LP record

Last updated

A 12-inch LP vinyl record
Media typeAudio playback
Encoding Analog groove modulation
CapacityOriginally 23 minutes per side, later increased by several minutes, much longer possible with very low signal level
Read mechanismMicrogroove stylus (maximum tip radius 0.001 in or 25 μm)
Developed by Columbia Records
Dimensions12 in (30 cm), 10 in (25 cm), 90–240 g (3.2–8.5 oz)
UsageAudio storage

The LP (from "long playing" [1] or "long play") is an analog sound storage medium, a phonograph record format characterized by: a speed of 33+13  rpm; a 12- or 10-inch (30- or 25-cm) diameter; use of the "microgroove" groove specification; and a vinyl (a copolymer of vinyl chloride acetate) composition disk. Introduced by Columbia Records in 1948, it was soon adopted as a new standard by the entire US record industry. Apart from a few relatively minor refinements and the important later addition of stereophonic sound in 1957, [2] it remained the standard format for record albums, during a period in popular music known as the album era. [3] Beginning in the late 1970s, LP sales began to decline because of the increasing popularity of Compact Cassettes, then in the 1980s of compact discs. By 1988, the latter format began to outsell LPs. [4]


Beginning in the late 2000s, the LP has experienced a resurgence in popularity. [5] 2020 was the first year when vinyl outsold CDs in the US, making up 62% of all physical music revenue. [6]

Format advantages

At the time the LP was introduced, nearly all phonograph records for home use were made of an abrasive (and therefore noisy) shellac compound, employed a much larger groove, and played at approximately 78 revolutions per minute (rpm), limiting the playing time of a 12-inch diameter record to less than five minutes per side. The new product was a 12- or 10-inch (30 or 25 cm) fine-grooved disc made of PVC ("vinyl") and played with a smaller-tipped "microgroove" stylus at a speed of 33+13 rpm. Each side of a 12-inch LP could play for about 22 minutes. [7]


Despite some earlier experiments and attempts at commercial marketing, the Long Play format did not begin to enjoy commercial popularity until the early 1950s. [8]


Starting in 1926, the Edison Records company experimented with issuing Edison Disc Records in long play format of 24 minutes per side. The system and playback system (still mostly wind-up phonographs) proved unreliable and was a commercial failure. [9]

Soundtrack discs

Neumann lathe with SX-74 cutting head Neumann Cutting Machine 02.jpg
Neumann lathe with SX-74 cutting head
Neumann lathe Neumann Cutting Machine 03.jpg
Neumann lathe

By mid-1931 all motion picture studios were recording on optical soundtracks, but sets of soundtrack discs, mastered by dubbing from the optical tracks and scaled down to 12 inches to cut costs, were made as late as 1936 for distribution to theaters still equipped with disc-only sound projectors. [10]

Radio transcription discs

Unless the quantity required was very small, pressed discs were a more economical medium for distributing high-quality audio than tape, and CD mastering was, in the early years of that technology, very expensive, so the use of LP-format transcription discs continued into the 1990s. The King Biscuit Flower Hour is a late example, as are Westwood One's The Beatle Years and Doctor Demento programs, which were sent to stations on LP at least through 1992. [11]

RCA Victor

In September 1931, RCA Victor launched the first commercially available vinyl long-playing record, marketed as "Program-Transcription" records. These revolutionary discs were designed for playback at 33+13 rpm and pressed on a 30 cm diameter flexible plastic disc, with a duration of about ten minutes playing time per side. [12] Victor's early introduction of a long-playing record was a commercial failure for several reasons including the lack of affordable, consumer playback equipment and consumer rejection during the Great Depression. [13]

These "Program Transcription" discs, as Victor called them, played at 33+13 rpm and used a somewhat finer and more closely spaced groove than typical 78 rpm records. They were to be played with a special "Chromium Orange" chrome-plated steel needle. The 10-inch discs, mostly used for popular and light classical music, were normally pressed in shellac, but the 12-inch discs, mostly used for "serious" classical music, were pressed in Victor's new vinyl-based "Victrolac" compound, which provided a much quieter playing surface. These records could hold up to 15 minutes per side. Beethoven's Fifth Symphony, performed by the Philadelphia Orchestra under Leopold Stokowski, was the first 12-inch recording issued. [14] [15] [16] Compton Pakensham, reviewing the event in The New York Times wrote, "What we were not prepared for was the quality of reproduction ... incomparably fuller." [15]


