713-1947).svg BrhatChao Nagaraja Negara Champasakti177418411851

Bangkok, Siam

Aged 76

Brother of HuyAppointed by the King of Siam on brother's death. Died from cholera in 1851.
Boua Flag of the Kingdom of Champasak (1713-1947).svg BrhatChaoBuwana?18511853

Bangkok, Siam

Son of No Muong and Cousin of NarkAppointed by King of Siam as Regent: 1851–1853.
Interregnum (1853–1855) Prince Suriya, Uparaja, acted as Regent. He died at 1855.
Kham Nai Flag of the Kingdom of Champasak (1713-1947).svg BrhatChao Yudhi Dharma Sundaragana Negara Champasakti1830

Himlot, Champassak

18561858

Himlot, Champassak

Aged 28

Son of HuyAppointed by King of Siam at 1856. Died at Himlot, 1858 with no male issue.
Interregnum (1858–63)
Kham Souk Champassak-Kham-Souk.jpg Brhat Chao Yudhi Dharmadhara Negara Champasakti1839

Himlot, Champassak

186328 July 1900

Bassac, Champassak

Aged 62

Son of Huy and Brother of Kham NaiSucceeded upon death of older brother. Reigned under the regency of the Uparaja, until he came of age and was invested with full ruling powers as Chao MuangNakhon Champassak (Prince Governor of the State of Champasakti) by the King of Siam, 1863. Received Mons Carné, the French envoy, 1866. Returned to Bassac, where he constructed a new palace and re-established the old capital, February 1874. He revived the fortunes of the principality. The early part of his reign saw a considerable increase in population and agricultural production, enabling him to create ten new muang. However, the Siamese slowly increased their presence, appointing their own commissioners to oversea governance in 1884, placing the state under the control of a regional Governor-General in 1891. 38% of revenues were sent directly to the treasury in Bangkok, 59% spent on regional Siamese administrators, and just 3% left to the local administration. War between Siam and France was concluded in 1893, with the loss of half the territory on the east bank of the Mekong, in 1893. Granted the precedence of a vassal ruler at the Court of Bangkok, immediately after the Prime Minister. France divided the kingdom in 1893
Ratsadanay
(Nhouy)
Champassak-Bua Laphan Ratsadany.jpg Somdet BrhatChaoBuvanarabarna Rajadhanaya Negara Champasakti1874

Bassac, Champassak

28 July 190019 September 1904November 1945

Bassac, Champassak

Aged 71

Son of Kham SoukSucceeded upon death of father. Appointed by King of Siam. Forced to accept French protection when Siam transferred sovereignty to the French Republic on 19 September 1904, under the terms of the Franco-Siamese Treaty of 13 February 1904. The principality was abolished by the French on 22 November 1904, retaining his styles, titles and honours for life. Appointed as Governor of the Province of Bassac under the French colonial authorities on 14 October 1905, with the capital of the new province being established at Pakse in 1908. He served in that capacity until forced into retirement on reaching the age of sixty, 21 December 1934. He was subsequently recognised as Hereditary Prince of Champasakti 11 March 1941, comprising all the former territories of the old kingdom following the Thai conquest on 22 January 1941. France was forced to retrocede the province to Thailand following Japanese mediation on 9 May 1941, but they were invited by Prince Boum Oum to reoccupy Pakse on 14 September 1945. King under protectorate of French Indochina;
Had the title of regional governor between 1905–1934. Died from cancer, at Bassac, November 1945.
Boun Oum Boun Oum 1971.jpg Sadet Chao Bunuma na Champassak11 November 1911

Don Talad, near Bassac, Champassak

November 194518 August 194617 March 1980

Boulogne-Billancourt, France

Son of RatsadanayRenounced his rights in order to facilitate the establishment of a united Kingdom of Laos under the King of Luang Prabang on 18 August 1946 (with effect from 26 August 1946). Recognised by a confidential protocol by the King on 27 August 1946 as hereditary Prince of Champasakti by direct male descent (confirmed and granted precedence immediately after the Heir Apparent, 20 January 1949). He died at Boulogne-Billancourt, France, 17 March 1980 (bur. Villetaneuse)

Kingdom of Luang Prabang (1707–1893) & French Protectorate of Laos (1893-1947)

With the division of Lan Xang, the city of Luang Prabang recovered its prestige as a royal city, since the capital had moved to Vientiane with Setthathirath in 1560. The city was a growing center for religion and trade, but remained politically weak and would be sacked by the Burmese in 1764. Throughout the 18th and 19th centuries the Kingdom endured as a vassal to China, Siam, Burma, and Vietnam. In 1828 following Chao Anouvong's Rebellion the kingdom was annexed by Siam. Despite their vassal status the Kings of Luang Prabang exercised a degree of autonomy, but lacked the security apparatus to effectively defend the kingdom (which may have been used in rebellion, as had been done in the kingdoms of Vientiane and Champasak). As a result, throughout the mid-19th century Haw pirates from China were able to invade.

