|King of Lan Xang|
Nakhon Noi briefly occupied the throne of Lan Xang from 1582–1583 on the death of his father Sen Soulintha, who himself had been appointed as a vassal to the Toungoo Empire from 1580-1582. [ citation needed ] Little is known about his brief rule, it does not appear in the sources that the Burmese were at the origin of his selection to succeed Sen Soulintha and were instead informed belatedly. If he had supporters in the royal court of Lan Xang they were few and quickly became unhappy with his rule. Within the year the royal court had petitioned King Nanda Bayin for his removal. According to various versions of the chronicles it is cited that Nakhon Noi “did not rule with fairness,” or keep to the religious and behavioral precepts which were traditionally required by a sovereign. Other versions record that he simply had made enemies at court, or was perceived as illegitimate because (like his father Sen Soulintha) he was of common origins. Either at the hands of the royal court, or the Burmese, Nakhon Noi was deposed, arrested, and returned to Pegu. After Nakhon Noi was deposed a period of interregnum occurred from 1583-1591 which historian Paul Le Boulanger describes as a period of “absolute confusion,” among the factions at court. The chronicles again agree that it was only after the period of succession crisis that a petition was finally sent in 1591 to Nanda Bayin by the Lao sangha and Lan Xang court asking for Prince No Muang, the son and legitimate heir of Setthathirath, to be appointed as king. Nanda Bayin confirmed the request and Prince No Muang would take the throne as Nokeo Koumane and reign Lan Xang from 1591-1596.Nakhon Noi took the regnal name Samdach Brhat Chao Samdach Brhat Chao Negara Nawi Raja Sri Sadhana Kanayudha.
The period from 1571-1638 marked a political discontinuity and period of crisis for Lan Xang, and many other polities in Southeast Asia.Burmese expansions which created the Taungoo Empire challenged existing dynasties and political structures. In 1571 the death of King Setthathirath, created an internal succession crisis for Lan Xang. The succession of kings including Sen Soulintha, Voravongsa I, Nakhon Noi, Nokeo Koumane, and Voravongsa II were installed, or at least confirmed, by the Burmese.
Setthathirath had a legitimate heir through Prince No Muang (Nokeo Koumane), but in 1571 he was still a minor.Sen Soulintha and Nakhon Noi were not of noble birth; however Sen Soulintha was the grandfather of Nokeo Koumane. Sen Soulintha was a trusted general and had presented his daughter in marriage to Setthathirath. It was that unnamed daughter who ultimately bore Setthathirath’s heir Prince No Muang. Beginning in 1565 the Burmese led by Bayinnaug made incursions into Lan Xang, and briefly occupied Vientiane. From 1565-1574 Lan Xang was led by Setthathirath and then Sen Soulintha in a guerrilla campaign to oppose Burmese expansion. It was probably that military threat which motivated Sen Soulintha to first seize the regency, and then the throne, from his grandson Prince No Muang. In any event Sen Soulintha became deeply distrusted by the population, and during the third Burmese invasion led by Bayinnaung both he and his son Nakhon Noi were arrested (possibly by the Lao) and taken back to Pegu as prisoners. Prince No Muang was also taken as a captive, which would create continuing problems for the Burmese.
In 1575 the Burmese installed Setthathirath's Oupahat (viceroy) Prince Tha Heua, who took the regnal name Voravongsa I.Voravongsa I was a brother of Setthathirath, and thus would normally benefit from the legitimacy of his royal ancestry. However, on the death of Photisarath, Prince Tha Heua and Prince Lanchang had opposed King Setthathirath for the throne of Lan Xang. Equally important was the fact that Prince No Muang was still alive and captive in Burma. Voravongsa I was eventually deposed after a brief rule of four years, and drowned while trying to escape with his family.
In 1580 the Burmese had reestablished military control of Lan Xang and installed the aged Sen Soulintha as king.The second reign of Sen Surintra lasted only two years before his death in 1582. According to Lao chronicles, Sen Soulintha’s son Nakhon Noi then ascended the throne of Lan Xang. In Pegu, the previous year Bayinnaung had died and the Taungoo Empire had passed into the hands of his son Nanda Bayin, who struggled with his own court.
According to some sources his reign was characterized by a brief tyranny, although it is equally possible he was simply another victim of factionalism at court, or lacked legitimacy due to his common origins.His courtiers rebelled, and he was sent back to Pegu within the year. The circumstances of his life and death from that point are unknown.
While Burma maintained nominal control, the various factions of the aristocracy and the provincial governors fought violently against each other from 1583-1591.With Prince No Muang in captivity, an interregnum occurred until a senior delegation of the Lao sangha and Lan Xang court came to Nanda Bayin to request his return. At the time Nanda Bayin was facing petty rebellions throughout the Taungoo Empire, and granted the request to buy much needed stability. After fifteen years of captivity in Pegu, the son of Setthathirath, Prince No Muang, returned to Lan Xang as King Nokeo Koumane.