CBS Laboratories head research scientist Peter Goldmark led Columbia's team to develop a phonograph record that would hold at least 20 minutes per side. [17] Although Goldmark was the chief scientist who selected the team, he delegated most of the experimental work to William S. Bachman, whom Goldmark had lured from General Electric, and Howard H. Scott. [18]

Research began in 1939, was suspended during World War II, and then resumed in 1945. [19] Columbia Records unveiled the LP at a press conference in the Waldorf Astoria on June 21, 1948, in two formats: 10 inches (25 centimetres) in diameter, matching that of 78 rpm singles, and 12 inches (30 centimetres) in diameter. [19] [20] [21] The initial release of 133 recordings were: 85 12-inch classical LPs (ML 4001 to 4085), 26 10-inch classics (ML 2001 to 2026), eighteen 10-inch popular numbers (CL 6001 to 6018), and four 10-inch juvenile records (JL 8001 to 8004). According to the 1949 Columbia catalog, issued September 1948, the first twelve-inch LP was Mendelssohn's Concerto in E Minor by Nathan Milstein on the violin with the New York Philharmonic, conducted by Bruno Walter (ML 4001). Three ten-inch series were released: 'popular', starting with the reissue of The Voice of Frank Sinatra (CL 6001); 'classical', numbering from Beethoven's 8th symphony (ML 2001), and 'juvenile', commencing with Nursery Songs by Gene Kelly (JL 8001). Also released at this time were a pair of 2-LP sets, Puccini's La Bohème (SL-1) and Humperdinck's Hansel and Gretel (SL-2). All 12-inch pressings were of 220 grams vinyl. Columbia may have planned for the Bach album ML 4002 to be the first since the releases came in alphabetical order by composer (the first 54 LPS, ML 4002 thru ML 4055, are in order from Bach to Tchaikovsky) Nathan Milstein was very popular in the 1940s, however, so his performance of the Mendelssohn concerto was moved to ML 4001. [22]

Public reception

When the LP was introduced in 1948, the 78 was the conventional format for phonograph records. By 1952, 78s still accounted for slightly more than half of the units sold in the United States, and just under half of the dollar sales. The 45, oriented toward the single song, accounted for just over 30% of unit sales and just over 25% of dollar sales. The LP represented not quite 17% of unit sales and just over 26% of dollar sales. [23]

Ten years after their introduction, the share of unit sales for LPs in the US was almost 25%, and of dollar sales 58%. Most of the remainder was taken up by the 45; 78s accounted for only 2% of unit sales and 1% of dollar sales. [24]

The popularity of the LP ushered in the "Album Era" of English-language popular music, beginning in the late 1950s, as performers took advantage of the longer playing time to create coherent themes or concept albums. "The rise of the LP as a form—as an artistic entity, as they used to say—has complicated how we perceive and remember what was once the most evanescent of the arts", Robert Christgau wrote in Christgau's Record Guide: Rock Albums of the Seventies (1981). "The album may prove a '70s totem—briefer configurations were making a comeback by decade's end. But for the '70s it will remain the basic musical unit, and that's OK with me. I've found over the years that the long-playing record, with its twenty-minute sides and four-to-six compositions/performances per side, suits my habits of concentration perfectly." [25]

Although the popularity of LPs began to decline in the late 1970s with the advent of Compact Cassettes, and later compact discs, the LP survives as a format to the present day. Vinyl LP records enjoyed a resurgence in the early 2010s. [26] Vinyl sales in the UK reached 2.8 million in 2012. [27] US vinyl sales in 2017 reached 15.6 million and 27 million for 2020. [28] In 2022, US vinyl sales reached 41 million units, surpassing sales of the Compact Disc for the first time since 1987, once again making the vinyl the highest selling physical format there. [29]