Kings
NamePortraitRegnal NameBirthReign
from
Reign
until
DeathRelationship
with predecessors
Notes
Kingkitsarat

(Kitsarat)

ເຈົ້າກິງກິດສະຣາດ

Airavata emblem transparent.png SamdachBrhatChaoBrhatKinkidsarajaSriSadhanaKanayudha?170617131713

Luang Prabang

Grandson of Souligna Vongsa King of Lan Xang Hom Khao Luang Prabang, elder son of H.H. Prince Indra Brahma, Chao RajaYudha, by his wife, Princess Chandra Kumari, educ. privately. He fled to his mother’s family in Muang Phong, in Sipsòng Panna in 1700. Returned to Luang Prabang at the head of an army in 1705 and expelled Sethathirat’s Viceroy. Took control of the northern provinces of the kingdom, established his capital at Luang Prabang and proclaimed as King. Crowned with the title of SamdachBrhatChaoBrhatKinkidsarajaSriSadhanaKanayudha, at Luang Prabang, 1706. Unable to gain control over the rest of the kingdom, he was forced to accept the intervention of the King of Siam, who negotiated the establishment of the two realms of Lan-Xang Vientiane and Lan-Xang Luang Prabang 1707.[ citation needed ]
Ong Kham Airavata emblem transparent.png SamdachBrhatChaoBrhatParamaKhattiyaVarmanRajaSriSadhanaKanayudha?

Chiang Hung (Sipsong Panna)

171317231759

Chiang Mai, Lan Na

Cousin of Kingkitsarat and InthasomCo-ruled with Inthasom who then deposed him in 1723.
Ong Kham was later crowned King of Lan Na (r.1727–1759)
Inthasom

(Thao Ang)

ເຈົ້າອິນທະໂສມ

Airavata emblem transparent.png SamdachBrhatChaoRajaIndraSenaParamaPavitraSriTatanaUdanaChakrapatirajaChaoAngaRajaSriSadhanaKanayudha?172317491749

Luang Phrabang

Brother of Kingkitsarat and
Grandson of Souligna Vongsa
He marched on Luang Prabang after learning of the death of King-Kitsarath in 1713, believing that he had a superior claim to his cousin. However, instead of going to war, the two cousins agreed to share power and he was invested as Viceroy with the title of Maha Upparaja. After ten years of joint rule, he tired of his subordinate position and seized power in 1723 by shutting the gates of captal city against Khattiya Varman, after he had gone out to hunt turtle doves. As a counterweight to the growing power of the Burmese, relations with China were opened with the dispatch of a tribute mission in 1723, followed by two others in 1734 and 1753.[ citation needed ]
Vietnamese invasion repelled (1749)
Inthaphom (Intharavongsa) Airavata emblem transparent.png SamdachBrhatChaoIndraVarmanRajaSriSadhanaKanayudha?174917491776Son of InthasomDefeated the Annamese invasion in 1749. Crowned King instead of his older brothers. Abdicated 8 months later for his elder brother.
Sotika Koumane

ເຈົ້າໂຊຕິກະ

Airavata emblem transparent.png SamdachBrhatChaoDevabangsaJathikaKumaraRajaSriSadhanaKanayudha?174917641771

Luang Phrabang

Son of Inthasom and Brother of InthaphomSucceeded on Abdication of his younger brother.
Burmese invasion (1764/65, aided by Vientiane), Luang Prabang becomes Burmese vassal state, 1765–1771
Sotika Koumane

ເຈົ້າໂຊຕິກະ

Airavata emblem transparent.png SamdachBrhatChaoDevabangsaJathikaKumaraRajaSriSadhanaKanayudha?17641768/17711771

Luang Phrabang

Son of Inthasom and Brother of InthaphomVassal to Burma, purported to have abdicated by 1768 but died by 1771
Surinyavong II

ເຈົ້າສຸລິຍະວົງສາທີ່ສອງ

Airavata emblem transparent.png SamdachBrhatChaoSuriyaVarmanRajaSriSadhanaKanayudha?17711779/17881791

Bangkok, Siam

Brother of Sotika Koumane and Son of InthasomPurported to have succeeded the throne by 1768 due to abdication but seized the throne by 1771. Rebelled against Burma in 1771, following the sack of Vientiane, he is defeated and remains a Burmese vassal. By 1778, he throws off his Burmese allegiance but is instead forced to become a vassal of Siam by 1779-1788.
Luang Prabang becomes Siamese vassal state, 1779-1792
Surinyavong II

