Orleans County, New York

Last updated
Orleans County
Orleans County Courthouse, Albion, NY.jpg
County courthouse and clerk's office in Albion
Seal of Orleans County, New York.png
Seal
Map of New York highlighting Orleans County.svg
Location within the U.S. state of New York
New York in United States.svg
New York's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 43°22′N78°14′W / 43.37°N 78.23°W / 43.37; -78.23
CountryFlag of the United States.svg United States
StateFlag of New York.svg  New York
Founded1824
Named for House of Orléans
Seat Albion
Largest villageAlbion
Area
  Total817 sq mi (2,120 km2)
  Land391 sq mi (1,010 km2)
  Water426 sq mi (1,100 km2)  52%%
Population
  Estimate 
(2018)
Decrease2.svg 40,612
  Density110/sq mi (40/km2)
Time zone UTC−5 (Eastern)
  Summer (DST) UTC−4 (EDT)
Congressional district 27th
Website www.orleansny.com

Orleans County is a county in the western part of the U.S. state of New York. As of the 2010 census, the population was 42,883. [1] The county seat is Albion. [2] The county received its name at the insistence of Nehemiah Ingersoll [3] though historians are unsure how the name was selected. [4] The two competing theories are that it was named to honor the French Royal House of Orleans or that it was to honor Andrew Jackson's victory in New Orleans. [4]

Contents

Located on the south shore of Lake Ontario, Orleans County since the late 20th century has been considered part of the Rochester, NY Metropolitan Statistical Area.

History

When counties were established by the British authorities in the province of New York in 1683, the present Orleans County was part of the territory of Albany County. This was an enormous county, including the northern part of present-day New York State as well as all of the present State of Vermont and, in theory, extending westward to the Pacific Ocean. This county was reduced in size on July 3, 1766 by the creation of Cumberland County, and further on March 16, 1770 by the creation of Gloucester County, both containing territory now in Vermont.

On March 12, 1772, the remaining Albany County was split into three parts, one remaining under the name Albany County. Tryon County contained the large western portion (and thus, since no western boundary was specified, theoretically still extended west to the Pacific). The eastern boundary of Tryon County was approximately five miles west of the present city of Schenectady, and the county included the Mohawk River valley, the western part of the Adirondack Mountains and the area west of the West Branch of the Delaware River. The area then designated as Tryon County now includes 37 counties of New York State. The county was named for William Tryon, colonial governor of New York. This western area was occupied largely by the Onondaga, Oneida and other western nations of the Iroquois Confederacy. The westernmost European settlements were in the area of Little Falls and present-day Herkimer.

During the unrest prior to the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War, feelings ran high in the Mohawk Valley, and there were local attacks by rebels against known Loyalists. Most of Tryon County's Loyalists fled to Canada before 1776, where they were later granted land by the Crown to develop what is now Ontario.

In 1784, following the peace treaty that ended the American Revolutionary War, Tryon County's name was changed to Montgomery County to honor the general, Richard Montgomery. He had captured several places in Canada and died attempting to capture the city of Quebec. It replaced the name of the now hated colonial British governor. In 1789, Ontario County split off from Montgomery. [5] During this period, thousands of migrants settled in the western part of the state from New England and eastern New York resulting in the creation of more counties.

In 1802, Genesee County was created by splitting Ontario County. [5] Genesee County was then divided into Allegany County in 1806, Cattaraugus, Chautauqua, and Niagara Counties in 1808, Ontario, Livingston, and Monroe Counties in 1821, and finally Orleans County in 1824.

When Orleans County was formed in 1824, [6] a dispute arose about naming it after President Andrew Jackson or President John Adams. [4] During and following the Napoleonic era in France, numerous French refugees came to New York, some settling in the upstate areas.

Geography

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 817 square miles (2,120 km2), of which 391 square miles (1,010 km2) is land and 426 square miles (1,100 km2) (52%) is water. [7]

The high proportion of water is due to the extension of Orleans County north into Lake Ontario to the Canada–US border (a line of latitude running through the middle of the lake). The distance from the Orleans shore north to the international border is greater than the distance from the shore south to the Genesee County line, meaning the area of Orleans under water is greater than that above water.

Orleans County is in western New York State, northeast of Buffalo and west of Rochester, on the southern shore of Lake Ontario.

The Erie Canal passes (east–west) through the middle of the county. When its construction was completed in 1824, it attracted new settlers to the largely rural county. Trade and passenger traffic stimulated the development of local businesses.