Competing formats

Reel-to-reel magnetic tape recorders posed a new challenge to the LP in the 1950s, but the higher cost of pre-recorded tapes was one of several factors that confined tape to a niche market. Cartridge and cassette tapes were more convenient and less expensive than reel-to-reel tapes, and they became popular for use in automobiles beginning in the mid-1960s. The LP was not seriously challenged as the primary medium for listening to recorded music at home until the 1970s, however, when the audio quality of the cassette was greatly improved by better tape formulations and noise-reduction systems. By 1983, cassettes were outselling LPs in the US. [30]

The Compact Disc (CD) was introduced in 1982. It offered a recording that was, theoretically, almost noiseless and not audibly degraded by repeated playing or slight scuffs and scratches. At first, the much higher prices of CDs and CD players limited their target market to affluent early adopters and audiophiles; but prices came down, and by 1988 CDs outsold LPs. The CD became the top-selling format, over cassettes, in 1992. [30]

Along with phonograph records in other formats, some of which were made of other materials, LPs are now widely referred to simply as "vinyl". Since the late 1990s there has been a vinyl revival. [31] Demand has increased in niche markets, particularly among audiophiles, DJs, and fans of indie music, but most music sales as of 2018 came from online downloads and online streaming because of their availability, convenience, and price. [28]

Playing time

With the advent of sound film or "talkies", the need for greater storage space made 33+13 rpm records more appealing. Soundtracks – played on records synchronized to movie projectors in theatres – could not fit onto the mere five minutes per side that 78s offered. When initially introduced, 12-inch LPs played for a maximum of about 23 minutes per side, 10-inch records for around 15.[ citation needed ] They were not an immediate success, however, as they were released during the height of the Great Depression, and seemed frivolous to the many impoverished of the time. It was not until "microgroove" was developed by Columbia Records in 1948 that Long Players (LPs) reached their maximum playtime, which has continued to modern times. [32]

Economics and tastes initially determined which kind of music was available on each format. Recording company executives believed upscale classical music fans would be eager to hear a Beethoven symphony or a Mozart concerto without having to flip over multiple, four-minute-per-side 78s, and that pop music fans, who were used to listening to one song at a time, would find the shorter time of the 10-inch LP sufficient. As a result, the 12-inch format was reserved solely for higher-priced classical recordings and Broadway shows. Popular music continued to appear only on 10-inch records.[ citation needed ] However, by the mid-1950s, the 10-inch LP, like its similarly sized 78 rpm cousin, lost the format war and was discontinued. [33]


The close spacing of the spiral groove that allowed more playing time on a 33+13 rpm microgroove LP also allowed a faint pre-echo of upcoming loud sounds. The cutting stylus unavoidably transferred some of the subsequent groove's signal to the previous groove. It was discernible by some listeners throughout certain recordings, and a quiet passage followed by a loud sound would allow anyone to hear a faint pre-echo of the loud sound 1.8 seconds ahead of time. [34]

Fidelity and formats

Disco de vinilo - A todo color.jpg
Disco de vinilo de color amarillo.jpg
LPs pressed in multicolored vinyl (Sotano Beat: A Todo Color, a various-artists compilation) and clear yellow vinyl – (Rock On Elvis by Tulsa McLean) both from Argentina.

The following are some significant advances in the format:

The composition of vinyl used to press records (a blend of polyvinyl chloride and polyvinyl acetate) has varied considerably over the years. Virgin vinyl is preferred, but during the 1970s energy crisis, it became commonplace to use recycled vinyl. Sound quality suffered, with increased ticks, pops, and other surface noises. [36]

In 2018, an Austrian startup, Rebeat Innovation GmBH, received US$4.8 million in funding to develop high definition vinyl records that purport to contain longer play times, louder volumes and higher fidelity than conventional vinyl LPs. [37] Rebeat Innovation, headed by CEO Günter Loibl, has called the format 'HD Vinyl'. [38] The HD process works by converting audio to a digital 3D topography map that is then inscribed onto the vinyl stamper via lasers, resulting in less loss of information. Many critics have expressed skepticism regarding the cost and quality of HD records. [39]