ເຈົ້າສຸລິຍະວົງສາທີ່ສອງ

Airavata emblem transparent.png SamdachBrhatChaoSuriyaVarmanRajaSriSadhanaKanayudha?177917881791

Bangkok, Siam

Brother of Sotika Koumane and Son of InthasomBy 1778, he throws off his Burmese allegiance but is instead forced to become a vassal of Siam by 1779-1788. By May 1788-1792, he and the Royal Family is detained as hostage in Bangkok by order of the Siamese King. He dies in detention at 1791.
Luang Prabang is administered by Siamese appointed governors during detention of the Royal Family at Bangkok (1788-1792)
Anourouth

ເຈົ້າອານຸຣຸດທະ

Airavata emblem transparent.png SamdachBrhatChaoMahaUdamaVarmanKrungSriSadhanaKanayudhaUdarattanapuriRamaBrahmaChakrapatiMahanayakaMaharajadhanaLanjangKrungKlaoAnuradhuratta17373 February 1792181731 December 1819

Luang Prabang

Aged 82

Brother of Surinyavong II and Son of InthasomShort Interregnum from 1791 to 1792 with the death of Surinyavong II. King of Siam recognizes Anourouth as successor to his brother and is permitted to return to Luang Prabang, crowned as Viceroy in 1792. He is eventually deposed by the Siamese and sent back as a prisoner to Bangkok. He is restored again by 2 June 1794.[ citation needed ]
Mantha Tourath

ເຈົ້າມັນທາຕຸຣາດ

Airavata emblem transparent.png Samdach Brhat Chao Maha Sri Vitha Lan XangHomKhaoLuangPrabangMangthaduraja1772

Luang Prabang

181718257 March 1837

Royal Palace, Luang Prabang

Aged 65

Son of AnourouthSucceeded his father. Served as a monk in Bangkok, leaving Luang Prabang to be administered by Siamese officials, 1825-1826.[ citation needed ]
Luang Prabang is administered by Siamese officials (1825-1826)
Mantha Tourath

ເຈົ້າມັນທາຕຸຣາດ

Airavata emblem transparent.png Samdach Brhat Chao Maha Sri Vitha Lan XangHomKhaoLuangPrabangMangthaduraja1772

Luang Prabang

182618367 March 1837

Royal Palace, Luang Prabang

Aged 65

Son of AnourouthReturned to Luang Prabang and resumed executive powers in 1826.[ citation needed ] Sought vassalage with Vietnam against Siam
Provinces of Luang Phrabang in rebellion against Siam (1835-1838)
Soukha Seum

ເຈົ້າສຸຂະເສີມ

Airavata emblem transparent.png Samdach Brhat Chao Maha Sri Vitha Lan XangHomKhaoLuangPrabangSukra Sumaya17971838185023 September 1850

Palace of Xieng-Méne

Aged 53

Son of Mantha TourathSucceeded on the death of his father, 7 March 1837. Being a Siamese hostage in Bangkok, he was not recognized and allowed to return to Luang Prabang until 1838.
Tiantharath

ເຈົ້າຈັນທະຣາດ

Chantharath.jpg Samdach Brhat Chao Maha Sri Vitha Lan Xang Hom Khao Luang Prabang Parama Sidha Khattiya Suriya Varman Brhat Maha Sri Chao Chandradipati Prabhu Kumara Sundhara Dharmadhata Praditsa Rajadipati Sri Sadhana Kanayudha Udarmapuri Rajadhani Damrungsa Lavaya Bunsabidaya Anuraksha Riyangsakra Sadhidnaya Luang Prabang Dhani1797 or 179923 September 18501 October 186823 August 1870

Royal Palace, Luang Prabang

Aged 71 or 73

Son of Mantha Tourath and Brother of Soukha SeumSucceeded on death of his elder brother, 23 September 1850. Recognized by the King of Siam.[ citation needed ]
The Pra Bang is returned to Luang Pra Bang by King Chulalongkorn of Thailand having been brought to Bangkok during the destruction of Vientiane in 1828. Until 1865, Thai King Chantharath ruled Luang PraBang, and relinquished the power to Laos King Oun Kham. Transition occurred during/after the French Auguste Parvie visits.
Oun Kham

ເຈົ້າອຸ່ນຄຳ

Ounkham (cropped 1).gif Samdach Brhat Chao Maha Sri Vitha Lan XangHomKhaoLuangPrabangParamaSidhaKhattiyaSuriyaVarmanBrhatMahaSriMahindraDevaDipakara5 June 1811 or
1816

