1581

Last updated

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1581 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 1581
MDLXXXI
Ab urbe condita 2334
Armenian calendar 1030
ԹՎ ՌԼ
Assyrian calendar 6331
Balinese saka calendar 1502–1503
Bengali calendar 988
Berber calendar 2531
English Regnal year 23  Eliz. 1   24  Eliz. 1
Buddhist calendar 2125
Burmese calendar 943
Byzantine calendar 7089–7090
Chinese calendar 庚辰(Metal  Dragon)
4277 or 4217
     to 
辛巳年 (Metal  Snake)
4278 or 4218
Coptic calendar 1297–1298
Discordian calendar 2747
Ethiopian calendar 1573–1574
Hebrew calendar 5341–5342
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1637–1638
 - Shaka Samvat 1502–1503
 - Kali Yuga 4681–4682
Holocene calendar 11581
Igbo calendar 581–582
Iranian calendar 959–960
Islamic calendar 988–989
Japanese calendar Tenshō 9
(天正9年)
Javanese calendar 1500–1501
Julian calendar 1581
MDLXXXI
Korean calendar 3914
Minguo calendar 331 before ROC
民前331年
Nanakshahi calendar 113
Thai solar calendar 2123–2124
Tibetan calendar 阳金龙年
(male Iron-Dragon)
1707 or 1326 or 554
     to 
阴金蛇年
(female Iron-Snake)
1708 or 1327 or 555
July 26-27: Capture of Breda HautepennesFury.jpg
July 26 27: Capture of Breda

Year 1581 ( MDLXXXI ) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar, and a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Proleptic Gregorian calendar.

Roman numerals Numbers in the Roman numeral system

Roman numerals are a numeral system that originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet. Modern usage employs seven symbols, each with a fixed integer value:

A common year starting on Sunday is any non-leap year that begins on Sunday, 1 January, and ends on Sunday, 31 December. Its dominical letter hence is A. The most recent year of such kind was 2017 and the next one will be 2023 in the Gregorian calendar, or, likewise, 2018 and 2029 in the obsolete Julian calendar, see below for more. Any common year that starts on Sunday, Monday or Tuesday has two Friday the 13ths. This common year contains two Friday the 13ths in January and October.

The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 708 AUC (46 BC/BCE), was a reform of the Roman calendar. It took effect on 1 January 709 AUC (45 BC/BCE), by edict. It was the predominant calendar in the Roman world, most of Europe, and in European settlements in the Americas and elsewhere, until it was gradually replaced by the Gregorian calendar, promulgated in 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII.

Contents

Events

July 26: Act of Abjuration Plakkaat van Verlatinghe.jpg
July 26: Act of Abjuration

JanuaryJune

March 18 is the 77th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 288 days remain until the end of the year.

Parliament of England historic legislature of the Kingdom of England

The Parliament of England was the legislature of the Kingdom of England, existing from the early 13th century until 1707, when it united with the Parliament of Scotland to become the Parliament of Great Britain after the political union of England and Scotland created the Kingdom of Great Britain.

March 25 is the 84th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 281 days remain until the end of the year.

JulyDecember

July 14 is the 195th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 170 days remain until the end of the year.

Edmund Campion English Jesuit priest, martyr and saint

Saint Edmund Campion, S.J., was an English Catholic Jesuit priest and martyr. While conducting an underground ministry in officially Anglican England, Campion was arrested by priest hunters. Convicted of high treason, he was hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn. Campion was beatified by Pope Leo XIII in 1886 and canonised in 1970 by Pope Paul VI as one of the Forty Martyrs of England and Wales. His feast is celebrated on 1 December.

July 26 is the 207th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 158 days remain until the end of the year.

Date unknown

Knights Hospitaller Western Christian military order

The Order of Knights of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem, also known as the Order of Saint John, Order of Hospitallers, Knights Hospitaller, Order of Malta, Knights Hospitalier or Hospitallers, was a medieval and early modern Catholic military order. It was headquartered in the Kingdom of Jerusalem, on the island of Rhodes, in Malta and Saint Petersburg.

Jean de la Cassière Grand Master of the Knights Hospitaller

Fra' Jean l'Evesque de la Cassière was the 51st Grand Master of the Order of Malta, from 1572 to 1581. He commissioned the building of the Conventual Church of the Order in Valletta, Malta, and is buried in the Crypt of St. John.

Zhang Juzheng Chinese Grand Secretary

Zhang Juzheng, courtesy name Shuda, pseudonym Taiyue, was a Chinese reformer and statesman who served as Grand Secretary in the late Ming dynasty during the reigns of the Longqing and Wanli emperors. He represented what might be termed the "new Legalism," aiming to ensure that the gentry worked for the state. Alluding to performance evaluations, he said "Everyone is talking about real responsibility, but without a clear reward and punishment system, who is going to risk life and hardship for the country?" One of his chief goals was to reform the gentry and rationalize the bureaucracy together with his political rival Gao Gong, who was concerned that offices were providing income with little responsibility. Taking the Emperor Hongwu as his standard and ruling as de facto Prime Minister, Zhang's true historical significance comes from his centralization of existing reforms, positing the reformative agency of the state over that of the gentry - the "Legalist" idea of the sovereignty of the state.