In May 2019, at the Making Vinyl conference in Berlin, Loibl unveiled the software "Perfect Groove" for creating 3D topographic audio data files. [40] The software provides a map for laser-engraving for HD Vinyl stampers. The audio engineering software was created with mastering engineers Scott Hull and Darcy Proper, a four-time Grammy winner. The demonstration offered the first simulations of what HD Vinyl records are likely to sound like, ahead of actual HD vinyl physical record production. Loibl discussed the software "Perfect Groove" at a presentation titled "Vinyl 4.0 The next generation of making records" before offering demonstrations to attendees. [41]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Phonograph</span> Device for analogue recording of sound

A phonograph, later called a gramophone, and since the 1940s a record player, or more recently a turntable, is a device for the mechanical and analogue reproduction of recorded sound. The sound vibration waveforms are recorded as corresponding physical deviations of a spiral groove engraved, etched, incised, or impressed into the surface of a rotating cylinder or disc, called a "record". To recreate the sound, the surface is similarly rotated while a playback stylus traces the groove and is therefore vibrated by it, very faintly reproducing the recorded sound. In early acoustic phonographs, the stylus vibrated a diaphragm which produced sound waves which were coupled to the open air through a flaring horn, or directly to the listener's ears through stethoscope-type earphones.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Single (music)</span> Release with one to three tracks

In music, a single is a type of release, typically a song recording of fewer tracks than an LP record or an album. One can be released for sale to the public in a variety of formats. In most cases, a single is a song that is released separately from an album, although it usually also appears on an album. In other cases a recording released as a single may not appear on an album.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Extended play</span> Musical recording longer than a single but shorter than a full album

An extended play (EP) is a musical recording that contains more tracks than a single but fewer than an album or LP record. Contemporary EPs generally contain four to six tracks and have a playing time of 15 to 22 minutes. There is no strict definition of an "EP", but it is usually less cohesive than an album and more "non-committal".

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Columbia Records</span> American record label

Columbia Records is an American record label owned by Sony Music Entertainment, a subsidiary of Sony Corporation of America, the North American division of Japanese conglomerate Sony. It was founded on January 15, 1889, evolving from the American Graphophone Company, the successor to the Volta Graphophone Company. Columbia is the oldest surviving brand name in the recorded sound business, and the second major company to produce records. From 1961 to 1991, its recordings were released outside North America under the name CBS Records to avoid confusion with EMI's Columbia Graphophone Company. Columbia is one of Sony Music's four flagship record labels: Epic Records, and former longtime rivals, RCA Records and Arista Records as the latter two were originally owned by BMG before its 2008 relaunch after Sony's acquisition alongside other BMG labels.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Phonograph record</span> Disc-shaped analog sound storage medium

A phonograph record, a vinyl record, or simply a record or vinyl is an analog sound storage medium in the form of a flat disc with an inscribed, modulated spiral groove. The groove usually starts near the outside edge and ends near the center of the disc. The stored sound information is made audible by playing the record on a phonograph.

RCA Records is an American record label owned by Sony Music Entertainment, a subsidiary of Sony Corporation of America.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Twelve-inch single</span> Type of vinyl phonograph record

The twelve-inch single is a type of vinyl gramophone record that has wider groove spacing and shorter playing time with a "single" or a few related sound tracks on each surface, compared to LPs which have several songs on each side. It is named for its 12-inch (300 mm) diameter. This allows for louder levels to be cut on the disc by the mastering engineer, which in turn gives a wider dynamic range, and thus better sound quality. This record type is commonly used in disco and dance music genres, where DJs use them to play in clubs. They are played at either 33+13 or 45 rpm. The conventional 7-inch single usually holds three or four minutes of music at full volume. The 12-inch LP sacrifices volume for extended playing time.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Edison Disc Record</span> Type of phonograph record produced by Edison Inc. from 1912 to 1929