Luang Phrabang

1 October 186815 December 189515 December 1895

Luang Phrabang

Aged 79 or 84

Son of Mantha Tourath and Brother of TiantharathSucceeded on the death of his elder brother in August 1870 but was not recognized by the Siamese authorities until 1872. Recognized by the King of Siam. Fled from the Haw pirates in 1887 with Auguste Pavie and would later
pursue protection from France. Removed from executive power by the King of Siam in favor of his eldest son and ordered to remove himself to Bangkok, September 1887 to April 1888. Returned to Luang Prabang, 2 nd May 1888.[ citation needed ]
Kham Souk
(Sakharine, Sackarindr)
ພຣະບາທສົມເດັຈພຣະເຈົ້າມະຫາຊີວິຕສັກຣິນທຣ໌
Laotian King Zakarine.jpg Samdach Brhat Chao Maha Sri Vitha Lan XangHomKhaoLuangPrabangParamaSidhaKhattiyaSuriyaVarmanBrhatMahaSriSakarindra Ridhi Dharma Varman

ສົມເດັຈພຣະເຈົ້າມະຫາວິຕລ້ານຊ້າງຮົ່ມຂາວ ຫລວງພຣະບາງ ປຣມະສິທະຂັຕິຍະສຸຣິຍະວໍຣມັນ ພຣະມຫາຊິວິຕ ສີສັກະຣິນທຣ໌

16 July 1840

Luang Phrabang

15 December 189525 March 190425 March 1904

Luang Phrabang

Aged 63

Son of Oun KhamAppointed as third dignitary and invested with the title of Raja Varman. Commanded the Luang Prabang forces sent against the Haws during their first invasion of 1874-1877, and again during the second invasion in 1885-1887, but fled to Bangkok after Đèo Văn Trị attacked and sacked the capital at Luang Prabang in June 1887. Appointed as Regent for his father by the King of Siam, April 1888. Forced to accept a French protectorate over the kingdom, 3 rd October 1893. Succeeded on the death of his father, 15 thDecember 1895. Crowned at Luang Prabang, 14 th July 1896. He introduced several important reforms under French prompting, including the freedom of slaves, the abolition of slavery and equality before the law for all subjects. He died from apoplexy, at Luang Prabang, 25 March 1904.
Sisavang Vong

ພຣະບາທສົມເດັຈພຣະເຈົ້າມະຫາຊີວິຕສີສວ່າງວົງສ໌

Sisavang Vong roi de Luang Prahang.jpg Samdach Brhat Chao Maha Sri Vitha Lan XangHomKhaoBrhat Rajanachakra LaoParamaSidhaKhattiyaSuriyaVarmanBrhatMahaSriSavangsaVarman14 July 1885

Golden Palace, Luang Prabang

26 March 1904194529 October 1959

Golden Palace, Luang Prabang, Laos

Aged 74

Son of SakharineLast king of Luang Prabang and first king of Laos

Principality of Xiang Khouang (Muang Phuan) (1707–1899)

The Muang of Xiang Khouang was a semi-autonomous region in Laos in what is now Xiang Khouang province. The Phuan (Pu’on) monarchy claims descent from Khun Borom and were part of the Lan Xang mandala. Geographic isolation and frequent warfare produced periods where the Phuan kings tried to assert more authority, but the region remained only a key vassalage for surrounding kingdoms. The region features prominently in the 18th and 19th century as valuable coalition piece for the rival kingdoms of Vientiane and Champasak. Xiang Khouang was a trade frontier, and also frequent point of invasion, and so has more cultural influences from China and Vietnam.

Kings
NameBirthReign
from
Reign
until
DeathRelationship
with predecessors
Notes
Kham Sanh 16511688
Kam Lan 16881700Son of Kham Sanh
Kham Sattha 17231751Grandson of Kam LanTributary to Vietnam, Luang Prabang, and Vientiane)
Ong Lo 17511779
Somphou 17791803
Noi
(Southaka Souvanna Koumar)
180318311829Nephew of SomphouExecuted by Emperor Minh Mạng of Vietnam
Xiang Khuoang annexed as Tran Ninh province in Vietnam (1832)
Po 18481865Son of NoiVassal to Siam and Vietnam
Ung 18661876Son of NoiHaw pirates invade Xiang Khouang in 1874
Khanti 18761880Son of UngVassal to Siam
Kham Ngon 18801899French protectorate ends autonomy

Kingdom of Laos (1947–75)

Flag of the Kingdom of Laos (1952-1975) Flag of Laos (1952-1975).svg
Flag of the Kingdom of Laos (1952–1975)

The Kingdom of Laos created in 1947 marked the first time the kingdoms of Laos had been unified since the division of Lan Xang in 1707. The Franco-Lao Treaty of 1953, gave Laos independence and the Royal Lao Government took control of the country. This treaty established a constitutional monarchy, with Sisavang Vong as King and Prince Souvanna Phouma as Prime Minister. In 1959, after the death of his father King Sisavang Vong, Savang Vatthana ascended the throne and was crowned King. On 2 December 1975, King Savang Vatthana was forced to abdicate by the Pathet Lao, after its victory in the Laotian Civil War.