The Lao Kingdom of Lan Xang Hom Khao existed as a unified kingdom from 1353 to 1707.
Setthathirath or Xaysettha is considered one of the great leaders in Lao history. Throughout the 1560s until his death, he successfully defended his kingdom of Lan Xang against military campaigns of Burmese conqueror Bayinnaung, who had already subdued Xieng Mai in 1558 and Ayutthaya in 1564. Setthathirath was a prolific builder and erected many Buddhist monuments including Wat Xieng Thong in Luang Prabang, Haw Phra Kaew, Wat Ong Teu Mahawihan and the Pha That Luang in Vientiane.
Photisarath son of King Visoun of Lanxang, is considered to be the most devout of the Lao kings. He banned spirit worship and built temples upon the sites of spirit shrines. His elephant fell and crushed him while he sought to display his prowess to the diplomatic corps. His son Setthathirath returned from Chiang Mai to succeed him to the throne of Lan Xang.
Naresuan or Sanphet II, was the 18th monarch of Ayutthaya Kingdom and 2nd monarch of the Sukhothai dynasty. He was the king of the Ayutthaya Kingdom from 1590 and overlord of Lan Na from 1602 until his death in 1605. Naresuan is one of Thailand's most revered monarchs as he is known for his campaigns to free Ayutthaya from the vassalage of the Taungoo Empire. During his reign, numerous wars were fought against Taungoo Burma. Naresuan also welcomed the Dutch.
Bayinnaung Kyawhtin Nawrahta was king of the Toungoo Dynasty of Burma (Myanmar) from 1550 to 1581. During his 31-year reign, which has been called the "greatest explosion of human energy ever seen in Burma", Bayinnaung assembled what was probably the largest empire in the history of Southeast Asia, which included much of modern-day Myanmar, the Chinese Shan states, Lan Na, Lan Xang, Manipur and Siam.
Nanda Bayin, was king of Toungoo Dynasty of Burma (Myanmar) from 1581 to 1599. He presided over the collapse of Toungoo Empire, the largest empire in the history of Southeast Asia.
Maha Thammaracha, Maha Thammarachathirat, or Sanphet I, formerly known as Khun Phirenthorathep, was a king of Ayutthaya Kingdom from the Sukhothai dynasty, ruling from 1569 to 1590. As a powerful Sukhothai noble, Phirenthorathep gradually rose to power. After playing many political turns, he was eventually crowned as the King of Siam.
Kingdom of Vientiane was formed in 1707 as a result of the split of the Kingdom of Lan Xang. The kingdom was a Burmese vassal from 1765 to 1824. It then became a Siamese vassal until 1828 when it was annexed by Siam.
Agga Maha Thenapati Binnya Dala was a Burmese statesman, general and writer-scholar during the reign of King Bayinnaung of Toungoo Dynasty. He was the king's most trusted adviser and general, and a key figure responsible for the expansion, defense and administration of Toungoo Empire from the 1550s to his fall from grace in 1573. He oversaw the rebuilding of Pegu (1565–1568). He is also known for his literary works, particularly Razadarit Ayedawbon, the earliest extant chronicle of the Mon people. He died in exile after having failed to reconquer Lan Xang.
Nawrahta Minsaw was king of Lan Na from 1579 to 1607/08, and the first Burmese-born vassal king of Lan Na. He was also an accomplished poet.
Minye Kyawswa was heir apparent of Burma from 1593 to 1599, and viceroy of Ava from 1587 to 1593. For the last six years of his life, he was the deputy of his father King Nanda, who presided over the collapse of the Toungoo Empire. In December 1599, he betrayed his father, and defected to the forces led by Minye Thihathu II of Toungoo and Raza II of Arakan. But the promise of good treatment was not kept; the last crown prince of the Toungoo Empire was killed a few days later.
The Burmese–Siamese War (1568–1569) was a military conflict fought between the Kingdom of Ayutthaya (Siam) and the Kingdom of Burma. The war began in 1568 when Ayutthaya unsuccessfully attacked Phitsanulok, a Burmese vassal state. The event was followed by a Burmese intervention which resulted in the 2 August 1569 defeat of Ayutthaya, which became a Burmese vassal state. Burma then moved towards Lan Xang, occupying the country for a short period of time until retreating in 1570.
Chakkaphat Phaen Phaeo (1415–1481) reigned as King of Lan Xang from 1442 to 1480, succeeding the Maha Devi after an interregnum of several years. He was born in 1415 as Prince Vong Buri, the youngest son of King Samsenthai by Queen Nan Keo Yot Fa daughter of King Intharacha of Ayutthaya. When he came of age he was appointed as Governor of Vientiane. He was invited to ascend the throne several times during the succession dispute orchestrated by the Maha Devi, but refused. The Council of Ministers finally persuaded him to become king in 1441, after they had failed to find any other candidate. He still refused to be crowned and avoided the ceremony for many years. Finally bowing to custom in 1456, he was formally coroneted and assumed the reign name and title of Samdach Brhat-Anya Chao Sanaka Chakrapati Raja Phen-Phaeo Bhaya Jayadiya Kabuddha. The regnal name is significant because it translates in Pali to cakkavattin, meaning "Universal Buddhist Monarch." Vong Buri, and the court, were claiming enough political and religious power to unify the kingdom, and warn surrounding kingdoms, despite the upheaval caused by the Maha Devi and interregnum in Lan Xang from 1428-1442.