The Edison Diamond Disc Record is a type of phonograph record marketed by Thomas A. Edison, Inc. on their Edison Record label from 1912 to 1929. They were named Diamond Discs because the matching Edison Disc Phonograph was fitted with a permanent conical diamond stylus for playing them. Diamond Discs were incompatible with lateral-groove disc record players, e.g. the Victor Victrola, the disposable steel needles of which would damage them while extracting hardly any sound. Uniquely, they are just under 14 in thick.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Monaural</span> Sound intended to be heard as if it were emanating from one position

Monaural or monophonic sound reproduction is sound intended to be heard as if it were emanating from one position. This contrasts with stereophonic sound or stereo, which uses two separate audio channels to reproduce sound from two microphones on the right and left side, which is reproduced with two separate loudspeakers to give a sense of the direction of sound sources. In mono, only one loudspeaker is necessary, but, when played through multiple loudspeakers or headphones, identical signals are fed to each speaker, resulting in the perception of one-channel sound "imaging" in one sonic space between the speakers. Monaural recordings, like stereo ones, typically use multiple microphones fed into multiple channels on a recording console, but each channel is "panned" to the center. In the final stage, the various center-panned signal paths are usually mixed down to two identical tracks, which, because they are identical, are perceived upon playback as representing a single unified signal at a single place in the soundstage. In some cases, multitrack sources are mixed to a one-track tape, thus becoming one signal. In the mastering stage, particularly in the days of mono records, the one- or two-track mono master tape was then transferred to a one-track lathe used to produce a master disc intended to be used in the pressing of a monophonic record. Today, however, monaural recordings are usually mastered to be played on stereo and multi-track formats, yet retain their center-panned mono soundstage characteristics.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Double album</span> Audio recording album that spans two units of its format

A double album is an audio album that spans two units of the primary medium in which it is sold, typically either records or compact disc. A double album is usually, though not always, released as such because the recording is longer than the capacity of the medium. Recording artists often think of double albums as being a single piece artistically; however, there are exceptions such as John Lennon's Some Time in New York City and OutKast's Speakerboxxx/The Love Below . Since the advent of the compact disc, albums are sometimes released with a bonus disc featuring additional material as a supplement to the main album, with live tracks, studio out-takes, cut songs, or older unreleased material. One innovation was the inclusion of a DVD of related material with a compact disc, such as video related to the album or DVD-Audio versions of the same recordings. Some such discs were also released on a two-sided format called DualDisc.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Album</span> Collection of audio recordings

An album is a collection of audio recordings issued on a medium such as compact disc (CD), vinyl (record), audio tape, or digital. Albums of recorded sound were developed in the early 20th century as individual 78 rpm records collected in a bound book resembling a photo album; this format evolved after 1948 into single vinyl long-playing (LP) records played at 33+13 rpm.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Acetate disc</span> Type of phonograph record

An acetate disc is a type of phonograph record generally used from the 1930s to the late 1950s for recording and broadcast purposes and sees limited use as of 2009. Despite their name, "acetate" discs do not contain any acetate.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Unusual types of gramophone records</span> Gramophone records with non standard features

The overwhelming majority of records manufactured have been of certain sizes, playback speeds, and appearance. However, since the commercial adoption of the gramophone record, a wide variety of records have also been produced that do not fall into these categories, and they have served a variety of purposes.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Record collecting</span> Hobby of collecting sound recordings

Record collecting is the hobby of collecting sound recordings, usually of music, but sometimes poetry, reading, historical speeches, and ambient noises. Although the typical focus is on vinyl records, all formats of recorded music can be collected.

Record restoration, a particular kind of audio restoration, is the process of converting the analog signal stored on gramophone records into digital audio files that can then be edited with computer software and eventually stored on a hard-drive, recorded to digital tape, or burned to a CD or DVD. The process may be divided into several separate steps performed in the following order:

  1. Cleaning the record, to prevent unwanted audio artifacts from being introduced in the capture that will necessitate correction in the digital domain, and to prevent unnecessary wear and damage to the stylus used in playback.
  2. Transcription of the record to another format on another medium ;
  3. Processing the raw sound file with software in order to remove transient noise resulting from record surface damage ;
  4. Using software to adjust the volume and equalization;
  5. Processing the audio with digital and analogue techniques to reduce surface/wideband noise;
  6. Saving the file in the desired format.
<span class="mw-page-title-main">Highway Hi-Fi</span> Phonograph record system playable in cars

Highway Hi-Fi was a system of proprietary players and seven-inch phonograph records with standard LP center holes designed for use in automobiles. Designed and developed by Peter Goldmark, who also developed the LP microgroove, the discs utilized 135 grams of vinyl each, enough to press a standard 10-inch LP.