NamePortraitHouseBirthDeathSuccession right
Sisavang Vong
23 April 1946

29 October 1959
13 years, 189 days
Sisavang Vong roi de Luang Prahang.jpg Khun Lo 14 July 1885
Luang Phrabang
29 October 1959
Luang Phrabang
aged 74
Son of Zakarine
Savang Vatthana
29 October 1959

2 December 1975
16 years, 34 days
Savang Vatthana 1959.jpg Khun Lo 13 November 1907
Luang Phrabang
13 May (?) 1978 or 1984
Xam Neua
aged 70 or 77
Son of Sisavang Vong

Monarchy of Laos in exile (1975–present)

Pretenders
NameImage! !TenureHouseBirthDeathSuccession right
Vong Savang 2 December 1975 - 2 May 1978 Khun Lo 27 September 19312 May 1978(1978-05-02) (aged 46)Son of Sisavang Vatthana
Soulivong Savang 2 May 1978 - present Khun Lo 8 May 1953livingSon of Vong Savang
Princes

Lao monarchs' family tree

Lao monarchs' family tree
Kingdom of
Lan Xang
Souvanna
Khamphong
of Muang Swa
Kham-Hiao
of Muang Sawa
d.1343
Khun Phi Fa
?-1343
Keo Kang Ya
?-1368
Queen
Fa Ngum
1316–1393
r.1353-1373
Nang Keo
Phimpha

1343–1438
r.1438
Queen
Keo KetkasiKhuang-Na
Buvana
Dhanipaya
Bua Then Fa
Queen
Noi On
Sor
Princess
Oun Huan
1357-1417
r.1372-1417
Nang Keo
Yot Fa
Princess
Chao Nang
Keo Sida
Princess
Khon Kham
?-1432
r.1430-1432
Kham Keut
?-1438
r.1436-1438
Lusai
?-1433
r.1432-1433
Sai Tia
Kaphut

1415-1481
r.1442-1480
Kham
Tam Sa

?-1432
r.1432
Keo Poum
Fa
Lan Kham
Deng

1375-1428
r.1416-1428
Mui
Ton-Kham
Mui
Dharmakama
?
Phommathat
?-1429
r.1428-1429
Khai Bua Ban
?-1436
1433-1436
Yukhon
?-1430
1429-1430
Nu Kon
of S’ieng Wong
S’ieng Wang
Visoun
1465-1520
r.1500-1520
Souvanna
Banlang

1455-1486
r.1479-1486
La Sen
Thai

1462-1496
r.1485-1496
Kay Bona Ban
Kaya
Bunabarna
?- 1428
Sen
Soulintha

1511-1582
r.1571-1575;
1580-1582
Yot Kam
Tip
Photisarath I
1501–1547
r.1520–1548
Somphou
1486-1500
r.1496-1501
Photisarath II
r.1623-1627
Nakhon Noi
?-?
r.1582-1583
unnamed
daughter
Setthathirath
1534-1571
r.1548-1571
Voravongsa I
?-1579
r.1575-1579
Dharmagayi
Kham Khai
Vorapita
?-1604
regent:
1596-1602
Nokeo
Koumane

r.1591-1598
Voravongsa II
1585-1622
r.1598-1621
Mon Keo
r.1627
Oupagnou-
Varath I

1597-1623
r.1622-1623
Tone Kham
r.1627-1633
Vichai
r.1633-1637
Sourigna
Vongsa

1618-1695
r.1637-1695
Puya
Bou
Somaputra
Som Phou
Sumangala
Kumari
Na Bua
Phya
Senadipati
Suman(?)
Kumari
?-1696
Tian Thala
?-1696
r.1695
Enta-
Prohm
Indra Brahma
1642-?
Chandra
Kumari
Nan Tharat
r.1695-1698
Kingdom of
Vientiane
Kingdom of
Champasak
Kingdom of
Luang
Phrabang
Kingdom of
Luang
Phrabang
Sai
Ong Hue

?-1735
r.(1700-)
1707-1735
Nokasad
1693(?)-1738
r.1713-1737
Fay Na
r.1791-1811
King-
Kitsarath
?-1713
r.1707-1713
Ong Long
r.1735-1760
Ong Bun
r.1760-1778
Kham Kong Pha Photi
Chao