Adjacent counties

Major highways

National protected area

State protected areas

Government and politics

Presidential election results
Presidential elections results [8]
Year Republican Democratic Third parties
2016 66.8%10,93627.3% 4,4706.0% 974
2012 58.4%8,59439.4% 5,7872.2% 325
2008 58.5%9,70839.9% 6,6141.6% 262
2004 62.2%10,31736.0% 5,9591.8% 301
2000 58.1%9,20237.8% 5,9914.1% 651
1996 45.0%6,86540.8% 6,23314.2% 2,170
1992 44.6%7,46829.4% 4,92726.0% 4,359
1988 60.0%9,02839.3% 5,9130.8% 114
1984 70.2%10,54329.5% 4,4290.4% 52
1980 51.6%7,53639.5% 5,7679.0% 1,308
1976 59.9%8,99439.5% 5,9270.7% 102
1972 71.4%10,93828.5% 4,3710.1% 20
1968 60.7%8,50934.1% 4,7865.2% 729
1964 37.4% 5,56762.5%9,3040.2% 25
1960 65.2%10,34434.8% 5,5150.0% 5
1956 77.5%11,89522.6% 3,4640.0% 0
1952 75.0%11,68625.0% 3,8930.1% 8
1948 69.2%9,56629.0% 4,0091.9% 259
1944 71.3%9,99828.6% 4,0060.2% 22
1940 70.6%10,95829.2% 4,5250.2% 36
1936 70.5%10,56926.8% 4,0162.7% 409
1932 68.0%9,73530.1% 4,3032.0% 283
1928 68.8%9,82826.5% 3,7924.7% 672
1924 71.9%8,54319.5% 2,3208.6% 1,017
1920 72.8%8,30519.9% 2,2667.4% 839
1916 64.4%4,90333.2% 2,5292.4% 180
1912 41.4%2,98333.9% 2,44824.7% 1,781
1908 62.3%4,88533.0% 2,5904.7% 365
1904 63.5%5,02731.6% 2,5024.9% 389
1900 59.1%4,66736.1% 2,8514.7% 373
1896 59.0%4,66437.8% 2,9933.2% 252
1892 52.3%4,01339.9% 3,0657.8% 596
1888 52.0%4,27739.1% 3,2149.0% 737
1884 52.3%3,99738.0% 2,9079.7% 737

Starting in 1824, the county government was run by a board of supervisors, consisting of elected supervisors from each township in Orleans County. This geographic representation meant that the residents of more urbanized areas were underrepresented on the board.

In 1980, the state and county established a seven-member elected legislature to replace the board of supervisors. Representatives are elected from single-member districts roughly equal in population. It is headed by a chairman.

Orleans County is heavily Republican. It has voted Republican in every presidential election since the party's founding in 1856, except for one, 1964. It also voted Whig in every election from 1828 until 1852. Now, in 2019, Orleans county residents have begun registering as Libertarian. The Libertarian Party of New York has attracted many local second amendment supporters, as well as local supporters of marijuana decriminalization. [ citation needed ] Orleans County's first Libertarian candidate for Orleans County Legislature At-Large is Chase Tkach.

County government

Orleans County legislature

OfficeDistrictArea of the countyOfficeholderPartyResidence
County LegislatorDistrict 1 Barre, Clarendon, Shelby William H. EickRepublican Medina
County Legislator - ChairwomanDistrict 2 Ridgeway, Yates Lynne M. JohnsonRepublican Lyndonville
County Legislator - Minority LeaderDistrict 3 Albion, Gaines Fred MillerDemocratic Albion
County LegislatorDistrict 4 Carlton, Kendall, Murray Kenneth DeRollerRepublican Kendall
County LegislatorAt LargeAllMerle L. "Skip" DraperRepublican Shelby
County Legislator - Vice ChairmanAt LargeAllDon AllportRepublican Albion
County LegislatorAt LargeAllE. John DeFilippsRepublican Holley

Orleans County elected officials

OfficeOfficeholderParty
County JudgeSanford A. ChurchRepublican
District AttorneyJoseph V. CardoneRepublican
County ClerkKaren A. Lake-MaynardRepublican
County TreasurerKimberly C. L. DeFrankRepublican
Chief CoronerScott M. SchmidtRepublican
CoronerRocco L. SidariRepublican
CoronerCharles M. SmithRepublican

State and federal government

OfficeDistrictOfficeholderPartyFirst took officeResidence
Congressman New York's 27th congressional district Christopher C. Collins Republican2013 Clarence, Erie County
State Senator 62nd State Senate District Rob Ortt Republican2015 , Niagara County
State Assemblyman 139th State Assembly District Stephen M. Hawley Republican2006 Batavia, Genesee County

Orleans County is part of:

Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.
1830 17,732
1840 25,12741.7%
1850 28,50113.4%
1860 28,7170.8%
1870 27,689−3.6%
1880 30,1288.8%
1890 30,8032.2%
1900 30,164−2.1%
1910 32,0006.1%
1920 28,619−10.6%
1930 28,7950.6%
1940 27,760−3.6%
1950 29,8327.5%
1960 34,15914.5%
1970 37,3059.2%
1980 38,4963.2%
1990 41,8468.7%
2000 44,1715.6%
2010 42,883−2.9%
Est. 201840,612 [9] −5.3%
U.S. Decennial Census [10]
1790-1960 [11] 1900-1990 [12]
1990-2000 [13] 2010-2013 [1]