Souvanna Banlang (1455-1486) was king of Lan Xang from 1479-1486 taking the regnal name Samdach Brhat-Anya Chao Suvarna Panya Lankara Raja Sri Sadhana Kanayudha. His reign was marked as a period of peace and reconstruction, following a massive invasion by the Đại Việt forces of Emperor Lê Thánh Tông. He became king in 1479 after the abdication of his father Chakkaphat Phaen Phaeo, who had fled the capital of Muang Sua ahead of the Đại Việt armies. Prior to his accession he served as Governor of Muang Dansai, according to the Lao chronicles he commanded Lao forces at the Battle of Pakphun where the invading forces were halted and forced to retreat to Vietnam.
Sen Soulintha, Saen Surintha or Sen Sourintha (1511–1582) was born Chane Tian and became King of Lan Xang reigning 1571-1575 and again 1580-1582. Sen Soulintha was not of noble birth, rising from royal page to King Setthatirath’s Chief Minister. During the succession disputes in the Kingdom of Lan Na between King Setthatirath and King Mekuti, Sen Soulintha served Setthatirath as a general and successfully took several cities of Lan Na including Chiang Saen for which he was given the honorific name Lusai meaning “victory.” Sen Soulintha supported Setthatirath in leading the guerrilla campaigns during the Burmese invasions of King Bayinnaung. When Setthatirath died near Attapeu under suspicious circumstances in 1572, Sen Soulintha led the armies of Lan Xang back to Vientiane. A succession dispute erupted, which nearly led to civil war and provided a pretext for another Burmese invasion ordered by Bayinnaung and led by the Chief Minister Binnya Dala. Sen Soulintha defeated the Burmese and Lan Na forces led by Binnya Dala, an event which led to the latter’s exile, only to face a more massive invasion led by Bayinnaug the following year. Sen Soulintha again attempted to resort to guerilla tactics, but lacked popular support from his seizure of the throne. He and his son Ong Lo were captured by Bayinnaung and exiled to Pegu. The Burmese placed Setthathirath’s brother, and former Ouphahat or Viceroy, Prince Tha Heua on the throne. According to the Luang Prabang chronicles it was this brother, who had led a rebellion in Luang Prabang and tried to seize the throne from Setthathirath on the death of their father Photisarath. Prince Tha Heua took the regnal name Voravongsa and reigned under Burmese suzerainty from 1575-1579. Voravongsa was never popular, and drowned with his family while attempting to flee Vientiane in the face of popular uprising. In 1579, Bayinnaung dispatched a sizable army to restore order. According to Lao histories Sen Soulintha was then installed as king a second time in 1580. By that time Sen Soulintha was an old man and reigned only for two years before his son ascended the throne as Nakhon Noi and another succession dispute ensued.
Voravongsa I was king of Lan Xang reigning from 1575–1579 with the regnal name Samdach Brhat-Anya Chao Brhatasena Vora Varman Raja Sri Sadhana Kanayudha but he is commonly referred to in both Lao and Burmese chronicles by his title of Maha Oupahat or Viceroy. Voravongsa was taken prisoner by the Burmese in 1565 during the occupation of Vientiane. In 1575 following the third of a series of Burmese invasions of Lan Xang, Voravongsa was appointed by Bayinnaung as a vassal within the Taungoo Empire. Voravongsa had few supporters even within the Burmese court; he reigned for only four years before facing a popular rebellion which would threaten to overtake the capital in Vientiane. Voravongsa attempted to flee back to Burma, but were killed en route. To reestablish order the Burmese dispatched another army, and would install Sen Soulintha as vassal from 1580-1582.
Keo Koumane, or Nu Muang Kaeva Kumara, Nokeo Koumane was born No Muong (1571–1596) was King of Lan Xang reigning from 1571 till 1572 and from 1591 till 1596. He was the son of King Sai Setthathirath I by his wife, a daughter of King Sen Soulintha.
The Vietnamese-Laotian War of 1479–84, also known as the White Elephant War, was a relatively short conflict between the Laotian mandala of Lan Xang and the Vietnamese kingdom of Đại Việt. The war and its aftermath contributed significantly to the formation of Laos.
Laos–Myanmar relations is the long, complicated relationship between two neighbors, Laos and Myanmar. Myanmar has an embassy in Vientiane and Laos has an embassy in Yangon.
| King of Lan Xang |