1710–1791
r.1737–1791
SuringhaTammatevo
?-1768
Inthasom
r.1723-1749
Taen-SaoOng Kham
?-1759
1713-1723
Anouvong
1767-1829
r.1804-1828
Nantasen
r.1781-1794
Inthavong
r.1795-1805
No Muong
r.1811-1812
Manoi
r.1813-1819
Unga
?-~1781
Sotika
Koumane
?-1771
r.1749-1764
Suryavong
?-1791
r.1768-1791
Yoh
r.1819-1827
Boua
r.1851–1853
Nu
r.1811
Nark
r.1841-1851
Huy
1780–1840
r.1827-1840
Inthara
Vongsa
?-1776
r.1749
Anurut
1737-1819
r.1706-1713
Keavakama
Kheuakham
Kham Souk
1839-1899
r.1863-1899
Kham Nai
1830-1858
r.1856–1858
Oun KeoMantha
Tourath
1817-1836
1772-1836
Sudhi
Saramuni
Ratsadanay
1874-1945
r.1900-1904
Sukha
Seum
1797-1850
r.1837-1850
Oun Kham
1811/16–1895
r.1872-1887
1889-1895
Tiantha
Rath

~1797-1870
r.1850-1870
Souvanna
Phomma

?-1887
Boun Oum
Prime Minister
of Laos
1911-1980
Zakarine
1840–1904
r.1895-1904
Boun
Khong

?-1920
Kingdom of
Laos
Sisavang
Vong

1885-1959
1946-1959
Souphanou-
vong

President
of Laos
1909-1995
Souvanna
Phouma

Prime Minister
of Laos
1901–1984
Sisavang
Vatthana

1907–1978/84
r.1959–1975

See also

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Muang Phuan or Xieng Khouang was a historical principality on the Xiangkhoang Plateau, which constitutes the modern territory of Xiangkhouang Province, Laos.

Vong Savang was the Crown Prince to throne of the Kingdom of Laos. After the Laotian Civil War in 1975, he and his family were arrested by the Pathet Lao and sent to re-education camps, where they died.

Nang Keo Phimpha (1343–1438), an epithet meaning literally "The Cruel", was Queen of Lan Xang in 1438, taking the regnal name Samdach Brhat-Anya Sadu Chao Nying Kaeva Bhima Fa Mahadevi(Lao: ສົມເດັຈ ພຣະຍາ ສາທຸເຈົ້າຍິງ ແກ້ວພິມພາມະຫາເທວີ). She is also known by her title Maha Devi, and may have been the only reigning female sovereign of the kingdom of Lan Xang. According to some chronicles, she briefly occupied the throne for a few months, before she was deposed and killed at ninety-five years old. Her brief reign was the culmination of a ten-year period of regicide, which she orchestrated through a series of puppet kings.

Royal Palace, Luang Prabang Palace in Luang Prabang, Laos

The Royal Palace in Luang Prabang, Laos, was built in 1904 during the French colonial era for King Sisavang Vong and his family. The site for the palace was chosen so that official visitors to Luang Prabang could disembark from their river voyages directly below the palace and be received there. After the death of King Sisavang Vong, the Crown Prince Savang Vatthana and his family were the last to occupy the grounds. In 1975, the monarchy was overthrown by the communists and the royal family were taken to re-education camps. The palace was then converted into a national museum.

French protectorate of Laos

The French protectorate of Laos was a French protectorate in Southeast Asia of what is today Laos between 1893 and 1953—with a brief interregnum as a Japanese puppet state in 1945—which constituted part of French Indochina. It was established over the Siamese vassal, the Kingdom of Luang Phrabang, following the Franco-Siamese War in 1893. It was integrated into French Indochina and in the following years further Siamese vassals, the Principality of Phuan and Kingdom of Champasak, were annexed into it in 1899 and 1904, respectively.

Lao rebellion (1826–1828) Rebellion of the Kingdom of Vientiane against Siam

The Lao rebellion, also known as Anouvong's Rebellion or Lao–Siamese War, was an attempt by King Anouvong of the Kingdom of Vientiane to end the suzerainty of Siam and recreate the former kingdom of Lan Xang. In January 1827 the Lao armies of the kingdoms of Vientiane and Champasak moved south and west across the Khorat Plateau, advancing as far as Saraburi. The Siamese quickly mounted a counterattack, forcing the Lao forces to retreat. The Siamese continued north to defeat Anouvong's army. His rebellion had failed, which led to his capture, the destruction of his city of Vientiane in retaliation, a massive resettlement of Lao people to the west bank of the Mekong River, and direct Siamese administration of the former territories of the Kingdom of Vientiane. The legacy of the Lao rebellion is controversial. It is viewed in Thailand as a ruthless and daring rebellion that had to be suppressed, and has given rise to the folk heroes such as Thao Suranari. In Laos, King Anouvong is now revered as a national hero who died in pursuit of complete independence, even though he both lost his life in an ill-advised revolt against heavy odds and virtually guaranteed that the Lao-speaking provinces across the Mekong River would remain as part of Siam.