As of the census [14] of 2010, [15] there were 42,883 people, 16,119 households, and 10,872 families residing in the county. The population density was 113 people per square mile (44/km²). There were 17,347 housing units at an average density of 44 per square mile (17/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 89.8% White, 5.9% Black or African American, 0.6% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 1.3% from other races, and 1.9% from two or more races. 4.1% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. According to Census 2000, 20.3% were of German, 18.3% English, 10.8% Italian, 10.3% Irish, 9.4% American and 7.3% Polish ancestry and 96.0% spoke English and 3.0% Spanish as their first language.

Census 2010 showed there were 16,119 households out of which 31.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49% were married couples living together, 12.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 32.6% were non-families. 26.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 11% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.5 and the average family size was 2.99.

In the county, the population was spread out with 19.8% under the age of 18, 8.8% from 18 to 24, 24.2% from 25 to 44, 29.8% from 45 to 64, and 17.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years.

The median income for a household in the county was $48,731. Males had a median income of $32,450 versus $22,605 for females. The per capita income for the county was $16,457. About 15.2% of the population were below the poverty line.

Education

Public schools

The county has five school districts, although the actual district boundaries can extend into neighboring counties, and the same is true for neighboring counties' districts. The five districts, from west to east, [16] are:

Each of these school districts participates in Orleans/Niagara BOCES or Monroe #2-Orleans BOCES. [17]

Private school

There is currently one non-denominational K-12 school in the county.

College

One college maintains satellite campuses in Orleans County. [16]

Recreation

Libraries

Orleans County has 4 public libraries serving its population. [19]

Museums

Orleans County has 3 museums that are open to the public.

Parks

There are two State Parks and many municipal parks spread throughout the county.

Communities

The town and village borders Orleans County (New York) - Towns and Villages.svg
The town and village borders

Towns

Villages

Hamlets

See also

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Medina is a village in the Towns of Shelby and Ridgeway in Orleans County, New York, United States. The population was 6,065 at the 2010 census, making it the county's most populous municipality. The village was named by its surveyor, Ebenezer Mix. It is part of the Rochester Metropolitan Statistical Area. The Medina zip code, 14103, encompasses the village of Medina and the surrounding towns of Ridgeway and Shelby. The United States Census Bureau estimates the 2017 population of this area to be 17,234.

Ridgeway, New York Town in New York, United States

Ridgeway is a town in Orleans County, New York, United States. The population was 6,886 at the 2000 census. The name of the town is derived from "Ridge Road," an important highway in the 19th century.

Albion (village), New York Village in New York, United States

Albion is a village in Orleans County, New York, United States. The population was 6,056 at the 2010 census. The village is centrally located in the county, the village is partly within the towns of both Albion and Gaines. It is the county seat of Orleans County and is about 30 miles (48 km) west/northwest of the City of Rochester. It is part of the Rochester Metropolitan Statistical Area.

References

  1. 1 2 "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on June 7, 2011. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
  2. "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
  3. Lattin, C.W. (23 January 1981). "Early County History - Part II". Journal-Register.
  4. 1 2 3 Lattin, Cary (1976). Orleans County History. Albion, NY: Eddy Printing Corp. p. 20.
  5. 1 2 Signor, Issac (1894). Landmarks of Orleans County New York. Syracuse, NY: D. Mason & Company. p. 1.
  6. Signor, Isaac (1894). Landmarks of Orleans County New York. Syracuse, NY: D. Mason & Company. pp. 2–5.
  7. "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Archived from the original on May 19, 2014. Retrieved January 6, 2015.
  8. Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved 2018-10-24.
  9. "Population and Housing Unit Estimates" . Retrieved December 20, 2019.
  10. "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on April 26, 2015. Retrieved January 6, 2015.
  11. "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved January 6, 2015.
  12. "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 6, 2015.
  13. "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 6, 2015.
  14. "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau . Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  15. "Orleans County, New York". American Fact Finder. Retrieved 27 June 2018.
  16. 1 2 "Orleans County Visitors". Orleans County New York. Retrieved 27 Oct 2017.
  17. "Component Districts". Orleans/Niagara BOCES. Archived from the original on 2003-12-05. Retrieved 27 Oct 2017.
  18. "Orleans County Christian School". Orleans County Christian School. Retrieved 27 Oct 2017.
  19. "NIOGA Library System". New York State Library. Retrieved 30 Oct 2017.

Coordinates: 43°22′N78°14′W / 43.37°N 78.23°W / 43.37; -78.23