The AES coarse-groove calibration discs (AES-S001-064) are a boxed set of two identical discs, one for routine use, one for master reference. The intent is to characterize the reproduction chain for the mass transfer of coarse-groove records to digital media, much like using a photographic calibration reference in image work.

<i>Merry Christmas</i> (Bing Crosby album) 1945 compilation album by Bing Crosby

Merry Christmas is a Christmas-themed compilation album by Bing Crosby that was released in 1945 on Decca Records. It has remained in print through the vinyl, CD, and downloadable file eras, currently as the disc and digital album White Christmas on MCA Records, a part of the Universal Music Group, and currently on vinyl as Merry Christmas on Geffen Records. It includes Crosby's signature song "White Christmas", the best-selling single of all time with estimated sales of over 50 million copies worldwide. The album was certified 4× Platinum by RIAA for selling over 4 million copies in United States. The original 1945 release and subsequent re-releases and re-packages spent a total of 39 weeks at no. 1 on the Billboard pop albums chart.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Electrical transcription</span> Phonograph recordings made for radio broadcasting

Electrical transcriptions are special phonograph recordings made exclusively for radio broadcasting, which were widely used during the "Golden Age of Radio". They provided material—from station-identification jingles and commercials to full-length programs—for use by local stations, which were affiliates of one of the radio networks.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Track listing</span>

In the field of sound recording and reproduction, a track listing is a list created in connection with a recorded medium to indicate the contents of that medium and their order. The most typical usage of a track listing is for songs or other discrete segments on an album.