Setthathirath II, also called Ong Lo and Sai Ong Hue, grandson of the great ruler Suliyavongsa, was the king of the Lao Kingdom of Lān Xāng. In Vietnamese records, he was called Triều Phúc (朝福).

Lao royal family

The Lao Royal Family was the ruling family of the Kingdom of Laos from 1904 to 1975 and the group of close relatives of the monarch of the Kingdom of Laos. King Sisavang Vong was the founder of the modern family, consisting of a number of persons in the Lao Royal Dynasty of the Khun Lo, who are related to the King of Laos, who are entitled to royal titles, and some of whom performed various official engagements on behalf of the Royal Family and ceremonial duties of State when the Kingdom existed. The Lao Royals are now based in France, where they work to achieve a change of government in Laos.

Vientiane Capital and chief port of Laos

Vientiane is the capital and largest city of Laos, on the banks of the Mekong River near the border with Thailand. Vientiane became the capital in 1573, due to fears of a Burmese invasion, but was later looted, then razed to the ground in 1827 by the Siamese (Thai). Vientiane was the administrative capital during French rule and, due to economic growth in recent times, is now the economic center of Laos. The city had a population of 948,477 as of the 2020 Census.

Kingdom of Vientiane Former country in Southeast Asia

Kingdom of Vientiane was formed in 1707 as a result of the split of the Kingdom of Lan Xang. The kingdom was a Burmese vassal from 1765 to 1824. It then became a Siamese vassal until 1828 when it was annexed by Siam.

Kingdom of Luang Phrabang Former kingdom in Southeast Asia

The Kingdom of Luang Phrabang was formed in 1707 as a result of the split of the Kingdom of Lan Xang. When The kingdom split, Muang Phuan became a tributary state of Luang Prabang. Then as the years passed, the monarchy weakened even more, that it was forced to become a vassal various times to the Burmese and the Siamese monarchies.

Sen Soulintha, Saen Surintha or Sen Sourintha (1511–1582) was born Chane Tian and became King of Lan Xang reigning 1571-1575 and again 1580-1582. Sen Soulintha was not of noble birth, rising from royal page to King Setthatirath’s Chief Minister. During the succession disputes in the Kingdom of Lan Na between King Setthatirath and King Mekuti, Sen Soulintha served Setthatirath as a general and successfully took several cities of Lan Na including Chiang Saen for which he was given the honorific name Lusai meaning “victory.” Sen Soulintha supported Setthatirath in leading the guerrilla campaigns during the Burmese invasions of King Bayinnaung. When Setthatirath died near Attapeu under suspicious circumstances in 1572, Sen Soulintha led the armies of Lan Xang back to Vientiane. A succession dispute erupted, which nearly led to civil war and provided a pretext for another Burmese invasion ordered by Bayinnaung and led by the Chief Minister Binnya Dala. Sen Soulintha defeated the Burmese and Lan Na forces led by Binnya Dala, an event which led to the latter’s exile, only to face a more massive invasion led by Bayinnaug the following year. Sen Soulintha again attempted to resort to guerilla tactics, but lacked popular support from his seizure of the throne. He and his son Ong Lo were captured by Bayinnaung and exiled to Pegu. The Burmese placed Setthathirath’s brother, and former Ouphahat or Viceroy, Prince Tha Heua on the throne. According to the Luang Prabang chronicles it was this brother, who had led a rebellion in Luang Prabang and tried to seize the throne from Setthathirath on the death of their father Photisarath. Prince Tha Heua took the regnal name Voravongsa and reigned under Burmese suzerainty from 1575-1579. Voravongsa was never popular, and drowned with his family while attempting to flee Vientiane in the face of popular uprising. In 1579, Bayinnaung dispatched a sizable army to restore order. According to Lao histories Sen Soulintha was then installed as king a second time in 1580. By that time Sen Soulintha was an old man and reigned only for two years before his son ascended the throne as Nakhon Noi and another succession dispute ensued.