Births

Countess Palatine Dorothea of Simmern JohannGeorgAnhDorotheaSimmern.jpg
Countess Palatine Dorothea of Simmern
Archduchess Gregoria Maximiliana of Austria Jakob de Monte 004.jpg
Archduchess Gregoria Maximiliana of Austria
Princess Hedwig of Denmark Hedevig af Sachsen.JPG
Princess Hedwig of Denmark
Thomas Overbury Tho overbury.jpg
Thomas Overbury

January 4 is the fourth day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 361 days remain until the end of the year.

James Ussher 17th-century Anglican Archbishop of Armagh

James Ussher was the Church of Ireland Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of All Ireland between 1625 and 1656. He was a prolific scholar and church leader, who today is most famous for his identification of the genuine letters of the church father, Ignatius, and for his chronology that sought to establish the time and date of the creation as "the entrance of the night preceding the 23rd day of October... the year before Christ 4004"; that is, around 6 pm on 22 October 4004 BC according to the proleptic Julian calendar.

1656 Year

1656 (MDCLVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1656th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 656th year of the 2nd millennium, the 56th year of the 17th century, and the 7th year of the 1650s decade. As of the start of 1656, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Deaths

James Douglas Regent Morton.jpg
James Douglas
Guru Ram Das Guru Ram Das.jpg
Guru Ram Das
Saint Louis Bertrand Louis Bertrand.jpg
Saint Louis Bertrand
King Bayinnaung Bayinnaung.JPG
King Bayinnaung
Alexander Briant.jpg
Edmundus Campion.jpg
Saints Alexander Briant and Edmund Campion died on December 1, 1581

Related Research Articles

1626 Year

1626 (MDCXXVI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1626th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 626th year of the 2nd millennium, the 26th year of the 17th century, and the 7th year of the 1620s decade. As of the start of 1626, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1572 Year

Year 1572 (MDLXXII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.

1573 Year

Year 1573 (MDLXXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.

1574 Year

Year 1574 (MDLXXIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.

1595 (MDXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1595th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 595th year of the 2nd millennium, the 95th year of the 16th century, and the 6th year of the 1590s decade. As of the start of 1595, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1652 (MDCLII) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1652nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 652nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 52nd year of the 17th century, and the 3rd year of the 1650s decade. As of the start of 1652, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1568 Year

Year 1568 (MDLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.

1601 Year

1601 (MDCI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1601st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 601st year of the 2nd millennium, the 1st year of the 17th century, and the 2nd year of the 1600s decade. As of the start of 1601, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. This epoch is the beginning of the 400-year Gregorian leap-year cycle within which digital files first existed; the last year of any such cycle is the only leap year whose year number is divisible by 100.

1606 Year

1606 (MDCVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1606th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 606th year of the 2nd millennium, the 6th year of the 17th century, and the 7th year of the 1600s decade. As of the start of 1606, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1610 Year

1610 (MDCX) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1610th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 610th year of the 2nd millennium, the 10th year of the 17th century, and the 1st year of the 1610s decade. As of the start of 1610, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. Some have suggested that 1610 may mark the beginning of the Anthropocene, or the 'Age of Man', marking a fundamental change in the relationship between humans and the Earth system, but earlier starting dates have received broader consensus, based on high resolution pollution records that show the massive impact of human activity on the atmosphere.

1621 Year

1621 (MDCXXI) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1621st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 621st year of the 2nd millennium, the 21st year of the 17th century, and the 2nd year of the 1620s decade. As of the start of 1621, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1585 Year

1585 (MDLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1585th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 585th year of the 2nd millennium, the 85th year of the 16th century, and the 6th year of the 1580s decade. As of the start of 1585, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1589 Year

1589 (MDLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1589th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 589th year of the 2nd millennium, the 89th year of the 16th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1580s decade. As of the start of 1589, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1583 Year

1583 (MDLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1583rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 583rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 83rd year of the 16th century, and the 4th year of the 1580s decade. As of the start of 1583, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1580 Year

Year 1580 (MDLXXX) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, and a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Proleptic Gregorian calendar.

1577 Year

Year 1577 (MDLXXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.

1712 Year

1712 (MDCCXII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1712th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 712th year of the 2nd millennium, the 12th year of the 18th century, and the 3rd year of the 1710s decade. As of the start of 1712, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. In the Swedish calendar it began as a leap year starting on Monday and remained so until Thursday, February 29. By adding a second leap day Sweden reverted to the Julian calendar and the rest of the year was in sync with the Julian calendar. Sweden finally made the switch from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar in 1753. This year has 367 days.

1563 Year

Year 1563 (MDLXIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.

References

  1. Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 160–162. ISBN   0-7126-5616-2.
  2. Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN   0-14-102715-0.
  3. "Catalogue of aërolites and Bolides, from A.D. 2 to A.D. 1860". Meteoritehistory.info. Retrieved March 26, 2012.
  4. Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 230–233. ISBN   0-304-35730-8.