  1. "Origin of LP". merriam-webster.com.
  2. "The history of the LP".
  3. Zipkin, Michele (April 8, 2020). "Best albums from the last decade, according to critics". Stacker. Retrieved June 3, 2020.
  4. Perry, Mark (September 23, 2022). "Animated Chart of the Day: Recorded Music Sales by Format Share, 1973 to 2022". American Enterprise Institute. Retrieved February 7, 2024.
  5. "Infographic: The LP is Back!". Statista Infographics. Retrieved July 16, 2017.
  6. Beaumont-Thomas, Ben (September 14, 2020). "Vinyl records outsell CDs in US for first time since 1980s". The Guardian. ISSN   0261-3077 . Retrieved January 25, 2024.
  7. "Full-length LP records on 150 and 180 gram vinyl". Standard Vinyl. Standard Vinyl. Retrieved December 18, 2018.
  8. Keightley, Keir (2004). "Long Play: Adult-Oriented Popular Music and the Temporal Logics of the Post-War Sound Recording Industry in the USA". Media, Culture & Society. 26 (3): 379. doi:10.1177/0163443704042258. ISSN   0163-4437.
  9. "The Edison Long-Playing Record". Regents of the University of California. Discography of American Historical Recordings . Retrieved 26 March 2023.
  10. "Frequently Asked Questions". The Vitaphone Project. Retrieved August 12, 2011.
  11. "Rand's Esoteric OTR: Types of transcriptions and radio recordings". Randsesotericotr.podbean.com. Retrieved August 12, 2011.
  12. Cross, Alan. "Strange speeds, big holes, and other answers to vinyl record mysteries". Archived from the original on January 22, 2022. Retrieved June 15, 2023.
  13. Penndorf, Ron. "Early Development of the LP". Archived from the original on November 5, 2005. Retrieved October 4, 2006.
  14. "Phonograph Disks Run for Half-Hour". The New York Times . September 18, 1931. p. 48. Archived from the original on June 22, 2022. Retrieved June 22, 2022.
  15. 1 2 Compton Pakenham (September 20, 1931). "Newly Recorded Music". The New York Times . p. X10. Archived from the original on June 22, 2022. Retrieved June 22, 2022.
  16. "Not So New" (PDF). The Billboard . June 5, 1948. p. 17. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 27, 2021. Retrieved June 22, 2022 via World Radio History.
  17. Goldmark, Peter. Maverick inventor; My Turbulent Years at CBS. New York: Saturday Review Press, 1973.
  18. Ben Sisario (October 6, 2012). "Howard H. Scott, a Developer of the LP, Dies at 92". The New York Times . Retrieved October 8, 2012. Howard H. Scott, who was part of the team at Columbia Records that introduced the long-playing vinyl record in 1948 before going on to produce albums with the New York Philharmonic, Glenn Gould, Isaac Stern and many other giants of classical music, died on Sept. 22 in Reading, Pa. He was 92. ...
  19. 1 2 "Columbia Diskery, CBS Show Microgroove Platters to Press; Tell How It Began" (PDF). Billboard . June 26, 1948. p. 3. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 22, 2021. Retrieved June 22, 2022..
  20. The First Long-Playing Disc Library of Congress (Congress.gov) (accessdate June 21, 2021)
  21. Marmorstein, Gary. The Label: The Story of Columbia Records. New York: Thunder's Mouth Press; p. 165.
  22. Columbia Record Catalog 1949 dated September 15, 1948
  23. "78 Speed On Way Out; LP-45 Trend Gaining", The Billboard, August 2, 1952, p. 47.
  24. Robert Shelton (March 16, 1958). "Happy Tunes on Cash Registers". The New York Times . p. XX14.
  25. Christgau, Robert (1981). "The Criteria". Christgau's Record Guide: Rock Albums of the Seventies. Ticknor & Fields. ISBN   978-0899190259 . Retrieved April 6, 2019 via robertchristgau.com.
  26. Kornelis, Chris (January 27, 2015). "Why CDs May Actually Sound Better Than Vinyl". L.A. Weekly.
  27. 1 What a record! The UK album chart reaches its 1,000th No1... and counting, Express, Adrian Lee, November 26, 2013
  28. 1 2 RIAA 2018 Year-End Music Industry Revenue Report
  29. "Vinyl records outsell CDs for first time in decades". BBC News. March 13, 2023. Retrieved June 28, 2023.
  30. 1 2 "Statistical Overview". riaa.com. Archived from the original on December 10, 1997. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
  31. McGeehan, Patrick (December 7, 2009). "Vinyl Records and Turntables Are Gaining Sales". The New York Times. Retrieved May 11, 2010.
  32. "Why Do Records Spin at 33 1/3 RPM?". The Sound of Vinyl Blog. June 12, 2017. Archived from the original on December 5, 2017.
  33. "10 Inch Vinyl Records". Collectors Weekly. November 23, 2013. Archived from the original on December 25, 2022. Retrieved March 30, 2023.
  34. "Pre-echo when recording vinyl record". Audacity Forum. Archived from the original (Forum Discussion) on June 9, 2009.
  35. "Analog Quadraphonic Formats" . Retrieved April 8, 2015.
  36. Adrian Hope (January 24, 1980). "Pressing Problems for a Record Future". New Scientist. p. 229 ff.
  37. Hogan, Marc (April 11, 2018). "'High Definition Vinyl' Is Happening, Possibly as Early as Next Year". Pitchfork. Retrieved December 17, 2018.
  38. Rose, Brent (April 20, 2018). "What Is HD Vinyl and Is It Legit?". Gizmodo. Retrieved May 1, 2019.
  39. Seppala, Timothy J. (April 26, 2018). "HD vinyl is a promise, not a product". Endgadget. Retrieved December 17, 2018.
  40. "HD Vinyl Takes Next Step with Debut of 3D Topography Software Perfect Groove". Making Vinyl. April 4, 2019. Retrieved May 14, 2019.
  41. " "Making Vinyl Europe – Program – Meistersaal, Berlin". Making Vinyl. May 2, 2019. Retrieved May 14, 2019.