Voravongsa I was king of Lan Xang reigning from 1575–1579 with the regnal name Samdach Brhat-Anya Chao Brhatasena Vora Varman Raja Sri Sadhana Kanayudha but he is commonly referred to in both Lao and Burmese chronicles by his title of Maha Oupahat or Viceroy. Voravongsa was taken prisoner by the Burmese in 1565 during the occupation of Vientiane. In 1575 following the third of a series of Burmese invasions of Lan Xang, Voravongsa was appointed by Bayinnaung as a vassal within the Taungoo Empire. Voravongsa had few supporters even within the Burmese court; he reigned for only four years before facing a popular rebellion which would threaten to overtake the capital in Vientiane. Voravongsa attempted to flee back to Burma, but were killed en route. To reestablish order the Burmese dispatched another army, and would install Sen Soulintha as vassal from 1580-1582.

References

  1. Simms, Peter and Sanda, The Kingdoms of Laos: Six Hundred Years of History, Curzon Press, Surrey. 1999. ISBN   0-7007-1531-2. (pg. 217); Le Boulanger, Paul, Histoire du Laos Francais: Essai d'une Etude chronologique des Principautes Laotiennes, Plon, Paris. 1931 (pg.31); Dommen, Aurthur, J., Conflict in Laos: The Politics of Neutralization, Pall Mall Press, London. 1964. (pg. 64); Hall, D.G.E., A History of Southeast Asia (4th ed.), Macmillan, London, 1994. ISBN   978-0333241646 (pg. 81)
  2. (Simms, 99; Le Boulanger, 31; Sila, 64; Manich, 67; Hall, 81; Stuart-Fox, 93)
  3. (Simms, 99; Le Boulanger, 31; Hall, 81)
  4. Simms, 99; Sila, Maha Viravong, History of Laos (trans), Paragon, New York. 1964.
  5. (Simms, 99; Sila, 64)
  6. 1 2 (Simms, 99; Le Boulanger, 31)
  7. (Simms, 99; Sila, 64; Manich, 71; Le Boulanger, 31)
  8. (Simms, 99; Sila, 64; Manich, 71)
  9. Stuart-Fox, Martin “Who was Maha Thevi?" Siam Society Journal, Vol 81. 1993.; ---, The Lao Kingdom of Lan Xang: Rise and Decline, White Lotus Press, 1998. ISBN   974-8434-33-8. (pgs. 62-64).
  10. (Simms, 99; Manich, 71)
  11. (Simms, 99; Le Boulanger, 31; Dommen, 64)
  12. (Simms, 99; Le Boulanger, 31; Hall, 81; Wyatt, David K. & Aroonrut Wichienkeeo (Ed.), The Chiang Mai Chronicle (trans), Silkworm, Chiang Mai, 1995. ISBN   9747100622
  13. (Simms, 99; Le Boulanger, 31; Hall, 81; Wyatt, 84)
  14. (Simms, 99; Sila, 64; Coedes, George, The Making of Southeast Asia (trans) Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, 1966.; Stuart-Fox, 93)
  15. (Simms, 218; Manich, 67; Saveng, 87; Wyatt, 84)
  16. (Sila, 64; Saveng, Phinith, Contribution a l'Histoire du Royaume de Luang Prabang., École Française d'Extrême-Orient, Vol. CXLI, Paris, 1987.)
  17. (Sila, 64; Manich, 67; Saveng, 87)
  18. (Simms, 99; Hall, 81; Saveng, 87)
  19. (Simms, 99; Le Boulanger, 31; Sila, 64; Hall, 81)
  20. (Simms, 99; Le Boulanger, 31; Coedes, 66; Hall, 81; Saveng, 87
  21. (Sila, 64; Saveng, 87)
  22. (Simms, 99; Le Boulanger, 31; Sila, 64)
  23. (Simms 99, Le Boulanger, 31; Sila, 64)
  24. (Sila, 64)
  25. 1 2 Simms, Sanda (11 October 2013). The Kingdoms of Laos. Routledge. ISBN   9781136863370.
  26. (Coedes, 66; Le Boulanger, 31; Dommen, 64; Saveng, 87; Stuart-Fox, 93)
  27. (Simms, 99, Le Boulanger, 31; Hall, 81)
  28. (Saveng, 87)
  29. (Wyatt, 84; Le Boulanger, 31; Dommen, 64; Hall, 81)
  30. (Stuart-Fox, 98; Simms, 99; Sila, 84, Le Thanh Khoi, Histoire du Vietnam, Le Boulanger, Wyatt)
  31. (Stuart-Fox, Martin. Naga Cities of The Mekong.)
  32. Tarling, Nicholas (1999). The Cambridge history of South East Asia: From c. 1500 to c. 1800. 1. Cambridge University Press. p. 238. ISBN   978-0-521-66370-0.